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Glossary - C

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Cape Matapan

The southernmost point of mainland Greece

capital gains tax

A tax on capital 'gains'. When you sell or give away an asset (such as property or shares of stock) that has increased in value, you may be taxable on the profit or 'gain'.

capital ships

A navy's most powerful and important warships, carrying the heaviest firepower and armour. In the First World War typical capital ships would be battleships and battle-cruisers and in the Second World War, aircraft carriers.

Caucasus

A geopolitical, mountain-barrier region located between the two continents of Europe and Asia, or Eurasia. The Caucasus region is subject to various territorial disputes since the collapse of the Soviet Union, leading to several conflicts, including the Chechen Wars.

Caucuses

 A meeting of supporters or members of a political party or movement. Informal meeting behind closed doors where highly charged issues can be discussed and debated out of the public eye, allowing some movement by participants.

Central African Federation

A semi-independent state in southern Africa that existed from 1953-1963, comprising Southern Rhodesia, Northern Rhodesia, and Nyasaland

Ceylon

Modern Sri Lanka, an island nation in South Asia, located roughly 20 miles off the coast of India

Chanak

A town and seaport in the Çanakkale Province of Turkey on the southern (Asian) coast of the Dardanelles at their narrowest point. Also known as Çanakkale

Chancellor of the Duchy

Originally the chief officer in the daily management of the Duchy of Lancaster, the position is now effectively that of Minister without Portfolio, as the estate is now run by a deputy. The post has often been held by a junior Cabinet minister with responsibility for a particular area of policy

Charles de Gaulle

General, and President of France between 1958-1969. Made his name as leader of the Free French during the Second World War. Gave independence to all France's African colonies, and lost the war in Algeria. Blocked Britain's first application to join the European Economic Union (EEC). Resigned in 1969 following defeat of his plans for political reform

Charles Trevelyan, Sir

Politician first elected as a Liberal, he joined the Labour Party after the First World War, serving as President of the Board of Education between 1929-1931, when he resigned. He was briefly expelled from the Labour Party in 1939 for supporting a 'Popular Front' involving the Communists against the Nazis

Chevaline

Chevaline was a British designed improvement package for the submarine launched nuclear ballistic missile. The programme was conducted in great secrecy in the 1970s and was extremely expensive. The improvements gave Polaris missiles a higher chance to surviving Soviet anti-ballistic missile systems by protecting the warheads and providing a number of decoys

Chiang Kai-shek

Revolutionary Chinese leader. Head of the Nationalist Republic from 1928-1949. Defeated by Mao Zedong, his regime fled to Taiwan, still claiming to represent the whole of China and keeping China's United Nations (UN) seat until 1971

Chongchon River

River in North Korea. Site of a Korean War battle from November to December 1950

Christmas Island

A Pacific atoll, now part of the Republic of Kiribati

Christopher Addison

Liberal MP from 1910-1922. Britain's first Minister of Health in 1919. Resigned in 1921 and joined the Labour Party. Made a peer in 1937 and led the Labour peers from 1940

Clay Cross

Former mining village in North East Derbyshire

Clement Attlee

Labour politician and Prime Minister from 1945-1951. He was Deputy Prime Minister under Churchill in the wartime coalition government. His most important legacies were the welfare and economic measures of the post-war Labour government. Now regarded as one of the most impressive Prime Ministers of the twentieth century

Colleges of Advanced Technology (CATs)

Introduced in 1956 by the Government, only 10 colleges were eventually designated as 'making an outstanding contribution to the development of advanced technical education'. These colleges later became Polytechnics and Universities

Cologne

Large German city in the Ruhr industrial area

Colonel Nasser

Egyptian Prime Minister between 1954-1956 and President until his death in 1970. His nationalisation of the Suez Canal led to war with Britain in 1956. A leading Arab nationalist, his policies contributed to the Arab-Israeli war of 1967 and its catastrophic consequences for the Arab world

Common Agricultural Policy

Introduced in 1964, it was a controversial policy of agricultural subsidies that costs over 80% of the European Union (EU) budget. It has been criticised for sustaining inefficient farming methods and small-scale producers and producing huge surpluses

Confederation of British Industry (CBI)

Since 1965 it has been the main employers' organisation. It acts as a major pressure group for British industry in discussions with government and unions

Constantinople

Ancient city, capital of Byzantium and the Ottoman Empire. Now known as Istanbul

Convention People's Party

Formed in 1949 by Kwame Nkrumah to campaign for independence in Ghana, it ruled from 1957 to 1966. During the latter part of the CPP rule, the constitution was changed to make it the only legal party, making the nation a one-party state

coup d'etat

The sudden, illegal and often violent overthrow of an existing government by a strong military or political group

Cromwell code

Cromwell was the code word to be issued in 1940 by General HQ Home Forces to army field units when invasion was imminent

crown colony

A colony directly ruled by the Crown, with no local autonomy. Now known as Britain's overseas territories, crown colonies are what is left of the British Empire.

Curzon, Lord

Conservative politician and minister. Viceroy of India from 1899-1905 and war-time minister. Became Foreign Secretary between 1919-1924. Noted for the Curzon Line, his proposed boundary between Poland and Russia. Rejected in 1919 by the Poles who moved the border much further east, it now forms the border between Poland and Russia

cutters

Cable-based weapon used by the Icelandic Coast Guard vessels to cut the nets of trawlers fishing inside the 50 mile Exclusive Economic Zone in the Cod Wars of the 1970s. By cutting the trawling wires of fishing nets they prevented fishing but it also resulted in trawlers losing their nets

Cyrenaicia

Eastern part of what is now Libya

Cyril Jones, Sir

Senior civil servant who in 1950 conducted an inquiry into the financial working of the National Health Service (NHS) critical of budgetary control mechanisms and suggested changes