Access to Archives

Part of the UK archives network

The Papers of Alan Mathison Turing


The entire contents of this catalogue are shown below. Browse the hierarchical structure instead

Reference AMT
Held by Cambridge University, King's College Archive Centre
Extent 6 boxes paper
Source of acquisition 1960: K/1-7
In June 1960, Mrs Sara Turing (AMT's mother and biographer) presented items relating to her son to King's College, Cambridge. A list of this material was compiled by archivists in the College before the first Contemporary Scientific Archives Centre list in 1977. Some items (e.g. press cuttings and letters) appear more than once, in both original and typescript or photocopied form. A note has been made of any substantial overlap.
1960-77: A/1-13; B/1, 3-7; D/1-5
In 1975, the A. M. Turing Trust was established as an educational charity to further the 'advancement and spread of education in the fields of computation, artificial intelligence and mathematical logic'. All the material A/1-13; B/1, 3-7; D/1-5 was assembled by this Trust.
1960-1977: C/1-22
These unpublished manuscripts in were assembled after AMT's death by Dr. Robin Gandy, to whom they were left by AMT in his will (see A/5).
1977-84: A/14-33, B/9
Various small accessions were received; see individual reference numbers for details.
1984-96: A/35-43; B/10-30; D/14a
These assorted papers relating to AMT were collected from a variety of sources. Some off-prints and articles were presented as gifts to the Library by the authors while other papers, which had been part of College administration, were later passed on to the Library. This material was not included in either of the two earlier sections of the catalogue of Turing Papers prepared by the Contemporary Scientific Archives Centre in 1977 and 1985.
1996: B/31-57; C/28; D/15
This additional material was presented to the Archive Centre in May 1996 by Professor Michael Yates, Robin Gandy's executor. The material was previously in the possession of Robin Gandy who had been one of AMT's executors.
1996-9: K/7/19, C/29, B/27a, B/29a, B/27b, C/30-31, C/32, D/16, D/17, E/1-2, E/3
Further small accessions from various sources. See individual reference numbers for more information.
Arrangement:
The arrangement and references in this catalogue follow the system adopted in the first and second Contemporary Scientific Archives Centre catalogues.
A distinction has been made in the catalogue between drafts, notes or texts of published papers, or lectures and talks known to have been delivered by AMT (Section B), and the unpublished work left in various stages of completion at his death (Section C). Titles and descriptions in inverted commas are those which appear on the documents.
Creators
Bibliography This catalogue and digital images of Alan Turing's papers may be viewed on the Turing Digital Archive website, www.turingarchive.org.
Some documents are available in Alan Turing: 'Collected Works of A. M. Turing' (Elsevier Science Publishers: Amsterdam, 1992). In four volumes, with various editors.
The following publications contain, or are directly related to, work by Turing:
A.M.Cohen and M.J.E. Mayhew, 'On the difference pi (x) - li x;, Proc. L.M.S.3rd. series, 43, 1968, pp. 691-713 (Paper 'based on ideas of A.M. Turing'.)
C. Diamond (ed.), Wittgenstein's Lectures on the Foundations of Mathematics Cambridge 1936, ed. Cora Diamond, The Harvester Press, Hassocks, Sussex 1976 (contains Turing's contributions to discussions).
B. Randell. 'The COLOSSUS', Technical Report no.90, June 1976, Computing Laboratory, University of Newcastle upon Tyne; available in Xerox and microfilm form from the IEEE Computer Society Repository, 5855 Naples Plaza, Long Beach, California 90803, and also to appear in the forthcoming Proceedings of the Los Alamos Conference on the history of computing held in June 1976.
Note Acknowledgements
The National Cataloguing Unit for the Archives of Contemporary Scientists kindly granted permission to reproduce the text of the two catalogues (CSAC 53/7/77 and 104/1/85) compiled by their predecessor, the Contemporary Scientific Archives Centre. Copyright in this new catalogue is held jointly by NCUACS and King's College.
Professor Donald Michie, Mrs Jean Michie, and Dr. R.O. Gandy gave advice on the identification and description of several items in the CSAC catalogues, and their help is gratefully acknowledged. Dr. Andrew Hodges kindly gave permission to refer to, and quote from, his biography of AMT. Dr Jonathan Swinton provided valuable information about the morphogenesis papers.

Administrative history:
Alan Mathison Turing was born on 23 June 1912, the son of Julius Mathison Turing, an civil servant in India, and (Ethel) Sara Turing, the daughter of Edward Waller Stoney, chief engineer of the Madras and Southern Mahratta Railway. Alan's early life was spent with his brother John, living with the Ward family at St Leonards-on-Sea (near Hastings); his parents visited from India when they could. Alan was educated at Hazelhurst School, then Sherborne School. He won an Open Scholarship in Mathematics to King's College and matriculated in 1931.
He graduated in 1934 with distinction, and was awarded a Fellowship in 1935. This was followed by two years as a Visiting Fellow at Princetown; in 1936 the draft of his paper 'On Computable Numbers' was completed. Alan returned to King's in 1938. When war broke out he joined the Government Code and Cypher School at Bletchley Park, Buckinghamshire, where he was part of the team deciphering the Enigma machine. He was awarded an OBE in 1946 for his work.
After the War, Alan worked first at the National Computing Laboratory and then at Manchester University on the development of the computer from his first ideas in the early 1930s for a 'Turing machine'. He was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1951. In the early 1950s he was developing a theory of morphogenesis, a mathematical theory of organic growth. The work was left incomplete when he died, on 8 June 1954, at his house in Wilmslow, Cheshire.
The following publications contain, or are directly related to, work by AMT:
A. M. Cohen and M. J. E. Mayhew: 'On the difference pi (x) - li x' (Proceedings of the London Mathematical Society, 3rd series, 43, 1968, pp.691-713). The paper is 'based on ideas of A. M. Turing'.
Cora Diamond (ed.): 'Wittgenstein's Lectures on the Foundations of Mathematics' (Cambridge, 1939 and The Harvester Press: Hassocks, Sussex, 1976). This contains AMT's contributions to discussions.
Andrew Hodges: 'Alan Turing: the Enigma' (Burnett Books Ltd.: London, 1983)
Andrew Hodges: 'Turing: A Natural Philosopher' (The Great Philosophers Series, Phoenix: London, 1997)
Sara Turing: 'Alan M. Turing' (Heffer: Cambridge, 1959).

Contents:
The papers contain published and unpublished writings by AMT, off-prints of articles by AMT and by other authors with annotations by AMT, his Fellowship Dissertation, and correspondence.
Most of the papers in Sections B, C, and D refer to AMT's work from c. 1940 until his death in 1954. There are a few references in the correspondence to his work in the 1930s, but no remaining drafts or working papers. During the Second World War, AMT worked at the Code and Cypher School at Bletchley Park, from where several of the letters in Section D were written. AMT was awarded the OBE for his work on 'Enigma' and other codes at Bletchley. The material on morphogenesis, C/24-27 represents a substantial addition to the documentation of AMT's work and thinking on this topic, left incomplete at his death. Section D contains photocopied letters and calculations exchanged by AMT and I. J. Good (D/6-10), and some original letters by AMT (D/11-14), most of them addressed to P. Hall. Section E contains video recordings, and typescript copies, of lectures given at the Turing Celebration Day held at the Lady Mitchell Hall, and afterwards in King's College, Cambridge, on 1 Oct. 1997.



Biographical and personal papers  AMT/A  1923-1988

0.5 box paper

Source of acquisition: The documents in A/14-33 were were received from the estate of Mrs Sara Turing after her death in 1977.


Contents:
The material in A/14-33 was received from the estate of Mrs Turing, and many items bear annotations or corrections by her. Several refer to the preparation and publication of her biography, 'Alan M. Turing' (Heffer: Cambridge, 1959).

Printed material  AMT/A/1  June 1954-Nov. 1954

8 sheets in envelope paper


Related information: Some of the items in this file are duplicated in K/5.

Contents:
The file comprises newspaper cuttings, printed obituaries, material relating to inquest, and tributes. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

Articles and press cuttings referring to AMT and his work  AMT/A/2  1946-1971

47 items in envelope

Source of acquisition: The file was assembled by Mrs Sara Turing.



Related information: Some of the items in this file are duplicated in K/5.

Contents:
The file includes typescript translations of items from foreign periodicals. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

Note: 1 item in Japanese.


Brian Randell: 'On Alan Turing and the origins of digital computers'  AMT/A/3  1972

2 items in envelope paper

Creator(s):

Contents:
The file comprises 2 copies of the article: one as it was first published in the University of Newcastle Upon Tyne Computing Laboratory Technical Reports Series No. 33 (May 1972), the other as an off-print from 'Machine Intelligence' 7, Edinburgh University Press (Nov. 1972). See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

This reference number is no longer in use  AMT/A/4  [n.d.]

Contents:
The photographs formerly held under reference A/4 are now in K/7. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

Letters from various authors to R. O. Gandy on AMT's death  AMT/A/5  June 1954

8 sheets in envelope paper

Contents:
The file comprises 3 autograph letters signed and 1 typed letter signed from Christopher [Bennett], Philip Nicholas Furbank (Turing's executor), Don [Bayley] and Mrs Sara Turing to R. O. Gandy on AMT's death. The file also includes a copy typescript of AMT's will. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

Obituary material  AMT/A/6  1954 (Date has been estimated.)

6 sheets in envelope paper

Contents:
The file comprises:-
- corrected manuscript of an obituary of AMT for the 'Manchester Guardian' by M. H. A. Newman;
- typescript obituary notice for 'Nature' by R. O Gandy;
- typescript additional obituary notice for 'The Times' by R. O. Gandy (not published). See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

Letters from various authors to M. H. A. Newman  AMT/A/7  1954-1955

8 sheets in envelope paper

Contents:
3 autograph letters signed and 1 typed letter signed from Mrs Sara Turing, James Hardy Wilkinson, Robin O. Gandy, and N. E. Hoskin to M. H. A. Newman. The letters includes recollections of AMT and comments on Newman's Royal Society memoir, 1955. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

Letter from R. O. Gandy to M. H. A. Newman  AMT/A/8  1955 (Date has been supplied.)

4 sheets in envelope paper

Creator(s):


Related information: See also D/4 for the 'Messages from the Unseen World' which Gandy explains in the letter to Newman.

Contents:
1 autograph letter signed, with annotatins by Newman. The letter contains extensive references to AMT's published, unpublished, and projected work. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

Letters from various authors to M. H. A. Newman  AMT/A/9  17 Mar. 1958-30 June 1958

3 sheets in envelope paper

Contents:
1 autograph letter signed and 2 typed letters signed from Harold Davenport, Kurt Mahler and Alonzo Church to M. H. A. Newman, regarding the publication of AMT's papers. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

Letters from various authors to Mrs Sara Turing  AMT/A/10  26 Nov. 1956-23 Mar. 1971

14 sheets in envelope paper

Contents:
2 autograph letters signed and 4 typed letters signed from D. W. Davies, Ralph O. Erickson, E. T. Goodwin, Walter H. Lee, A. Lerner and A. C. Pigou to Mrs Turing. The letters contain recollections of AMT sent to Mrs Turing, before and after the publication of her biography, 'Alan M. Turing' (Heffer: Cambridge, 1959).
- 2 copies of review by N.A. Routledge in Cambridge Review, 11 June 1960, of Mrs Turing's biography. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

'Additional notes on Alan M. Turing and papers relative to him and his work'  AMT/A/11  c. 1946-1964

51 items in envelope paper

Creator(s):


Related information: Some items are duplicated in K/2 and A/1-2. See also D/3 for additional material relating to the chess-playing machine.

Contents:
The file contains manuscript, typescript and copy typescript notes made by Mrs Turing, with quotes from her own letters about her son's childhood, recollections of AMT's school and university career assembled from teachers, colleagues, etc. (generally dated but not all in chronological order and some unattributed), tributes, comments and assessments of AMT's work, etc. Includes press cuttings, articles, and a section 'on the manner of Alan Turing's death'. The file also includes 1 typed letter signed from Albert M. Uttley, 1958 on ACE [Automatic Computing Engine] and 1 typed letter signed from Vivian Bowden, 1964, as well as a transcript of part of a letter by Donald Michie on chess-playing machines. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

Teaspoon  AMT/A/12  [n.d.]

2 items in envelope paper

Contents:
The spoon is held with a label by Mrs Turing: 'This is the spoon which I found in Alan Turing's laboratory. It is similar to the one which he gold-plated himself. It seems quite probable he was intending to gold-plate this one using cyanide of potassium of his own manufacture. E. Sara Turing.' The verdict of the inquest on AMT was suicide. Mrs Turing never accepted this, believing that his death was an accidental consequence of scientific experiments carelessly conducted. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

Non-scientific writings by AMT  AMT/A/13  May 1954 (Year date has been supplied.)

4 sheets in envelope paper

Contents:
The file comprises:-
- autograph manuscript short story, untitled and undated.
- first page of an autograph letter to Lyn [Irvine, Mrs Newman], May [? 1954]. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

Obituaries and tributes to AMT  AMT/A/14  1954

5 items in envelope paper

Copies information: One item is duplicated in K/7.


Contents:
The file includes:-
- 2 copies of an obituary notice in the 'Hazelhurst Gazette', Autumn 1954 (one copy has been corrected by Mrs Turing);
- typescript translations of sections about AMT's life and work made in 1967 from a Russian work, 'The Beginning of Cybernetics' by A. Lerner;
- 'Caption under Alan's photo at N.P.L.'. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

Letters from various authors to Mrs Turing on AMT's death  AMT/A/15-17  15 June 1954-8 Dec. 1955

15 sheets in 3 envelopes paper

Contents:
9 autograph letters signed and 4 typed letters signed, received by Mrs Turing on AMT's death, from colleagues, schoolmasters, neighbours and friends. Several refer to the circumstances of AMT's death, and to the inquest.

Letters from various authors to Mrs Turing on AMT's death  AMT/A/15  1954-1955

1 envelope paper

Contents:
The file comprises letters from A. J. P. Andrews (schoolmaster); J. A. V. Bates (Medical Research Council); E. C. Bullard (National Physical Laboratory); L. Clayton (AMT's housekeeper); and C. R. Coote (Daily Telegraph). See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

Letters from various authors to Mrs Turing on AMT's death  AMT/A/16  1954-1955

1 envelope paper

Contents:
The file comprises letters from S. Darlington (Hazelhurst school); W. S. Darlington (Hazelhurst school);
Dr. Frank M. Greenbaum (AMT's psychoanalyst); and G. Jefferson (Manchester University). See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

Letters from various authors to Mrs Turing on AMT's death  AMT/A/17  1954-1955

1 envelope paper

Contents:
The file comprises letters from Eric Milner-White (former Dean, King's College, Cambridge); John S. B. Stopford (Manchester University); N. Webb (AMT's neighbour); [ C. Hugh O' D. Alexander] - a large part of this letter, including the signature, has been deleted by Mrs Turing. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

Letters from various authors to Mrs Turing  AMT/A/18  1957-1958

7 items in envelope paper

Contents:
6 autograph letters signed from Ivor Jones (Bomber Command Bombing School), [G. O'Hanlon], Rev. H. A. Puntis, A. H. T. Ross (Headmaster, Sherborne School) and A. O. Scott to Mrs Turing in answer to requests for information while preparing her biography. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

Letters to Mrs Turing from readers of her biography  AMT/A/19-22  2 July 1957-21 Mar. 1969 (Some items are undated.)

18 sheets in 4 envelopes paper

Contents:
11 autograph letters signed and 3 typed letters signed to Mrs Turing from readers of her biography, several with recollections or appreciations of AMT. 2 July 1957 - 21 Mar. 1969 and n.d.

Letters to Mrs Turing from readers of her biography  AMT/A/19  1957-1969

1 envelope paper

Contents:
The file comprises letters from W. S. Darlington, Robin O. Gandy, Mrs Gepp (the letter is incomplete) and Ruth Gervis (schoolmistress). See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

Letters to Mrs Turing from readers of her biography  AMT/A/20  1957-1969

1 envelope paper

Contents:
The file comprises letters from Theodore Hailperin (Association for Symbolic Logic), Peter Hogg (school friend), Oliver Holt (school friend), and Evelyn V. Loveday (AMT's visits to USA in 1940s). See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

Letters to Mrs Turing from readers of her biography  AMT/A/21  1957-1969

1 envelope paper

Contents:
The file comprises letters from Malcolm MacPhail (recollections of AMT's work and friends in USA), J. H. Randolph (schoolmaster), Anthony D. J. Robertson (NPL; morphogenesis). See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

Letters to Mrs Turing from readers of her biography  AMT/A/22  1957-1969

1 envelope paper

Contents:
The file comprises letters from Nowell C. Smith (Headmaster, Sherborne School), E. C. Stoney (AMT's uncle), and R. Thom (morphogenesis). See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

Letters from various authors to Mrs Turing about AMT  AMT/A/23  24 Sept. 1960-25 Apr. 1969

5 sheets in envelope paper

Contents:
1 autograph letter signed and 3 typed letters signed from G. D. Clifford (Institution of Electronic and Radio Engineers), W. T. Jones (AMT at Princeton), Norman Routledge and N. S. Sutherland (University of Sussex Laboratory of Experimental Psychology) to Mrs Turing about AMT. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

A. M. Turing Award  AMT/A/24  c. 1974

15 items in envelope paper

Contents:
The file contains printed information and correspondence regarding the A. M. Turing Award, instituted by the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) and first awarded in 1966. It includes 1 typed letter signed from Charles Bachman to Mrs Turing about the award, 30 May 1974, and manuscript notes on the subject by Mrs Turing, perhaps prepared for Sherborne School magazine. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

Shorter biographical items  AMT/A/25  1923 (Some items are undated.)

4 items in envelope paper

Arrangement: A photograph formerly held in this file has been moved to K/7


Contents:
The file comprises:-
- a sketch of AMT as a boy, inscribed by Mrs Turing, 'Alan at Barton House. Aged 6?';
- first page of an autograph letter in French from John Turing, AMT's brother, to their father, 4 Sept. [1923];
- specimen of AMT's signature. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

Letters of congratulation  AMT/A/26-30  1931-1951 (Some items are undated.)

21 items in 5 envelopes paper

Contents:
9 autograph letters signed, 7 typed letters signed, 1 autograph postcard signed and 2 telegrams from various authors to AMT. The letters are mainly expressions of congratulation on various achievements, some including general information or reflections.

Awards of scholarships and election to King's Fellowship, 1930-1935  AMT/A/26  1930-1935

1 envelope paper

Contents:
The file comprises:
- Letter from AMT's grandmother on the award of a scholarship to King's College, Cambridge, 1930;
- Copy of a letter from G. O'Hanlon on AMT's leaving Sherborne and award of the Goodman Scholarship, 1931 (the copy was made by Mrs Turing);
- Autograph letter signed from G. O'Hanlon on AMT's Election to a Fellowship at King's College, Cambridge, 1935. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

Award of Smith's Prize, Cambridge, 1936  AMT/A/27  1936

1 envelope paper

Contents:
The file contains letters from teachers at Sherborne School, friends, and a telegram from Mrs Turing See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

Election as Fellow of the Royal Society, 1951  AMT/A/28  1951

1 envelope paper

Contents:
The file comprises letters from E. C. Bullard (National Physical Laboratory), W. M. Cooper (University of Manchester), W. S. Darlington, and C. G. Darwin. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

Election as Fellow of the Royal Society, 1951  AMT/A/29  1951

1 envelope paper

Contents:
The file comprises letters from E. T. Goodwin (National Physical Laboratory), Geoffrey Jefferson (University of Manchester), Sir Ben Lockspeiser (Department of Scientific and Industrial Research), and K. Mahler (University of Manchester). See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

Election as Fellow of the Royal Society, 1951  AMT/A/30  1951

1 envelope paper

Contents:
The file comprises letters from Philip Hall, R. S. Thompson (Sherborne School) and S. Turing. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

Letters from R. F. Stoney to Mrs Turing  AMT/A/31  30 Dec. 1953-9 June 1957

3 sheets in envelope paper

Creator(s):

Contents:
The file comprises 2 typed letters signed, containing biographical information on the Stoney and Crawford families. The file also includes undated manuscript notes on the Turing family genealogy. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

Reviews of Mrs Turing's biography  AMT/A/32  28 Nov. 1959-Dec. 1960

19 sheets in envelope paper

Contents:
The file comprises printed articles, newspaper cuttings and typescript copies of reviews of Mrs Turing's biography. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

Letters concerning a German edition of Mrs Turing's biography  AMT/A/33  24 June 1971-2 June 1972

5 sheets in envelope paper

Contents:
The file comprises 2 autograph letters signed and 2 typed letters signed regarding a possible German edition of Mrs Turing's biography, and the proposed publication of AMT's 'Collected Works'. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

John Turing: 'Articled clerk fifty years ago'  AMT/A/34  21 June 1978

2 sheets in envelope paper

Creator(s):

Contents:
The file comprises a photocopy of the article, published in the Law Society's Gazette, which contains a paragraph about his brother, AMT; the file also contains a copy of the second article in same series which contains no mention of AMT. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

Arrangements for AMT's teaching position at King's College  AMT/A/35  10 Dec. 1939-28 June 1954

23 items in envelope paper

Contents:
The file contains 5 autograph letters signed, 3 typed letters signed and 1 autograph postcard signed, between AMT, R. F. Kahn, J. M. Keynes, G. H. W. Rylands, J. T. Sheppard and others relating to the financial arrangements for AMT's teaching position in King's College. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

M. H. A. Newman: 'Alan Mathison Turing 1912-1954'  AMT/A/36  1955

1 item in envelope paper

Creator(s):

Contents:
The file comprises an off-print of the article, from 'Biographical Memoirs of the Fellows of the Royal Society' (Vol. 1, Nov. 1955). The article includes a bibliography of AMT's work. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

'Biography Expenditure' and accounts  AMT/A/37  1959-1974

1 notebook and 3 sheets in envelope paper

Creator(s):

Contents:
Notebook containing details of 'Biography Expenditure' and accounts for Mrs Sara Turing. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

Cuttings relating to 'Alan Turing: the Enigma'  AMT/A/38  14 Jan. 1980-23 Jan. 1980

2 items in envelope paper

Contents:
The file comprises a newspaper cutting and photocopies from 'The Guardian' relating to the forthcoming biography of AMT (Alan Turing: the Enigma) by Andrew Hodges. 14 and 23 Jan. 1980. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

C. J. van Rijsbergen: 'Turing and the origins of digital computers'  AMT/A/39  30 Mar. 1982 (1 item is undated.)

2 items in envelope paper

Creator(s):

Contents:
The file comprises 2 typescript versions of the article. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

Reviews of Andrew Hodges: 'Alan Turing: the Enigma'  AMT/A/40  1984-1986

3 items in envelope paper

Contents:
The file comprises photocopies of the following reviews:
- Rudy M. Baum 'Tragic life of a brilliant mathematician' from 'CandEN', 21 May, 1984;
- Jeremy Bernstein 'A portrait of Alan Turing' from 'The New Yorker', 20 Jan. 1986;
- John W. Dawson, Jr. in 'The Journal of Symbolic Logic', Vol. 50, No 4. Dec. 1985. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

Theatre programme for 'Breaking the Code' by Hugh Whitemore  AMT/A/41  1986

3 items in envelope paper

Contents:
The play was based on the life of AMT and starred Derek Jacobi. The file includes reviews of the play from 'The Times', 23 Oct. 1986 and 'The London Standard', 22 Oct. 1986. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

Letters concerning commemorations of AMT  AMT/A/42  13 June 1985-28 June 1988

12 items in envelope paper

Contents:
9 autograph letters signed, 11 typed letters signed and other material relating to the unveiling of a commemorative plaque for AMT at his childhood home in Guildford, Surrey, and for a Turing computer room at King's College. Some items are photocopied. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

Information leaflets relating to Intelligent Terminals Ltd.  AMT/A/43  c. 1985 (Date has been estimated.)

3 items in envelope paper

Contents:
Intelligent Terminals Ltd. was an 'Industrial Associate of the Turing Institute', devoted to research in artificial intelligence. c. 1985. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

Publications, lectures and talks by AMT and others  AMT/B  1923-1979

1 box paper

Contents:
The documents in this section of the catalogue are arranged in chronological order, and are linked wherever possible to the bibliography provided by M. H. A. Newman in his memoir published in 'Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of The Royal Society' (Vol. 1, Nov. 1955, p.263), in the format 'RS ...). A copy of the memoir is catalogued as A/36.

'Lecture to L.M.S. [London Mathematical Society] Feb. 20 1947'  AMT/B/1  20 Feb. 1947

31 sheets in envelope paper

Creator(s):

Contents:
The file comprises a photocopy of a typescript lecture with mansucript amendments, on ACE [Automatic Computing Engine]. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

D. R. Hartree's notes from a lecture given by AMT  AMT/B/2  23 Jan. 1947-30 Jan. 1947

10 sheets in envelope paper

Creator(s):

Contents:
The file comprises photocopies of manuscript notes taken by D. R. Hartree, of lectures on ACE [Automatic Computing Engine] given by AMT. The notes were made available through the kindness of Prof. M. V. Wilkes, to whom they were passed on by Hartree. In an attached note, Prof. Wilkes writes, 'On a series of Thursday afternoons Dec. 1946 and January 1947, Turing delivered a course of 7 lectures on the design of the ACE at the Ministry of Supply in London.' The notes are dated 23 and 30 Jan. by Hartree. They refer only to lectures 6 and 7 of the course. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

'A practical form of type theory I.'  AMT/B/3  1948

41 sheets in envelope paper

Creator(s):


Related information: See C/6 and D/2 for the manuscript of Part II of the projected work.

Contents:
The file comprises a heavily revised typescript, pages numbered 1-30, with 3 additional un-numbered pages, the last bearing a note by R. O. Gandy, 'Practical forms of type theory. First draft'. Pages 1-2 of this document explain the purpose of the paper, which was to have appeared in two parts. The first part, considerably altered from the draft, appeared as 'Practical forms of type theory' in 'Journal of Symbolic Logic' (Vol. 13, No.2, June 1948, pp. 80-94). An off-print of this article, sent to A. E. Ingham 'with the author's compliments', is included. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

Bibliography: Bibliography number RS 1948b.


'Intelligent machinery, a heretical theory'  AMT/B/4  c. 1951 (Date has been estimated.)

16 sheets in envelope

Copies information: See also B/20 for an additional typescript version of this lecture.


Creator(s):

Contents:
The file comprises two versions of a lecture given to the '51 Society' at Manchester. One version is in typescript, numbered 1-10, the other is a copy typescript numbered 96-101. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

'Can digital computers think?'  AMT/B/5  15 May 1951 (The talk was broadcast on this date.)

8 sheets in envelope paper

Creator(s):


Related information: See also D/5 for a letter from C. Strachey regarding this talk.

Contents:
The file comprises a typescript, with autograph manuscript annotations, of a talk broadcast on BBC Third Programme. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

'Can automatic calculating machines be said to think?'  AMT/B/6  1952

61 sheets in envelope paper

Creator(s):

Contents:
The file comprises an two copies of an undated typescript of a broadcast discussion transmitted on BBC Third Programme, 14 and 23 Jan. 1952, between M. H. A. Newman, AMT, Sir Geoffrey Jefferson and R. B. Braithwaite. One script has a manuscript note by Mrs Turing, 'This script is sent with the consent of the BBC', and the other has a manuscript note, 'Please return to R.O. Gandy'. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

'Digital computers applied to games'  AMT/B/7  1953

10 sheets in envelope paper

Creator(s):

Contents:
The file comprises a typescript article with manuscript amendments. The article was AMT's contribution to 'Faster than thought', ed. B. V. Bowden, London 1953. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

Bibliography: Bibliography number RS 1953b.


'Checking a large routine'  AMT/B/8  1949-1984

6 items in envelope paper

Source of acquisition: The off-print was received in 1984 from C. B. Jones.


Creator(s):

Contents:
The file comprises a photocopy of a paper given by AMT on 24 June 1949 at the inaugural conference of the EDSAC computer at the Mathematical Laboratory, Cambridge, and an off-print of the version published in under the title 'An early program proof by Alan Turing'. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

Bibliography: The paper was published in the 'Report of a Conference on High Speed Automatic Calculating Machines', pp.67-9. The paper as published contained several transcription errors, and a corrected version, with comments, was published by F. L. Morris and C. B. Jones in 'Annals of the History of Computing' Vol. 6, Apr. 1984.


'Computing machinery and intelligence'  AMT/B/9  1950

40 sheets in envelope paper

Source of acquisition: These documents were received from the estate of Mrs Sara Turing after her death in 1977.


Creator(s):


Related information: See B/19 for an off-print of this article.

Contents:
The file comprises a typescript copy of an article, published in 'Mind', Vol. LIX, Oct. 1950. The papers are held in Mrs Turing's ring-backed binder with a mansuscript title by her. The paper is paginated pp. 2-40 and also pp. 146-84. There is a typescript footnote added between pp.159 and 160 with a manuscript note, possibly written by AMT. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

'Equivalence of left and right almost periodicity'  AMT/B/10  1935

1 sheet in envelope paper

Creator(s):


Related information: See also D/11 for letters relating to this article.

Contents:
The file comprises an extract of the article from 'Journal of the London Mathematical Society', Vol. 10, 1935. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

'Computability and lambda-Definability'  AMT/B/11  1937

1 item in envelope paper

Creator(s):

Contents:
The file comprises an off-print of the article from 'Journal of Symbolic Logic', Vol. 2, Dec. 1937. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

'On computable numbers, with an application to the Entscheidungsproblem'  AMT/B/12  1937

2 items in envelope paper

Creator(s):

Contents:
The file comprises an extract from 'Proceedings of the London Mathematical Society', Ser. 2, Vol. 42, 1937; and an extract 'On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem. A correction', from 'Proceedings of the London Mathematical Society', Ser. 2, Vol. 43, 1937. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

'Finite approximations to lie groups'  AMT/B/13  1938

1 item in envelope paper

Creator(s):

Contents:
The file comprises an off-print of the article from 'Annals of Mathematics', Vol. 39, No. 1, Jan. 1938. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

'The extensions of a group'  AMT/B/14  1938

1 item in envelope paper

Creator(s):

Contents:
The file comprises an off-print of the article from 'Compositio Mathematica', Vol. 5, No. 3, 1938. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

'Systems of logic based on ordinals'  AMT/B/15  1939

1 item in envelope paper

Creator(s):

Contents:
The file comprises an off-print of the article from 'Proceedings of the London Mathematical Society', Ser. 2, Vol. 45, 1939. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

'The use of dots as brackets in Church's system'  AMT/B/16  1942

1 item in envelope paper

Creator(s):

Contents:
The file comprises an off-print of the article from 'Journal of Symbolic Logic', Vol. 7, No. 4, Dec. 1942. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

'A method for the calculation of the zeta-function'  AMT/B/17  1943

1 item in envelope paper

Creator(s):

Contents:
The file comprises an off-print of the article from 'Proceedings of the London Mathematical Society', Ser. 2, Vol. 48, 1943. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

'Rounding-off errors in matrix processes'  AMT/B/18  1948

1 item in envelope paper

Creator(s):

Contents:
The file comprises an off-print of the article from 'The Quarterly Journal of Mechanics and Applied Mathematics', Vol. I, Part 3, Sept. 1948. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

'Computing machinery and intelligence'  AMT/B/19  1950

1 item in envelope paper

Creator(s):


Related information: See also B/9 for a typescript of this article.

Contents:
The file comprises an off-print of the article from 'MIND: A Quarterly Review of Psychology and Philosophy', Vol. LIX, N.S. No.236, Oct. 1950. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

'Intelligent machinery, a heretical theory'  AMT/B/20  c. 1951

6 sheets in folder paper

Creator(s):


Related information: See also B/4 for another copy of this lecture.

Contents:
The file comprises a typescript lecture given to the '51 society' at Manchester. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

'Some calculations of the Riemann zeta-function'  AMT/B/21  1953

1 item in envelope paper

Creator(s):

Contents:
The file comprises an off-print of the article from 'Proceedings of the London Mathematical Society', Ser. 3, Vol. 3, 1953. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

'The chemical basis of morphogenesis'  AMT/B/22  1952

1 item in envelope paper

Creator(s):

Contents:
The file comprises an off-print of the article from 'Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London', Series B, No. 641, Vol. 237, 14 August 1952. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

'The other Turing machine'  AMT/B/23  1975

1 item in envelope paper

Creator(s):

Contents:
The file comprises an off-print of the article, printed by the Department of Computer Science, Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand, Vol. 20, No. 3, 1975. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

'The simplest brainiest computer'  AMT/B/24  1984

1 item in envelope paper

Creator(s):

Contents:
The file comprises a copy of the article in 'Science Digest', Vol. 92, No. 9, Sept. 1984, pp.78-81. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

'A.M. Turing's original proposal for the development of an electronic computer'  AMT/B/25  1972

1 item in envelope paper

Creator(s):

Contents:
'Computer Science' 57, National Physical Laboratory, Apr. 1972. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

'Studies in the history of probability and statistics. XXXVII. A.M. Turing's statistical work in World War II'  AMT/B/26  1979

1 item in envelope paper

Creator(s):

Contents:
The file comprises an off-print of the article from 'Biometrika', Vol. 66, No. 2, 1979. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

'Turing machines'  AMT/B/27  Apr. 1955

1 item in envelope paper

Creator(s):

Contents:
The file comprises extracts from 'Turing machines' from 'Scientific American', with manuscript annotations and a manuscript note by Mrs Turing. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

'Colossus and the Ultra secret'  AMT/B/27a  (Undated.)

22 sheets in envelope paper

Source of acquisition: This document and B/29a were received from Prof. C. E. M. Yates in 1996.


Creator(s):

Contents:
The file comprises a photocopy of the article; the journal and date of publication are unknown. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

'The history of Hut Eight: 1939-1945'  AMT/B/27b  June 1945

117 sheets in envelope paper

Source of acquisition: This document was received from Mr. L. Gladwin in 1997.


Creator(s):

Contents:
The file comprises a photocopy of the article. The information was taken from records held at the US National Archives and Records Administration. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

'Intelligent machinery'  AMT/B/28  1969

23 sheets in envelope paper

Creator(s):

Contents:
The file comprises a photocopy of an off-print of AMT's article from 'Machine Intelligence' 5, Dec. 1969. The article includes a prologue by the editors, Meltzer and Michie. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

'A formal theorem in Church's theory of types'  AMT/B/29  1942

1 item in envelope paper

Creator(s):

Contents:
The file comprises an off-print of the article from 'Journal of Symbolic Logic', Vol. 7, No. 1, Mar. 1942. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

'The Colossus'  AMT/B/29a  June 1976

77 sheets in envelope paper

Source of acquisition: This document and B/27a were received from Prof. C. E. M. Yates in 1996.


Creator(s):

Contents:
The file comprises a photocopy of the document, published by the University of Newcastle Upon Tyne Computing Laboratory, Technical Report Series 90. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

Two articles by A. G. D. Watson  AMT/B/30  1938

2 items in envelope paper

Creator(s):

Contents:
The file comprises:
- off-print of 'Principal directions in a gravitational field' from 'Proceedings of the Edinburgh Mathematical Society' 2, Vol. 6, 1938;
- off-print of 'Mathematics and its foundations' from 'MIND: a Quarterly Review of Psychology and Philosophy', Vol. XLVII, N.S., No. 188, 1938. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

'The word problem in semi-groups with cancellation'  AMT/B/31  1950

3 items in envelope paper

Creator(s):

Contents:
The file comprises three off-prints of the article from the 'Annals of Mathematics', Vol. 52, No. 2, Sept. 1950 with annotations by AMT, Robin Gandy and M. H. A Newman. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

Programmers' handbook for Manchester electronic computer  AMT/B/32  1951

1 volume and 11 sheets in envelope paper

Creator(s):

Contents:
The file comprises the handbook Mark II, with errata sheets, 28 Mar. and 9 Jul. 1951, and Programme sheets, 1951. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

'Theorie Der Elektrizität II: Elektromagnetische'  AMT/B/33  1923

1 volume paper

Creator(s):

Contents:
The book was published by B. G.Teubner: Leipzig and Berlin, 1923. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

Offprints of five articles by W. Ross Ashby  AMT/B/34  1945-1952

5 items in envelope paper

Creator(s):

Contents:
The file comprises:
- off-print of 'The physical origin of adaptation by trial and error' from 'Journal of General Psychology', no. 32, 1945;
- off-print of 'Design for a brain' from 'Electronic Engineering', Dec. 1948;
- off-print of 'The stability of a randomly assembled nerve-network' from 'Clinical Neurophysiology', No. 2, 1950;
- off-print of 'A new mechanism which shows simple conditioning' from 'Journal of Psychology', No. 29, 1950;
- off-print of 'Can a mechanical chess-player outplay its designer?' from 'British Journal for the Philosophy of Science', Vol. III, No. 9, 1952. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

Ball, W. W. Rouse: 'Mathematical Recreations and Essays'  AMT/B/35  1928

1 volume paper

Creator(s):

Contents:
The book was published by Macmillan Ltd: London, 1928. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

'Bemerkungen zu den Grundlagen der Geometrie'  AMT/B/36  1948

1 item in envelope paper

Creator(s):

Contents:
The file comprises an off-print of the article from 'Courant' Anniversary Volume, 1948. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

Offprints of two articles by Garrett Birkhoff  AMT/B/37  1936-1937

2 items in envelope paper

Creator(s):

Contents:
The file comprises:
- off-print of 'Lie groups simply isomorphic with no linear group' from 'Bulletin of the American Mathematical Society', Dec. 1936;
- off-print of 'Representability of lie algebras and lie groups by matrices' from 'Annals of Mathematics', Vol. 38, No. 2, Apr. 1937. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

'Discussions: The adventures of a blunder'  AMT/B/38  1952

1 sheet in envelope paper

Creator(s):

Contents:
The file comprises an off-print of the article from 'Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation', Vol. VI, No. 38, Apr. 1952. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

'Body and mind'  AMT/B/39  (Undated.)

6 sheets in envelope paper

Creator(s):

Contents:
The file comprises a typescript of the article. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

'Triumph Der Mathematik'  AMT/B/40  1933

1 volume paper

Creator(s):

Contents:
The book was published by Ferdinand Hirt: Breslau, 1933. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

'The recent controversies about the foundation of mathematics'  AMT/B/41  1947

1 item in envelope paper

Creator(s):

Arrangement: Divided from B/41A in 2003 following information received from the California Institute of Technology.


Contents:
The file comprises an off-print of the article from 'Scripta Mathematica', Vol. XIII, Nos. 1-2, Mar.-June, 1947. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

'On the design of automata and the interpretation of cerebral behavior'  AMT/B/41A  1953

27 sheets in envelope paper

Creator(s):

Arrangement: Divided from B/41 in 2003 following information from the California Institute ot Technology.


Contents:
The file comprises a typescript paper by Stanley P. Fraenkel with a covering typed letter signed from Winifred Whitfield to AMT, Aug. 1953. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

Offprints of three articles by Gerhard Gentzen  AMT/B/42  1936-1937

3 items in envelope paper

Creator(s):

Contents:
The file comprises:
- off-print of 'Die Widerspruchfreiheit der reinen Zahlentheorie' from 'Mathematische Annalen', Vol. 112, No. 4, 1936;
- off-print of 'Die Widerspruchfreiheit der Stufenlogik' from 'Mathematische Zeitschrift', Vol. 41, No. 3, 1936;
- off-print of 'Unendlichkeitsbegriff und Widerspruchfreiheit der Mathematik' from 'Actualités Scientifiques et Industrielles', the Report of IXth International Congress of Philosophy, Paris 1-6 Aug. 1937. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

'The Physical Principles of the Quantum Theory'  AMT/B/43  1930

1 volume paper

Creator(s):

Contents:
The book was published by the University of Chicago Press: Chicago, 1930. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

Offprints of two articles by Geoffrey Jefferson  AMT/B/44  1949

2 items in envelope paper

Creator(s):

Contents:
The file comprises:
- off-print of 'The mind of mechanical man', The Lister Oration delivered at the Royal College of Surgeons of England on 9 June 1949 from 'British Medical Journal', Vol. 1, 25 June, 1949;
- off-print of 'René Descartes on the localisation of the soul' from 'Irish Journal of Medical Science', No. 285, Sept. 1949. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

'The nature of mathematics'  AMT/B/45  1938

1 item in envelope paper

Creator(s):

Contents:
The file comprises an off-print of the article from 'Philosophy of Science', Vol. 5, No. 4, Oct. 1938. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

'The elements of the theory of real functions'  AMT/B/46  1926

1 volume paper

Creator(s):

Contents:
The full title of the book is 'The elements of the theory of real functions, being notes of lectures delivered in the University of Cambridge', published by W. Heffer and Sons Ltd: Cambridge, 1926. This copy includes autograph manuscript notes by AMT. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

'Mindlike behaviour in artefacts'  AMT/B/47  1951

1 item in envelope paper

Creator(s):

Contents:
The file comprises an off-print of the article from 'British Journal for the Philosophy of Science', Vol. II, No. 6, Aug. 1951. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

'An electrical hypothesis of central inhibition and facilitation'  AMT/B/48  1950

1 item in envelope paper

Creator(s):

Contents:
The file comprises an off-print of the article from 'Patterns of Organisation in the Central Nervous System' (Vol. XXX of Proceedings of the Association for Research in Nervous and Mental Diseases, 15 and 16 Dec. 1950). See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

'Mathematische Grundlagen Der Quantenmechanik' and 'First draft of a report on the EDVAC'  AMT/B/49  1932-1945

1 volume and 107 sheets in envelope paper

Creator(s):

Contents:
The file comprises:
- 'Mathematische Grundlagen Der Quantenmechanik', published by Julius Springer: Berlin, 1932.
- photocopied typescript 'First draft of a report on the EDVAC'. Contract No. W-670-ORD-4926 between the United States Army Ordnance Department and the University of Pennsylvania. 30 June 1945. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

'On theories with a combinatorial definition of "Equivalence"'  AMT/B/50  1942

1 item in envelope paper

Creator(s):

Contents:
The file comprises an off-print of the article from 'Annals of Mathematics', Vol. 43, No. 2, Apr. 1942. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

'Programming a digital computer to learn'  AMT/B/51  1952

1 item in envelope paper

Creator(s):

Contents:
The file comprises an off-print of the article from 'Philosophical Magazine', Ser. 7, Vol. xliii, Dec. 1952. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

'Scientific beliefs'  AMT/B/52  1950

1 item in envelope paper

Creator(s):

Contents:
The file comprises an off-print of the article from 'Ethics', Vol. LXI, No. 1, Oct. 1950. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

'On the parallel between learning and evolution'  AMT/B/53  1951

1 item in envelope paper

Creator(s):

Contents:
The file comprises an off-print of the article from 'Behaviour', Vol. III, 3, 1951. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

'Four Lectures on Wave Mechanics'  AMT/B/54  1928

1 volume paper

Creator(s):

Contents:
The book was published by Blackie and Son Ltd: London and Glasgow, 1928. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

'Linguistic structures isomorphic to object structures'  AMT/B/55  1964

1 item in envelope paper

Creator(s):

Contents:
The file comprises an off-print of the article from 'Philosophy and Phenomenological Research', Vol. XXIV, No. 3, Mar. 1964. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

'On total depravity'  AMT/B/56  (Undated.)

1 item in envelope paper

Creator(s):

Contents:
The file comprises an off-print of the article; the publication details are unknown. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

'Mathematics and its foundations'  AMT/B/57  1938

1 item in envelope paper

Creator(s):

Contents:
The file comprises an off-print of the article from 'MIND: A Quarterly Review of Psychology and Philosophy', Vol. XLVII, N.S. No. 188, 1938. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

Unpublished manuscripts and drafts  AMT/C  1927-1977

2 boxes paper

Source of acquisition: Reference: C/24-27 received in 1978 from N.E. Hoskin
C/23 received in 1979 from Prof. I.J. Good (photocopies from originals in his possession)


Contents:
Dr Gandy paginated and annotated some of the papers with a view to posthumous publication in 'Collected Works of A. M. Turing' (Elsevier Science Publishers: Amsterdam, 1992). His annotations at the head of the manuscripts, and in the body of the text, are indicated in the relevant catalogue entries.

'The difference psi (x) - x'  AMT/C/1  c. 1937 (Date has been estimated.)

7 sheets in envelope paper

Contents:
The file comprises a copy typescript with autograph manuscript mathematical calculations and corrections in red ink. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

'Zeta function machine'  AMT/C/2  17 July 1939

1 item paper

Contents:
The file comprises a blueprint, signed D. C. M., probably prepared in connection with AMT's article 'A method for the calculation of the zeta function', published 1943 but received 1939 (see bibliography in Royal Society memoir, A/36). See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

'Some theorems about Church's system'  AMT/C/3  1942 (Date has been estimated-AMT worked with Alonzo Church at Princeton, 1936-8, and published 2 articles on the subject in 1942.)

21 sheets in envelope paper

Contents:
The file comprises a typescript with autograph manuscript annotations, including a manuscript note by R. O. Gandy on an un-numbered front page, 'numbers inserted by ROG', and a note by Gandy on the last page, 'Some Theorems about Church's system (including fallacious consistency proof)'. The file also includes one further page, on the same subject but not part of this paper. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

Untitled paper beginning '§5. Consequences of the Peano axioms'  AMT/C/4  (Undated.)

7 sheets in envelope paper

Contents:
The file comprises a typescript with autograph manuscript annotations, the pages are numbered 37-43. The paper is probably a continuation of 'Some theorems about Church's system'. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

Untitled paper beginning '9. Finite models of Church's and Zermelo's systems'  AMT/C/5  (Undated.)

14 sheets in envelope paper

Contents:
The file comprises a typescript with autograph manuscript annotations, the pages are numbered 60 - 73. The paper is probably a continuation of 'Some theorems about Church's system'. The last page has a manuscript note by R. O. Gandy, 'Continuation of a paper about virtual types in Church's system? Consistency and completeness for the system with axioms of finitude in place of inf. are sketched'. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

'A practical form of type theory II'  AMT/C/6  c. 1948

125 items in envelope paper

Contents:
The file comprises a typescript with autograph manuscript annotations. This paper was intended as a continuation of B/3, the contents being summarised on page 1 by AMT, 'In this paper theorems A and B enunciated in Part 1 are proved'. Page 1 also bears a manuscript note by R. O. Gandy, 'Pages nod by ROG as they lay (manuscript pages given letter, e.g., 50A, 50B, etc)'. The file includes many autograph manuscript additional papers, numbered 1-81, followed by a sequence of manuscript pages as follows: 1, 'note to p.7', 2-16, 18, 19, 22. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

'A diffusion reaction theory of morphogenesis in plants'  AMT/C/7  Jan. 1952-May 1952 (Date has been supplied.)

20 sheets in envelope paper

Contents:
The file comprises a copy typescript with autograph manuscript corrections. The title page reads: 'The mathematical author (A.T.) is the originator of the theory (which will appear shortly in the Proceedings of the Royal Society) and is responsible for the exactitude with which his ideas and the relevant physical and mathematical concepts are represented, while the botanical author (C.W.W.) [Claude Wilson Wardlaw] has tried to give the theory an appropriate botanical setting'.
* See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

'Morphogen theory of phyllotaxis. Part I. Geometrical and descriptive phyllotaxis.'  AMT/C/8  Dec. 1954-1977 (After 1954.)

42 sheets in envelope paper

Creator(s):

Contents:
The file comprises a typescript, made by N. E. Hoskin and B. Richards, based largely on AMT's typescript in C/25. The paper includes manuscript corrections by N. E. Hoskin after AMT's death. The accompanying manuscript note by R. O. Gandy reads 'Draft of paper intended for Transactions of Royal Society written by N. E. Hoskin and B. Richards from manuscripts of A. M. T. and notes of lectures given in Manchester'. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

'Part II. Chemical theory of morphogenesis'  AMT/C/9  1954-1977 (After 1954.)

13 sheets in envelope paper

Contents:
The file comprises a typescript continuation of 'Morphogen theory of phyllotaxis', with manuscript corrections. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

'Part III. A solution of the morphogenetical equations for the case of spherical symmetry'  AMT/C/10  1954-1977 (After 1954.)

16 sheets in envelope paper

Creator(s):

Contents:
The file comprises a typescript continuation of 'Morphogen theory of phyllotaxis'. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

'Intelligent machinery'  AMT/C/11  (Undated.)

40 sheets in envelope paper

Contents:
The file comprises a typescript with autograph manuscript corrections and additions. The pages are numbered 1-37, with 2 un-numbered pages of references and notes. Page 1 has a manuscript note by R. O. Gandy, 'Turing's typed draft'. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

'The reform of mathematical notation and phraseology'  AMT/C/12  (Undated.)

15 sheets in envelope paper

Contents:
The file comprises a typescript with autograph manuscript corrections, including manuscript annotations by R. O. Gandy. The pages are numbered 1-8, 13-18, with one un-numbered last page. Page 13 has a note by R.O. Gandy, 'No sign of pages 9-12'. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

'General tensors in a group'  AMT/C/13  (Undated.)

21 sheets in envelope paper

Contents:
The file comprises an autograph manuscript paper. The pages have not been numbered. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

'Minimum cost sequential analysis'  AMT/C/14  (Undated.)

17 sheets in envelope paper

Contents:
The file comprises a typescript with autograph manuscript annotations, and includes some pages of autograph manuscript notes and calculations. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

'A note on normal numbers.'  AMT/C/15  (Undated.)

11 sheets in envelope paper

Contents:
The file comprises a typescript and autograph manuscript (the manuscript version is written on the back of a typescript draft of another paper. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

'The word problem in compact groups'  AMT/C/16  (Undated.)

4 sheets in envelope paper

Contents:
The file comprises a typescript with autograph manuscript annotations, including 1 autograph manuscript page entitled, 'The word problem is solvable in simple groups'. Page 1 has an autograph manuscript note, 'Please let me have this back soon'. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

'On Permutation Groups'  AMT/C/17  (Undated.)

32 sheets in envelope paper

Contents:
The file comprises a typescript with autograph manuscript annotations. The first page(s) bearing the title is missing, but the last page has a manuscript title by R. O. Gandy. The paper is probably related to work at the Cypher School, Bletchley). See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

'The game of poker'  AMT/C/18  (Undated.)

33 sheets in envelope paper

Contents:
The file comprises an unfinished autograph manuscript draft (pp. 1-13 only numbered), with extensive notes and calculations, many on the reverse of mathematical exercises by other individuals. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

'The game of "Psychology"'  AMT/C/19  (Undated.)

8 sheets in envelope paper

Contents:
The file comprises an autograph manuscript paper. The pages are un-numbered; most have been written on the reverse of mathematical exercises by other individuals. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

'The elliptic integrals K, E.'  AMT/C/20  (Undated.)

1 sheet in envelope paper

Contents:
The file comprises an autograph manuscript paper, with a manuscript note on the back by Mrs Turing, 'Problem on Elliptic Functions worked out by A. M. Turing for the amusement of Malcolm MacPhail, Humble Oil and Refining Company, Houston, Texas, U.S.A.' See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

'Précis of Relativity Theory'  AMT/C/21  c. 1927 (Date has been estimated.)

1 item in envelope paper

Contents:
The file comprises an incomplete photocopy of the document held in K/2. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

'The rules of GO'  AMT/C/22  1930-1939 (Date has been estimated as 1930s from AMT's time at King's College.)

1 sheet in envelope paper

Contents:
The file comprises an autograph manuscript, written on paper headed 'King's College, Cambridge'. GO is a game for 2 players with counters. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

Notes and calculations  AMT/C/23  1943 (Date has been estimated.)

2 sheets in envelope paper

Source of acquisition: These copies have been made available by I. J. Good from his own archives.


Contents:
The file comprises photocopies of autograph manuscript notes and calculations by AMT, 'Two contour-integral proofs', 'Ingham's proof', and 'Another proof'. The pages are numbered 3 and 4. Page 3 has a manuscript note by Good, 'A note by Turing for I. J. Good, c. 1943'. Page 4 is addressed, 'Dr I. J. Good, Hut 11' [at Bletchley Park]. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

Work on morphogenesis  AMT/C/24-27  [n.d.]

4 envelopes paper

Source of acquisition: These files were received from N. E. Hoskin in 1978, and are additional to the material on the subject listed as C/7-10. The papers are part of the extensive notes and drafts left at AMT's death which some of his colleagues (R. O. Gandy, N. E. Hoskin, and B. Richards) intended to prepare for publication.


Contents:
The files comprise notes, diagrams, tables, calculations, and computer routines. The material is mainly AMT's autograph manuscripts and typescripts, with many additions and corrections. Sometimes both sides of the paper are used; many pages have other work on the back. Some of the material constitutes relatively substantial paginated sequences, whilst some consists of random pages which have not been assigned a definite place or description. All titles and descriptions in inverted commas are those which appear on the manuscript. Later notes or comments in the hands of Hoskin and Gandy are identified and indicated wherever possible.
See also Dr. J. Swinton's web pages http://www.kings.cam.ac.uk/%7Ejs229/turing.htm for a detailed analysis of page sequences and contents. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

'Morphogens. Turing I'  AMT/C/24  1950-1959 (Date has been estimated as 1950s.)

1 envelope paper

Contents:
The folder has a manuscript note by Gandy, 'This contains consecutive pieces which were not incorporated by Hoskin and Richards in their paper'. The file includes, among other unidentified pages:-
- 'Outline of the development of the daisy', including sections on 'Considerations governing the choice of parameter' and 'Early stages in pattern formation'. The pages have been numbered by R. O. Gandy;
- a worked example of the theory in 'Morphogen theory of phyllotaxis II', showing how orthogonal eigenfunctions can be chosen for a linear model of diffusion between four discrete cells arranged as three satellites around a central cell;
- '13 Stationary waves in continuous tissue and abstract space';
- 'Forced waves';
- 'discarded FIRSTART values';
- '4. The equations applied to a plane';
- 'Effect of quadratic terms';
- Substantial set of drafts and calculations, with [? Hoskin's] separate page heading, 'Stability and approximations';
- 'Hex stability with different values of gamma';
- 'Damping due to the J term';
- draft of 'solvable and unsolvable problems' ('Penguin Science News' 31, 1954);
- 'Lattice solutions and their stability';
- 'Fig X': a nomogram. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

'Morphogen. Theory of Phyllotaxis. Turing 2'  AMT/C/25  1950-1959 (Date has been estimated as 1950s.)

1 envelope paper

Contents:
The folder has a manuscript note by Gandy, 'This is the draft from which Hoskin and Richards prepared their paper Part 1 (which follows the draft rather closely. Passages in light blue are I think by Hoskin)'. The Hoskin and Richards draft is catalogued at AMT/C/8. The folder includes:-
- AMT's typescript draft, with many autograph manuscript revisions, and numbered in another hand. AMT's revisions are usually in black ink, but occasionally in pencil. Other corrections and markings appear in another hand, in blue ink and pencil, and there is also some linking material on separately numbered pages, e.g. 26a, 57a
- 'Naturally occurring phyllotactic patterns';
- 'Some properties of Fibonacci numbers';
- un-numbered manuscript headed, 'Stability of 2nd order equations';
- diagrams of florets in sunflower head, numbered and annotated by AMT;
- photograph of sunflower head;
- review by H. S. M. Coxeter of a book by L. Fejes Tóth, 'Lagerungen in der Ebene, auf der Kugel und im Raum' (Berlin, 1953), reprinted from 'Bulletin of the American Mathematical Society', Vol. 60, Mar. 1954. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

'Chemical Theory of Morphogenesis. Turing 3'  AMT/C/26  1950-1959 (Date has been estimated as 1950s.)

1 envelope paper

Contents:
The folder has a manuscript note by R. O. Gandy, 'Part II of draft used by Hoskin and Richards'. The file includes:-
- typescript draft, numbered in another hand. The draft is AMT's typescript, with many autograph manuscript revisions in black ink. The title on p.1, 'Part II Chemical Theory of Morphogenesis', plus other corrections and annotations, appear in another hand, in blue-black ink
- typescript draft for '4. "Noise" effects', with a manuscript note by Hoskin, 'Another § 4 but should be included here even though incomplete. N. H.'
- typescript draft, with pages numbered in another hand, beginning, 'Effects of random disturbances', with autograph manuscript annotations by AMT in black ink, and in another hand in blue ink. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

'Turing 4'  AMT/C/27  1950-1959 (Date has been estimated as 1950s.)

1 envelope paper

Contents:
The folder has a manuscript note by R.O. Gandy, 'It will be difficult, in some places impossible, to know exactly what the fragments are (exactly) about.' Inside the folder is a note by Hoskin, 'I have not been able to fit in any of the following notes in the main articles. In many cases there are other notes, presumably superseded, on the reverse of these pages. Some of these are not sequential.' Many of these drafts are on the back of programme sheets for Manchester University Computing Machine Laboratory, and some carry routines related to the themes of the manuscripts, and perhaps intended to test them. The material is in the form of bundles clipped together, some with AMT's heading or description, and have been left as received. The file includes:-
- 'Pessimum compressed hexagonal golden lattice';
- 'Half way compressible golden lattice';
- 'Golden rectangular lattice';
- 'FIRCONES. Paper theory'. Drafts, notes, and calculations;
- 'KJELL Theory'. Drafts, notes, and calculations. Page 7, labelled 'NORMAST', contains a subroutine tree including a number of the subroutines described in the folder;
- 'KJELL PREP TRACK PAIRS'. Drafts, notes and calculations, in ink and pencil, with many revisions and corrections. Some pages have been used on both sides, and some top and bottom;
- notes, signed B. R. [Bernard Richards] on 'Morphogenesis of cellular structure';
- notes and calculations, with computer routine 'OUTERFIR', perhaps related to FIRCONES, and notes for modification of OUTERFIR programme;
- table of flower species used by AMT for work on morphogenesis;
- untitled notes, calculations and diagrams, many on lattices;
- 'Naturally occurring phyllotactic patterns';
- 'Amplitude with 1 dimensional waves';
- 'Rate of change of wavelength';
- 'Measurements taken on some specimens';
- typescript 'Evidence relating to the diffusion reaction theory of morphogenesis', by C.W. Wardlaw, with manuscript note at head, 'Rough draft. A.M. Turing'. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

'On the Gaussian Error Function'  AMT/C/28  1935

1 item in envelope paper

Contents:
The file comprises a typescript copy of AMT's Fellowship Dissertation, 1935. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

'Nature of Spirit'  AMT/C/29  Apr. 1932 (Date has been supplied.)

6 sheets in envelope paper

Source of acquisition: This document was received from Dr. A. Hodges in 1999.


Contents:
The file comprises a photocopy of an autograph manuscript essay written during a visit to Clock House, Bromsgrove (home of his friend Christopher Morcom). See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

'Treatise on the Enigma'  AMT/C/30  c. 1939-c. 1942 (Date has been estimated.)

61 sheets in envelope paper

Source of acquisition: This document was received from Mr L. Gladwin in 1996.


Contents:
The file comprises a photocopied typescript of the treatise. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

Report on AMT's visit to the Naval Computing Machine Laboratory at Dayton, Ohio  AMT/C/31  Dec. 1942

9 sheets in envelope paper

Source of acquisition: This document was received from Mr. L. Gladwin in 1999.


Contents:
The file comprises a photocopy of the typescript report. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

'Proposed electronic calculator' [Automatic computing engine]  AMT/C/32  1946

48 sheets in envelope paper

Source of acquisition: This document was received from the Public Record Office, Kew in 1998.


Contents:
The file comprises a photocopied typescript report on the detailed design of an electronic computer and an account of its operation, written as an employee of the National Physical Laboratory. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

'Minimum weight structures'  AMT/C/33  1953

2 items in envelope paper

Contents:
The file comprises a typescript with autograph manuscript annotations. It also includes a typescript, 'Minimum weight design: Memories of Alan Turing', by Dr R. K. Livesley describing his work with AMT and computing at Manchester University in the early 1950s. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

Correspondence  AMT/D  1935-1968

1.5 boxes paper

Source of acquisition: D/6-10 received in 1979 from Prof. I.J. Good (photocopies from originals in his possession)
D/11-14 received in 1983 from Dr. A. Hodges, author of the biography Alan Turing: the Enigma (Burnett Books Ltd.: London, 1983).


Copies of letters from AMT to his mother  AMT/D/1  1936-1954

4 sheets in envelope paper

Contents:
The file comprises:-
- from Princeton, a photocopy of the first page of K/1/43, 14 Oct. 1936;
- from Princeton, Mrs Turing's typescript copy of K/1/55, 15 Mar. 1937;
- from Princeton, Mrs Turing's typescript copy of K/1/57, 29 Mar. 1937;
- from Princeton, Mrs Turing's typescript copy of K/1/87, Jan. 1954. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

Letters from AMT to Professor Max Newman  AMT/D/2  1940-1948 (Dates have been estimated.)

29 items in envelope paper


Related information: See B/3 and C/6 for the work on type theory referred to in the correspondence.

Contents:
The folder has been inscribed by R. O. Gandy: 'Letters from AMT to MHAN (c. 1940) mostly about Church's "calculus of lambda conversion" but also about "ordinal logics" and Church's theory of types. + 1 unsent to Church'. The papers include suggested dates and notes by R. O. Gandy. The contents of the file comprise:-
- 1 autograph letter signed from King's College, Cambridge, with notes by R. O. Gandy, 'Early 1940?' and 'Concerning Church's lecture notes on lambda calculus and ordinal logics';
- 1 autograph letter signed from Bletchley, 23 Mar., with notes by R. O. Gandy on 1st page, 'Must be 1940' and 'Mostly about lambda calcs', and also annotations and corrections in pencil;
- 1 autograph letter signed from Bletchley, 21 Apr., with note by R. O. Gandy, 'Must be 1940';
- 1 autograph letter signed from Bletchley, undated, with note by R. O. Gandy, 'About Ax of Inf. in Church's type theory. Summer or autumn (or winter) 1940';
- 1 autograph letter signed, no heading or date, with note by R. O. Gandy, 'must be 1942' regarding paper in collaboration with Newman (Bibliography number RS 1942a) and also referring to AMT's work on 'dots as brackets' (see Bibliography number RS 1942b) and his projected extended work on type theory;
- 1 page of an undated typed letter to Church, begining, 'I enclose corrected proof of my paper "Practical forms of type theory"' (see Bibliography number RS 1948b). Mainly about 'Turing machines'. A line is drawn through this letter. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

Copies of correspondence between AMT and I. J. Good  AMT/D/3  25 July 1948-18 Sept. 1948

5 sheets in envelope paper

Contents:
The file comprises Mrs Turing's typescript and manuscript copies of correspondence between AMT and I. J. [Jack] Good. The letters concern the numbers of neurons in the brain, machine intelligence and the 'Shaun-Michie' chess-playing machine described by Michie and included in A/11. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

Letters from AMT to R. O. Gandy  AMT/D/4  1952-1954

13 items in envelope paper

Source of acquisition: Photocopies of the letters dated 1952-4 were replaced by the originals received after the death of Dr. Gandy in March 1996, with an additional letter 'c. 1953 or 54' which had not been photocopied.


Copies information: Copies of some of these letters are held in K/1.


Contents:
5 autograph letters signed, 1 typed letter signed, 3 autograph postcards signed and a computer typescript. The letters are all written from Wilmslow where AMT was living when he was a Reader at Manchester University, and where he died. They contain personal material, comments on Gandy's work and thesis, and references to AMT's work. In some cases, all or part of the date has been added in Gandy's hand, indicated by square brackets. The letters comprise:-
- 1 typed letter signed, [Early 1952], original of K/1/80;
- 1 autograph letter signed, 23 Nov. [1952] original of K/1/81;
- 2 letters written on computer typewriter with autograph manuscript corrections, [Early 1953], the first is original of K/1/82;
- 1 autograph letter signed, 11 Mar. [1953];
- 1 autograph letter signed, [Before 30 May 1953], original of K/1/84;
- 1 autograph letter signed, [1953 or 54];
- 3 autograph postcards signed, 8 - 13 Mar. 1954, with 'Messages from the Unseen World', when AMT and Gandy had been discussing Eddington's 'Fundamental Theory' (see Gandy's explanation of these in his letter to M. H. A. Newman in A/8);
- 1 autograph letter signed, [1954], original of K/1/86. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

Letters from various authors to AMT  AMT/D/5  1935-1952

41 items in envelope paper

Arrangement: The material is arranged alphabetically.


Contents:
13 autograph letters signed, 5 typed letters signed and 2 typed postcards signed from colleagues and friends, mainly on mathematical problems. In cases where a link can be established with a published paper, a reference is given in brackets to the bibliography in the Royal Society memoir (catalogued as A/36). The file comprises:-
- 1 typed letter signed from Paul Bernays to AMT, 24 Sept. 1937, regarding bibliography number RS 1937d;
- 1 autograph letter signed from Rupert Crawshay-Williams to AMT, 19 Apr. 1951, regarding bibliography number RS 1950b;
- 1 typed letter signed from Sir Charles Darwin to AMT, 11 Nov.1947, regarding a paper by AMT on 'Intelligent Machinery', published in 'Machine Intelligence' 5, 1969;
- 1 autograph letter signed from G. H. Hardy to AMT, [?late 1930s];
- 4 autograph letters signed from Albert Edward Ingham to AMT, 1937 - 1951;
- 1 autograph letter signed and 1 typed letter signed from John von Neumann to AMT, 13 Sept. 1949 and 5 Dec. [? 1951], regarding bibliography number RS 1950a;
- manuscript notes by Maxwell Herman Alexander Newman, Jan. 1935, regarding Fellowship Dissertation and bibliography number RS 1935a;
- 1 autograph letter signed from Norman [Routledge] to AMT, [? 1952];
- 2 typed postcards signed from Heinrich Scholz to AMT, 11 Feb. and 15 Mar. 1937, regarding bibliography number RS 1937a;
- 1 autograph letter signed from S. Skewes to AMT, 9 Dec. 1937;
- 1 typed letter signed from Christopher Strachey to AMT, 15 May 1951, regarding broadcast talk B/5;
- 1 autograph letter signed from Edward Charles Titchmarsh to AMT, 1 Dec. 1937;
- 1 typed letter signed from Conrad Hal Waddington, 11 Sept. 1952, regarding bibliography number RS 1952;
- 2 autograph letters signed from John Henry Constantine Whitehead, 10 and 19 Apr. 1951, regarding bibliography number RS 1950a;
- 1 autograph letter signed from John Zachary Young to AMT, 13 Jan. 1951, written in answer to K/1/78. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

Note: Some items are in German.


Correspondence between AMT, I. J. Good and Mrs Turing  AMT/D/6-10  1946-1958

36 sheets in 5 envelopes paper

Source of acquisition: The photocopied material has been made available by I. J. Good from his own archives.


Contents:
The files comprise:
- photocopies of 2 autograph letters signed, 7 typed letters signed and related material exchanged between AMT and I. J. Good. AMT signs his letter, 'Prof', and is so addressed by IJG.
- photocopies of 8 autograph letters signed, 4 typed letters signed and 1 autograph postcard signed, exchanged between I. J. Good and Mrs Turing.

Letter from AMT to I. J. Good  AMT/D/6  Oct. 1946

1 envelope paper

Contents:
Photocopy of 1 typed letter signed, commenting on the manuscript of Good's 'Probability and the Weighing of Evidence' (published 1950). See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

Correspondence between AMT and I. J. Good  AMT/D/7  25 July 1948-18 Sept. 1948

1 envelope paper

Copies information: Typescript copies of these letters are held under K/1/76b and K/1/77.


Contents:
Photocopies of 2 autograph letters signed and 4 typed letters signed, on the number of neurons in the brain and on chess-playing machines. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

Letters from I. J. Good to AMT  AMT/D/8  3 Oct. 1948-27 Feb. 1953

1 envelope paper

Contents:
Photocopies of 2 typed letters signed, containing a discussion regarding the publication of a paper by I. J. Good on population frequencies of species (published in 'Biometrica' 40, 1953) and AMT's permission to publish. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

Correspondence between I. J. Good and Mrs Turing  AMT/D/9  12 Nov. 1956-28 Dec. 1956

1 envelope paper

Contents:
Photocopies of 2 autograph letters signed and 3 typed letters signed, exchanged in reply to Mrs Turing's request for information and recollections about AMT. The letters contain various reminiscences, including references to AMT's buried silver. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

Correspondence between I. J. Good and Mrs Turing  AMT/D/10  10 Nov. 1957-21 May 1958

1 envelope paper

Contents:
Photocopies of 6 autograph letters signed, 1 typed letter signed and 1 autograph postcard signed, mainly on the writing and publication of Mrs Turing's biography. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

Letters from AMT to Philip Hall and P. H. F. Mermagen  AMT/D/11-14  1935-1952 (End date has been supplied.)

11 items in 4 envelopes paper

Contents:
9 autograph letters signed from AMT to Philip Hall and 1 autograph letter signed from AMT to P.H.F. Mermagen. Philip Hall FRS (d. 1982) was AMT's tutor at King's College, and became a life-long friend; P. H. F. Mermagen (d. 1985) was a contemporary of AMT at Sherborne School.

Bibliography: These letters were made available by Andrew Hodges who used them in whole or in part in his biography, 'Alan Turing: the Enigma'. Page references are given in brackets.


Letters from AMT to Philip Hall  AMT/D/11  4 Apr. 1935-30 May 1935

1 envelope paper


Related information: See B/10 for the paper referred to in this letter.

Contents:
2 autograph letters signed. The letter dated 4 Apr. refers to a 'small-scale discovery' by AMT (published as 'Equivalence of left and right hand almost periodicity' in 'Journal of the London Mathematical Society' no. 10). See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

Bibliography: Published in Hodges, p.94.


Letters from AMT to Philip Hall  AMT/D/12  22 Nov. 1936-26 Apr. 1938

1 envelope paper

Contents:
5 autograph letters signed, all addressed from Princeton. The letters have been published in Hodges as follows:-
22 Nov. [1936]: Hodges, p.123
4 Apr. [1937]: Hodges, p.130
30 Mar. [1938]: Hodges, p.144
26 Apr. [1938]: Hodges, p.145
Undated letter: Hodges, p.146. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

Letters from AMT to Philip Hall  AMT/D/13  1951-1952 (Dates have been supplied.)

1 envelope paper

Contents:
2 autograph letters signed, published as follows:
Undated letter [1951]: Hodges, p.440
[17 Apr. 1952]: Hodges, p.473. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

Letter from AMT to P. H. F. Mermagen  AMT/D/14  c. 1947 (Date has been estimated.)

1 envelope paper

Contents:
1 autograph letter signed, published in Hodges, pp.362-3. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

Letters from AMT to Norman Routledge  AMT/D/14a  1952-1953 (Dates have been supplied.)

2 sheets in envelope paper

Source of acquisition: These letters were presented to King's College, Cambridge by Norman Routledge in 1990.


Contents:
2 autograph letters signed. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

Letters from Robin Gandy to AMT  AMT/D/15  c. 1951 (Date has been estimated.)

27 items in envelope paper

Creator(s):

Contents:
12 autograph letters signed, written while Gandy was a lecturer at University College, Leicester and while still under AMT's supervision for his Ph.D. One letter is incomplete. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

Letters from Richard Gregory and Violet Cane to AMT  AMT/D/16  2 July 1952-16 July 1952

3 sheets in envelope paper

Source of acquisition: These letters were received from Dr. V. Cane in 1997.


Creator(s):

Contents:
2 copy typed letters. The file also contains 1 typed letter signed from AMT to Violet Cane, 9 July 1952. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

Letters from Mrs Turing to Norman Routledge  AMT/D/17  12 Nov. 1956-10 Jan. 1968

Former reference: Misc. 81/13.

7 sheets in envelope paper

Source of acquisition: These letters were received from Dr N. Routledge in 1996.


Creator(s):

Contents:
1 typed letter signed and 4 autograph letters signed from Mrs Turing to Norman Routledge. 12 Nov. 1956 - 10 Jan. 1968. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

Turing Celebration Day  AMT/E  1 Oct. 1997

3 items video tape and paper

Contents:
The Turing Celebration Day was held in Cambridge on 1 Oct. 1997.

Video of A. M. Turing lectures  AMT/E/1  1 Oct. 1997

1 item in envelope video tape

Source of acquisition: This video was received from Mr. I. Pratt in 1997.


Contents:
S-VHS video of A.M. Turing Lectures given by Robin Milner, Keith van Rijsbergen and Martin Hyland in Lady Mitchell Hall, University of Cambridge. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

Video of after-dinner speech  AMT/E/2  1 Oct. 1997

1 item in envelope paper

Source of acquisition: This video was received from Mr. I. Pratt in 1997.


Contents:
S-VHS video of Maurice V. Wilkes' after-dinner speech on AMT given at King's College, Cambridge. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

'Turing, computing and communication'  AMT/E/3  1 Oct. 1997

1 item in envelope paper

Source of acquisition: This document was received from Prof. Robin Milner in 1997.


Contents:
Typescript copy of Professor Robin Milner's lecture given at the Turing Celebration Day. 1 Oct. 1997. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

Material given to King's College, Cambridge in 1960  AMT/K  1917-1960

0.5 box paper

Source of acquisition: This material was given to King's College by Mrs Sara Turing in 1960.


Letters mainly to his mother, Sara Turing  AMT/K/1  1 Apr. 1923-Jan. 1954

3 volumes and 4 envelopes paper

Arrangement: The letters were numbered, annotated and dated by Mrs Sara Turing. Her arrangement of the papers (in chronological order) has been preserved.


Contents:
K1/1-75, 79, 87 and the caricatures have been fascicled in 3 folders. K1/76a-78, 80-86 are held in 4 envelopes under the addressees' names (Gandy, Good, Maria and Young). See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

Note: Some items are in French.


Letter from AMT to his parents  AMT/K/1/1  1 Apr. 1923

2 sheets paper

Contents:
1 unsigned autograph letter, written from Hazelhurst, Sussex, with a fountain pen which he has invented. The letter contains diagram of fountain pen. . 1 Apr. 1923. 2 sheets See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

Letter from AMT to his parents  AMT/K/1/2  11 Feb. 1923-11 Feb. 1924 (Date has been estimated as 1923 or 1924.)

2 sheets paper

Contents:
1 unsigned autograph letter written from Hazelhurst, Sussex, with his patent ink. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

Letter from AMT to his parents  AMT/K/1/3  Summer Term 1923

1 sheet paper

Contents:
1 autograph letter signed, written from Hazelhurst, Sussex, with an idea for a typewriter. The letter contains a diagram of the typewriter. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

Letter from AMT to his parents  AMT/K/1/4  Summer Term 1924

2 sheets paper

Contents:
1 autograph letter signed, written from Hazelhurst, Sussex, on family trees, discovering the height of mountains, and map contours. The letter contains 2 contour maps. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

Letter from AMT to his parents  AMT/K/1/5  8 June 1924 (Year date has been supplied.)

1 sheet paper

Contents:
1 autograph letter signed, written from Hazelhurst, Sussex. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

Letter from AMT to his parents  AMT/K/1/6  May 1924 (Date has been supplied.)

1 sheet paper

Contents:
1 autograph letter signed, written from Hazelhurst, Sussex, on handwriting. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

Letter from AMT to his parents  AMT/K/1/7  5 Oct. 1924 (Year date has been supplied.)

1 sheet paper

Contents:
1 autograph letter signed, written from Hazelhurst, Sussex, on climbing and map-making. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

Letter from AMT to his parents  AMT/K/1/8  12 Oct. 1924 (Year date has been supplied.)

1 sheet paper

Contents:
1 autograph letter signed, written from Hazelhurst, Sussex, on a prospective journey to Belgium and an amphibious bicycle. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

Letter from AMT to his parents  AMT/K/1/9  21 Sept. 1924

2 sheets paper

Contents:
1 autograph letter signed, written from Hazelhurst, Sussex, mentioning the chemical transformation of carbon monoxide in the blood. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

Postcard from AMT to his parents  AMT/K/1/10  5 Nov. 1924

1 item paper

Contents:
1 autograph postcard signed, written from Hazelhurst, Sussex, about a chess tournament. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

Postcard from AMT to his parents  AMT/K/1/11  19 Feb. 1925

1 item

Contents:
1 autograph postcard signed, written from Hazelhurst, Sussex. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

Letter from AMT to his parents  AMT/K/1/12  1 Feb. 1925

1 sheet paper

Contents:
1 autograph letter signed, written from Hazelhurst, Sussex, with school news. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

Letter from AMT to his parents  AMT/K/1/13  22 Feb. 1925 (Year date has been supplied.)

1 sheet paper

Contents:
1 autograph letter signed, written from Hazelhurst, Sussex. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

Letter from AMT to his parents  AMT/K/1/14  8 Mar. 1925 (Year date has been supplied.)

1 sheet paper

Contents:
1 autograph letter signed, written from Hazelhurst, Sussex. AMT wants an earthenware retort; he is trying to teach himself organic chemistry. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

Letter from AMT to his parents  AMT/K/1/15  15 Mar. 1925 (Year date has been supplied.)

1 sheet paper

Contents:
1 autograph letter signed, written from Hazelhurst, Sussex, on exceptions to rules in chemistry, and chemical experiments. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

Letter from AMT to his parents  AMT/K/1/16  18 Oct. 1925 (Year date has been supplied.)

1 sheet in envelope paper

Contents:
1 autograph letter signed, written from Hazelhurst, Sussex, giving school news and mentioning charging an accumulator with a stationary bicycle. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

Letter from AMT to his parents  AMT/K/1/17  5 May 1926 (Year date has been supplied.)

2 sheets paper

Contents:
1 autograph letter signed, written from Sherborne; he landed in England on the outbreak of the General Strike and had to cycle to Sherborne. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

Letter from AMT to his parents  AMT/K/1/18  1926 (Date has been supplied.)

1 sheet paper

Contents:
1 autograph letter signed, written from Sherborne. The letter concerns his first days at Sherborne; he has shown samples of his iodine making to the chemistry master. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

Letter from AMT to his mother  AMT/K/1/19  20 Nov. 1929

1 sheet paper

Contents:
1 autograph letter signed on Schrödinger's quantum theory, and referring to a paper which AMT wants to obtain. Mrs Turing notes that the letter refers to a paper by AMT on 'the reaction of sulphites and iodates in acid solution', sent to H. M. I. Sherborne. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

Letter from AMT to his mother  AMT/K/1/20  16 Feb. 1930

1 sheet paper

Contents:
1 autograph letter signed on the death of his best friend, Christopher Collan Morcom. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

Letter from AMT to his mother  AMT/K/1/21  7 Mar. 1930

1 sheet paper

Contents:
1 autograph letter signed, written from Sherborne. The letter concerns a trip to Gibraltar; borrowing telescope, and a celestial globe he had made. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

Letter from AMT to his mother  AMT/K/1/22  18 May 1930

1 sheet paper

Contents:
1 autograph letter signed, written from Sherborne. AMT has just written to Mellor, author of a chemistry book, about an experiment he has done; the letter also mentions a telescope and perspective drawing. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

Letter from AMT to his mother  AMT/K/1/23  31 Jan. 1932

1 sheet paper

Contents:
1 autograph letter signed, written from King's College, Cambridge. AMT has produced a theorem which had previously been proved only by Sierpinski. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

Letter from AMT to his mother  AMT/K/1/24  12 May 1933

1 sheet paper

Contents:
1 autograph letter signed, written from King's College, Cambridge. AMT is thinking of going to Russia in the vacation; he has joined the 'Anti-War Council'. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

Letter from AMT to his mother  AMT/K/1/25  16 Oct. 1933

1 sheet paper

Contents:
1 autograph letter signed, written from King's College, Cambridge. The letter concerns his prize book from Sherborne (probably 'Mathematische Grundlagen der Quantenmechanik' by J. von Neumann, according to Mrs Turing); he also mentions 'Natural wonders every child should know' (the book which opened his eyes to science, according to Mrs Turing). The letter also mentions that Born and Courant have joined the Mathematics Faculty. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

Letter from AMT to his mother  AMT/K/1/26  12 Nov. 1933

1 sheet paper

Contents:
1 autograph letter signed, written from King's College, Cambridge, on the Anti-War movement's protest against the showing of a film 'Our Fighting Navy'. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

Letter from AMT to his mother  AMT/K/1/27  26 Nov. 1933

1 sheet paper

Contents:
1 autograph letter signed, written from King's College, Cambridge. AMT is to read a paper on Mathematical Philosophy to the Moral Science Club. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

Letter from AMT to his mother  AMT/K/1/28  22 Jan. 1934

1 sheet paper

Contents:
1 autograph letter signed, written from King's College, Cambridge. AMT has found a way of setting his clock by the stars; the letter also concerns a local bye-election. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

Letter from AMT to his mother  AMT/K/1/29  31 Jan. 1934

1 sheet paper

Contents:
1 autograph letter signed, writen from King's College, Cambridge, on family matters and the maths Tripos. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

Letter from AMT to his mother  AMT/K/1/30  Feb. 1934-Mar. 1934 (Date has been estimated.)

1 sheet paper

Contents:
1 autograph letter signed, written from King's College, Cambridge, on plans for a trip to the Austrian Alps in the Easter vacation. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

Letter from AMT to his mother  AMT/K/1/31  29 Apr. 1934

1 sheet paper

Contents:
1 autograph letter signed, written from King's College, Cambridge. AMT is sending some research to Czüber in Vienna, but is afraid he may be dead. He asks for the Outlook problem for May: 'I must try and get that prize'. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

Letter from AMT to his mother  AMT/K/1/32  15 June 1934

1 sheet paper

Contents:
1 autograph letter signed, wirtten from King's College, Cambridge, on Tripos results and degree day. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

Letter from AMT to his mother  AMT/K/1/33  20 Jan. 1935

1 sheet paper

Contents:
1 autograph letter signed, written from King's College, Cambridge, concerning his pupils. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

Letter from AMT to his mother  AMT/K/1/34  10 Feb. 1935

1 sheet paper

Contents:
1 autograph letter signed, written from King's College, Cambridge, on a lecture AMT heard at the Marshall Society on 'The Leeds Housing Scheme'. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

Letter from AMT to his mother  AMT/K/1/35  3 Mar. 1935

1 sheet paper

Contents:
1 autograph letter signed, written from King's College, Cambridge, on a talk by Richmond on Oughtred; AMT has just joined the Cambridge Philosophical Society because of their library. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

Letter from AMT to his mother  AMT/K/1/36  24 May 1935

1 sheet paper

Contents:
1 autograph letter signed, written from King's College, Cambridge. AMT has applied for a visiting Fellowship at Princeton for the following year. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

Letter from AMT to his mother  AMT/K/1/37  1 Mar. 1936 (Year date has been supplied.)

1 sheet paper

Contents:
1 autograph letter signed, written from King's College, Cambridge, on Howarth, a mathematical Fellow at King's, and on Ibsen. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

Letter from AMT to his mother  AMT/K/1/38  4 May 1936 (Year date has been supplied.)

1 sheet paper

Contents:
1 autograph letter signed, written from King's College, Cambridge. AMT has seen Newman, who is not yet able to attend to AMT's theory (on 'Computable Numbers', according to Mrs Turing), but has examined AMT's note for C. R. ('Comptes Rendues', according to Mrs Turing). See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

Letter from AMT to his mother  AMT/K/1/39  1 July (No year date.)

1 sheet paper

Contents:
1 autograph letter signed, written on notepaper from King's College Cambridge, but Mrs Turing notes: 'Probably written from Itchenor, Sussex.'. The letter concerns a on sailing holiday. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

Letter from AMT to his mother  AMT/K/1/40  29 May 1936 (Year date has been supplied.)

1 sheet paper

Contents:
1 autograph letter signed, written from King's College, Cambridge. AMT has just got his main paper (on 'Computable Numbers', according to Mrs Turing) ready and sent in; the correspondence about the 'Comptes Rendues' has gone astray, and Alonzo Church has just published a paper on the same subject in America, though Mr Newman and AMT think the method sufficiently different to warrant publication of AMT's paper too. Alonzo Church is at Princeton, so AMT has decided definitely about going there. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

Letter from AMT to his mother  AMT/K/1/41  28 Sept. 1936

1 sheet paper

Contents:
1 autograph letter signed, on paper headed 'Cunard White Star 'Berengaria''. The letter concerns finding the ship's position with a sextant: AMT notes at the letter head '41°20'N 62°W. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

Letter from AMT to his mother  AMT/K/1/42  6 Oct. 1936 (Year date has been supplied.)

3 sheets paper

Contents:
1 autograph letter signed, written from Graduate College, Princeton. The letter is his first from Princeton, describing mathematicians: J. v. Neumann, Weyl, Courant, Hardy, Einstein, Lefschetz, and Church, whom AMT has seen; AMT's paper may help Church to carry out a programme of work he has in mind. 'I don't know how much I shall have to do with this programme of his, as I am now developing the theory in a slightly different direction, and shall probably start writing a paper on it in a month or two. After that I may write a book.' See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

Letter from AMT to his mother  AMT/K/1/43  14 Oct. 1936 (Year date has been supplied.)

2 sheets paper

Contents:
1 autograph letter signed, written from Graduate College, Princeton. The letter concerns 'a possible application of the kind of thing I am working on at present. It answers the question "What is the most general kind of code or cipher possible", and... enables one to construct a lot of particular and interesting codes. One of them is pretty well impossible to decode without the key and very quick to encode. I expect I could sell them to H. M. Government for quite a substantial sum, but am rather doubtful about the morality of such things.' Hardy is in Princeton for the term. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

Letter from AMT to his mother  AMT/K/1/44  3 Nov. 1936 (Year date has been supplied.)

1 sheet paper

Contents:
1 autograph letter signed, written from Graduate College, Princeton. Church has suggested that AMT give a lecture to the Mathematical Club on Computable Numbers; AMT is also working on the theory of groups. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

Letter from AMT to his mother  AMT/K/1/45  11 Nov. 1936 (Year date has been estimated.)

1 sheet paper

Contents:
1 autograph letter signed, written from Graduate College, Princeton, on hockey against Vassar. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

Letter from AMT to his mother  AMT/K/1/46  22 Nov. 1936 (Year date has been supplied.)

1 sheet paper

Contents:
1 autograph letter signed, written from Graduate College, Princeton, on hockey, and Mrs Simpson. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

Letter from AMT to his mother  AMT/K/1/47  1 Dec. 1936 (Year date has been supplied.)

1 sheet paper

Contents:
1 autograph letter signed, written from Graduate College, Princeton. AMT is giving his paper to the Maths Club the next day. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

Letter from AMT to his mother  AMT/K/1/48  3 Dec. 1936 (Year date has been supplied.)

1 sheet paper

Contents:
1 autograph letter signed, written from Graduate College, Princeton, on reprints (of 'On Computable Numbers') and the King's marriage. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

Letter from AMT to his mother  AMT/K/1/49  Dec. 1936 (Date has been estimated.)

1 sheet

Contents:
1 autograph letter signed, written from Graduate College, Princeton, on Christmas presents. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

Letter from AMT to his mother  AMT/K/1/50  11 Dec. 1936 (Year date has been supplied.)

1 sheet paper

Contents:
1 autograph letter signed, written from Graduate College, Princeton, on the King's abdication. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

Letter from AMT to his mother.  AMT/K/1/51  1 Jan. 1937 (Year date has been supplied.)

2 sheets paper

Contents:
1 autograph letter signed, written from Graduate College, Princeton, on a skiing holiday, the King's abdication, and poor attendance at his Maths Club lecture. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

Letter from AMT to his mother  AMT/K/1/52  12 Jan. 1937

1 sheet paper

Contents:
1 autograph letter signed, written from Graduate College, Princeton, on family news. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

Letter from AMT to his mother  AMT/K/1/53  27 Jan. 1937

1 sheet paper

Contents:
1 autograph letter signed, written from Graduate College, Princeton. AMT is about to send his paper on group theory to the London Mathematical Society or to 'Annals of Mathematics' (Princeton mathematical journal); the letter also concerns a competition in 'New Statesman and Nation' entitled 'Looking Glass Zoo', set by Eddington and answered by Champernowne. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

Letter from AMT to his mother  AMT/K/1/54  11 Feb. 1937 (Year date has been supplied.)

1 sheet paper

Contents:
1 autograph letter signed, written from Graduate College, Princeton, on people to receive reprints (of 'On Computable Numbers' according to Mrs Turing); and the correct way to address an envelope etc. to Bertrand Russell. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

Letter from AMT to his mother  AMT/K/1/55  15 Mar. 1937

1 sheet paper

Contents:
1 autograph letter signed, written on paper headed Graduate College, Princeton; AMT says the letter was sent by air mail from Amsterdam. The letter concerns the Fellowship election at King's College. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

Letter from AMT to his mother  AMT/K/1/56  22 Feb. 1937 (Year date has been supplied.)

1 sheet paper

Contents:
1 autograph letter signed, written from Graduate College, Princeton. Eisenhart (the Dean of Graduate College) is pressing AMT to stay another year at Princeton; AMT thinks he will return to England. Braithwaite has asked for a reprint (of 'On Computable Numbers' according to Mrs Turing), but AMT is disappointed at its reception in Princeton. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

Letter from AMT to his mother  AMT/K/1/57  29 Mar. 1937 (Year date has been supplied.)

1 sheet paper

Contents:
1 autograph letter signed, written from Graduate College, Princeton, on maths lectureships and elections to Fellowships at King's. AMT is now working out some new ideas in logic. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

Letter from AMT to his mother  AMT/K/1/58  18 Apr. 1937 (Year date has been supplied.)

1 sheet paper

Contents:
1 autograph letter signed, written from Graduate College, Princeton, on tennis and hockey. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

Letter from AMT to his mother  AMT/K/1/59  19 May 1937 (Year date has been supplied.)

1 sheet paper

Contents:
1 autograph letter signed, written from Graduate College, Princeton. AMT has decided to stay another year in Princeton. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

Letter from AMT to his mother  AMT/K/1/60  15 June 1937 (Year date has been supplied.)

1 sheet paper

Contents:
1 autograph letter signed, written from Graduate College, Princeton, on family visits in the USA. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

Letter from AMT to his mother  AMT/K/1/61  4 Oct. 1937 (Year date has been supplied.)

1 sheet paper

Contents:
1 autograph letter signed, written from Graduate College, Princeton. AMT has returned to the USA with Will Jones; he has had a paper to referee from the London Mathematical Society. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

Letter from AMT to his mother  AMT/K/1/62  19 Oct. 1937 (Year date has been supplied.)

1 sheet paper

Contents:
1 autograph letter signed, written from Graduate College, Princeton. The paper AMT refereed was hopeless; he has begun work on his Ph.D. thesis; Scholz of Münster has sent him a reprint of a German translation of his London Mathematical Society paper. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

Letter from AMT to his mother  AMT/K/1/63  2 Nov. 1937 (Year date has been supplied.)

1 sheet paper

Contents:
1 autograph letter signed, written from Graduate College, Princeton, on hockey matches and family news. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

Letter from AMT to his mother  AMT/K/1/64  23 Nov. 1937

1 sheet paper

Contents:
1 autograph letter signed, written from Graduate College, Princeton. AMT has been asked by Cambridge Maths Faculty to examine the Ph.D. thesis of the candidate whose paper he refereed for the London Mathematical Society; he has decided, after hesitation, to take it on. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

Letter from AMT to his mother  AMT/K/1/65  14 Jan. 1938 (The letter was received on this date.)

1 sheet paper

Contents:
1 autograph letter signed, written from Graduate College, Princeton, on visits with Americans at Christmas. Two papers by AMT have appeared in 'Journal of Symbolic Logic'. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

Letters from various authors to Mrs Turing about AMT  AMT/K/1/66  24 Sept. 1960-25 Apr. 1969 (Year date has been supplied.)

5 sheets in envelope paper

Contents:
1 autograph letter signed, written from Graduate College, Princeton, on a performance of 'Murder in the Cathedral', and on drawings to illustrate the fourth dimension. The letter includes a drawing of a 4 dimensional cube on an inserted sheet. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

Letter from AMT to his mother  AMT/K/1/67  12 Apr. 1938 (Year date has been supplied.)

1 sheet in envelope paper

Contents:
1 autograph letter signed, written from Graduate College, Princeton. AMT's King's Fellowship has been renewed; he is unlikely to take a job in the USA unless England is at war before July; the letter also concerns a visit to St. John's College, Annapolis with Will Jones, and the syllabus there. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

Letter from AMT to his mother  AMT/K/1/68  17 May 1938 (Year date has been supplied.)

1 sheet paper

Contents:
1 autograph letter signed, written from Graduate College, Princeton, on Gilbert and Sullivan; on AMT's Ph.D. thesis, which has greatly expanded under Church's suggestions, and has just been accepted; AMT was offered a job as Neumann's assistant, but has refused and will return to Cambridge. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

Letter from AMT to his mother  AMT/K/1/69  23 Jan. 1939 (Year date has been supplied.)

1 sheet paper

Contents:
1 autograph letter signed, written from King's College, Cambridge, on his lectures. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

Letter from AMT to his mother  AMT/K/1/70  31 Aug. 1941

2 sheets paper

Contents:
1 autograph letter signed, written from Onell, High St., Portmadoc, on climbing in Snowdonia. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

Letter from AMT to his mother  AMT/K/1/71  1 Nov. 1940-1 Nov. 1944 (Year date has been estimated by Mrs Turing.)

1 sheet paper

Contents:
1 autograph letter signed, written from the Crown Inn, Shenley Brook End, Bletchley, Bucks. AMT has been back to Cambridge and met Champernowne; the letter also concerns bombing at Bletchley; and the Austrian refugee whom AMT sponsored. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

Letter from AMT to his mother  AMT/K/1/72  June 1946 (Date has been estimated by Mrs Turing.)

1 sheet paper

Contents:
1 autograph letter signed, writen from 78 High St., Hampton, on running. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

Letter from AMT to his mother  AMT/K/1/73  23 Dec. 1944 (Year date has been supplied.)

1 sheet paper

Contents:
1 autograph letter signed, written from The Crown, Bletchley, about a holiday in the lakes with Champernowne. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

Letter from AMT to his mother  AMT/K/1/74  27 Dec. 1946 (Year date has been supplied.)

1 sheet paper

Contents:
1 autograph letter signed, on paper headed 'Cunard White Star RMS 'Queen Elizabeth'', on a sports meeting. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

Letter from AMT to his mother.  AMT/K/1/75  1947 (The date has been supplied by Mrs Turing as '1947 after return from U.S.A.'.)

1 sheet paper

Contents:
1 autograph letter signed, no address given, on parcels from America, and running. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

Copy of a letter from I. J. Good to AMT  AMT/K/1/76a  25 July 1948

1 sheet paper

Contents:
Typescript copy of a letter from I. J. Good to AMT, written from 131 Cheviot Gdns, NW2, beginning 'Dear Prof' and signed 'Jack'. Good asks about the number of neurons in the brain; he understands that by next Oct. he and AMT will have swapped towns, 'Presumably you won't have much lecturing to do in M/C'. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

Copy of a letter from AMT to I. J. Good  AMT/K/1/76b  28 July 1948 (Date has been estimated.)

1 sheet paper

Contents:
Typescript copy of a letter from AMT to I. J. Good, written from King's College, Cambridge, beginning 'Dear Jack', and signed 'Yours Prof'. AMT has repeatedly looked in books on neurology for the number Good asked about, without success. AMT's own estimate is 3.10 (to the power of) 8 < N < 3.10 (to the power of) 9. It is based on the diagram on p. 201 of the latest Starling. Many physiologists give answers from 10 (to the power of) 7 to 10 (to the power of) 11. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

Copy of a letter from AMT to I. J. Good  AMT/K/1/77  18 Sept. 1948 (Year date has been supplied.)

1 sheet paper

Contents:
Typescript copy of letter from AMT to I. J. Good, written from King's College, Cambridge, signed 'Yours, Prof.'. AMT is glad his estimate of number of neurons is not too essentially wrong; AMT is about to make a record of the chess machine designed by himself and Champernowne, with a view to playing the Shaun-Michie machine. On 'thinking in analogies', AMT thinks of the brain as having analogies forced on it by its own limitations. AMT thinks Good's identity can be proved by Poisson's summation formula or by contour integration. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

Copy of a letter from AMT to J. Z. Young  AMT/K/1/78  8 Feb. 1951

2 sheets paper

Contents:
Typescript copy of letter from AMT to Professor J. Z. Young, FRS, written from Hollymeade, Adlington Rd., Wilmslow. The letter concerns brain structure and the storage capacity of the brain; AMT's current work, a mathematical theory of embryology, which may give satisfactory explanations of 1) Gastrulation 2) Polygonally symmetrical structures 3) Leaf arrangement 4) Colour patterns on animals 5) Patterns on nearly spherical structures such as some Radiolaria . This work is related to his work on brain structure, which has to be achieved by the genetical embryological mechanism. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

Letter from AMT to his mother  AMT/K/1/79  19 Jan. 1952 (Year date has been supplied.)

1 sheet paper

Contents:
1 typed letter signed, written from Wilmslow, on family finance. The letter mentions a broadcast by AMT. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

Copy of a letter from AMT to R. O. Gandy  AMT/K/1/80  1952 (Date has been estimated as early 1952.)

1 sheet paper

Contents:
Typescript copy of letter from AMT to R. O. Gandy, written from Wilmslow. AMT discusses Gandy's Eddington essay; the word 'structure' still causes worries; Bourbaki are unsatisfactory, as they seem to assume that 'A defines a structure on B' is synonymous with 'A is a structure on B'. AMT mentions a discussion on machines (probably a broadcast discussion with Prof. Sir Geoffrey Jefferson, Prof. M. H. A. Newman and R. B. Braithwaite, according to Mrs Turing). See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

Copy of a letter from AMT to R. O. Gandy  AMT/K/1/81  23 Nov. 1952

1 sheet paper

Contents:
Typescript copy of part of a letter from AMT to R. O. Gandy, written from Wilmslow, on Gandy's Ph.D. thesis. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

Copy of a letter from AMT to R. O. Gandy  AMT/K/1/82  1953 (Date has been estimated as early 1953.)

1 sheet paper

Contents:
Typescript copy of a letter from AMT to R. O. Gandy, with no address. The letter concerns Gandy's Ph.D. thesis, and the 'Unity of Science' essay. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

Letter from AMT to 'Maria'  AMT/K/1/83  10 May 1953 (Date has been supplied.)

1 sheet paper

Contents:
Typescript copy of a letter from AMT to 'Maria', a child aged 6, written from Hollymeade, Adlington Road, Wilmslow. The letter was sent express, suggesting puzzles for her to do on the train, and includes 3 diagrams of puzzles. AMT will be at Club Méditerrané, Ipsos-Corfu, Greece. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

Copy of a letter from AMT to R. O. Gandy  AMT/K/1/84  1953 (Date has been supplied.)

1 sheet paper

Contents:
Typescript copy of a letter from AMT to R. O. Gandy, written from Wilmslow. AMT is not surprised by the unsatisfactory response of Gandy's audience regarding notation; AMT got a similar reception about 3 or 4 years ago when he talked about deduction theorem at Bristol. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

Note by Sara Turing  AMT/K/1/85  27 Apr. 1966

1 item paper

Contents:
A note about the return of the letters to Mrs Turing for copying and presentation to Sherborne School, 27 Apr. 1966. The note mentions 86 letters.
This item is not present; it may have been omitted by Mrs Turing from her original gift, or she may have mis-numbered the letters See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

Copy of a letter from AMT to R. O. Gandy  AMT/K/1/86  1954 (Date has been estimated by Gandy.)

2 sheets paper

Contents:
Photocopy of an autograph letter signed from AMT to R. O. Gandy, written from Wilmslow. The letter concerns Gandy's 'Gödel stuff'. AMT discusses Gandy's attempt to get round Gödel's arguments, and concludes 'So one must respect Gödel's difficulties unless one includes some method of proof which does not lend itself to this sort of formulation.' AMT discusses '61 proofs of a formula of Gandy'. He can do the rainbow problem successfully for sound, but total failure for electricity. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

Letter from AMT to his mother  AMT/K/1/87  Jan. 1954

1 sheet paper

Contents:
1 autograph letter signed, with no address, calming his mother's worries about an unclassified document which he had left at her house. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

Caricature: 'The View from Matron's Window'  AMT/K/1/88  1923

1 item paper

Creator(s):

Contents:
Photocopy of a drawing of AMT ruminating, annotated by Mrs Turing 'sent to Miss Dunwall, matron at Hazelhurst. Date Spring term 1923.' See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

Caricature: 'Hockey or Watching the Daisies Grow'  AMT/K/1/89  1923

1 item paper

Creator(s):

Contents:
Drawing of AMT looking at a daisy during a hockey match, annotated by Mrs Turing 'sent to Miss Dunwall, matron at Hazelhurst. Date Spring term 1923.' See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

Précis of Einstein's Theory of Relativity  AMT/K/2  1927 (Date has been estimated.)

1 notebook and 25 sheets in envelope paper


Related information: See also C/21 for a photocopy of this item.

Contents:
The file comprises autograph manuscript notes putting the argument of 'The Theory of Relativity' by Albert Einstein in simple form, taking the book chapter by chapter, with directions on how to read it. It includes Calendars for 1928 and 1929 on the back cover. A manuscript note on the inside cover by Mrs Turing reads: 'Précis of The Theory of Relativity by Albert Einstein, written for his mother, by Alan M. Turing, when aged 15 1/2' . A typescript letter from Mrs Turing to the Librarian of King's College has been inserted inside the front cover, presenting the book to the College, 31 May, 1960. The file includes a photocopy of the notebook. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

Diagrams for work on morphogenesis  AMT/K/3  (Undated.)

8 sheets in envelope paper

Supplementary information: See also Dr. J. Swinton's web pages http://www.kings.cam.ac.uk/%7Ejs229/turing.htm for detailed analysis of K/3.

Contents:
The file contains coloured diagrams showing patterns of dappling and calculations, made by AMT in connection with his work on morphogenesis. The diagrams include:- 3 parastichy diagrams; the daisy ring diagram; 3 Real and Fourier space diagrams; and 2 contour plot diagrams. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

Copy of a précis of 'Computable Numbers'  AMT/K/4  (Undated.)

2 sheets in envelope paper

Contents:
Typescript copy, made by Mrs Turing, of the first rough draft of a précis of 'Computable Numbers', made for 'Comptes Rendues'. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

Press cuttings, articles and obituaries  AMT/K/5  1946-1960

17 items in envelope paper

Contents:
The file comprises:-
- 16 press cuttings on ACE [Automatic Computing Engine], AMT's athletics, and obituaries of AMT;
- typescript and copy typescript by Mrs Turing of an obituary notice for AMT from National Physical Laboratory, Teddington;
- typescript copy by Mrs Turing of an article on AMT from 'Nature', 18 Sept. 1954, by R. O. Gandy;
- photocopy of 'Man Viewed as a Machine' by John G. Kemeny in 'Scientific American', Apr. 1955, pp. 58-67;
- 'Tekhnika Molodezhi', Apr. 1955, pp. 7-10, containing an article on the Turing machine; the file also contains a typescript translation of this article ('Can "thinking" machines solve any problem?' by V. Pekelis), translated by H. J. Norton, 4 May 1960.
- 'King's College Annual Report', 1954, containing an obituary of AMT on pp.5-6. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

Post-mortem report and inquest depositions  AMT/K/6  8 June 1954 (Some items are undated.)

4 items in envelope paper

Contents:
The file comprises typescript copies of depositions made at the inquest on AMT, and a cyclostyled copy of the post-mortem examination report on AMT. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

Photographs of AMT and related material  AMT/K/7  1917-1951

20 items in envelope paper

Arrangement: Items formerly held in A/4 and Misc. 81/12 have been incorporated into K/7.


AMT aged 5  AMT/K/7/1  1917

1 item photographic print

Contents:
Modern reprint of a photograph of AMT aged 5, full length, wearing a sailor suit. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

AMT aged 5  AMT/K/7/2  1917

1 item photographic print

Contents:
Photograph of AMT aged 5, head and shoulders, wearing a sailor suit. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

AMT with school friends  AMT/K/7/3  1926 (Date has been estimated as early 1926.)

Former reference: Misc. 81/12

1 item photographic print

Source of acquisition: This document was received from Mr. H. Highet in 1996


Contents:
Photograph of AMT with school friends, Robin and John Wainwright and Hugh Highet, taken at Waterloo Station on the way to the school carriage at Charing Cross Station. The photograph has been inscribed on the back with names and location. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

AMT aged 16  AMT/K/7/4  1928

1 item paper

Contents:
Photograph of AMT aged 16, head and shoulders See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

AMT on his election as Fellow of the Royal Society  AMT/K/7/5-6  1951

2 items photographic print

Contents:
Photograph of AMT aged 39, on his election as Fellow of the Royal Society, head and shoulders. The file also contains a printed copy of the photograph, with AMT's signature. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

AMT on his election as Fellow of the Royal Society  AMT/K/7/7  1951

1 item photographic print

Contents:
Photograph of AMT aged 39, taken at same session K/7/6, but in a slightly different pose. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

AMT running  AMT/K/7/8  26 Dec. 1946 (Date has been supplied.)

1 item photographic print

Contents:
Photograph of AMT running, inscribed on the back, 'National Physical Lab. 2nd in 3 miles'. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

8 passport sized photographs of AMT  AMT/K/7/9-16  (Undated.)

Former reference: A/4

8 items photographic print

Contents:
8 passport sized photographs of AMT, head and shoulders, in different poses. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

Members of the Ratio Club  AMT/K/7/17  1951 (Date has been estimated.)

Former reference: A/4

1 item photographic print

Contents:
Modern reprint of a photograph of members of the Ratio Club (an interdisciplinary group of leading young researchers, started in 1948). AMT is sitting in the lower left part of the group. The photograph was possibly taken at a meeting in Cambridge in 1951. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

AMT and the Universal Electronic Computer  AMT/K/7/18  (Undated.)

Former reference: A/4

1 item photographic print

Contents:
Modern reprint of a photograph of the Universal Electronic Computer installed at Manchester University by Ferranti Ltd, with AMT standing to the right. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

AMT and the Walton Athletic Club  AMT/K/7/19  1946 (Date has been estimated.)

1 item photographic print

Source of acquisition: This item was received from Dr. A. Hodges in 1997.


Contents:
Modern reprint of a photograph of AMT standing on the steps of a bus in Hersham Road, Walton, with other members of the Walton Athletic Club, an amateur club based in Walton, Surrey. The club members are probably on their way to a meeting on a Saturday in 1946. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

'Caption under Alan's photo at the N.P.L.' [National Physical Laboratory]  AMT/K/7/20  (Undated.)

Former reference: A/4

1 item paper

Contents:
Manuscript note of the caption. See online copies at the Turing Digital Archive

The contents of this catalogue are the copyright of Cambridge University, King's College Archive Centre
Rights in the Access to Archives database are the property of the Crown, © 2001-2014

The records described on this page are held by Cambridge University, King's College Archive Centre