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Pan-Africanist Congress of South Africa; documents, correspondence, publications and journals.


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Reference PAC + MICRO
Covering dates [1959- 1971]
Held by York University, Borthwick Institute for Archives
Extent 1 box, 1 reel
Conditions of access Open
Creators Pan-Africanist Congress of South Africa

Contents:
File 1: comprises documents covering the period 1959 - 1969, and concern such matters as the founding of the PAC; the anti-pass campaign of 1960; the All-African People's Conference in Pietermaritzberg 1961; the 1961 stay-at-home; plans for a general uprising in 1963; British co-operation with South African authorities in Basutoland 1966; 1967 leadership dispute; and the 1969 Khartoum Conference in support of African Liberation movements
File 2: Journals: publications held (most of which have now been incorporated into the main Library) include The Pioneer, Feb - Mar 1956 and The Africanist (5 issues 1955 - 1959), which were produced by the dissident groups within the ANC who eventually broke away to form the PAC. Apart from a copy of Mafube, which was produced by PAC men in Johannesburg in 1961, all the other publications are from the exile movement's offices in Maseru, London, Cairo, Lusaka and Dar-es-Salaam. These include: Black Star (vol. 1, nos. 1-2); PAC News and Views (vol 1, nos. 5, 6, 7, 8; 1967) Azania News (6 issues, 1966 - 1969); Azania Combat (5 issues, 1970 - 1971).
File 3: Articles about the PAC: includes four articles by Lionel Morrison from the Afro-Asian Journalist, (Jakarta) 1965, and one from Le Progres (Kinshasha) 1967. Some items are original documents; others are photocopies from the collections of Mr. Lionel Morrison and other sources.
File 4: Lionel Morrison: Documents on the PAC 1966 - 1967, leadership disputes.
Microfilm: Pan-Africanist Congress of Azania: 'Documents 1959 - 1971'. This is a film of original documents from the collection of Mr. Hirschel Strauss. Though there is some overlap with the material held in Files 1 - 3 most of the documentation is different. The material includes a rather fuller collection of exile periodicals and various memoranda and statements dating from 1957 to 1971.
Subjects include: disputes at the 1957 Transvaal ANC conference; the PAC's inaugural conference; Philip Kgosana's defence speech at his trial after leading the pass campaign in Cape Town, 20th Mar 1960; an interview with Peter Raboroko 1966; repudiation of the call for United Nations intervention in South Africa 1966; 1967 leadership dispute; criticism of acting President Potlake Leballo's leadership 1968; the Victoria West Sabotage trial 1968; criticism of ANC/ZAPU operation in Rhodesia (the 1967 offensive); an interview with Leballo 1971.
The Pan-Africanist Congress, a breakaway movement from the African National Congress, was founded in Orlando near Johannesburg in 1959. One year later, after organising a campaign against the Pass Laws which resulted in the Sharpeville shootings on 21st March 1960, the PAC and its parent organisation were banned and the South African government declared a State of Emergency. While the leaders were in gaol, in the period 1961 - 1962, an underground movement emerged which became known as Poqo. Its members were ex-PAC men who professed loyalty to Robert Sobukwe, the PAC president, and who took instructions from the PAC headquarters based in Maseru. A general uprising was planned for April 1963, but these preparations were generally thwarted by arrests and betrayals. So, instead of a co-ordinated series of uprisings in the urban centres, there were some attacks on police stations, attempts to murder government chiefs, and a few premature revolts of migrant workers, such as the one in Paarl in 1962. Despite various claims by the government to have crushed the movement, Poqo/PAC plots continued to be unearthed fairly frequently by the police, until the late 1960's. In 1976 there were three PAC trials. Outside the country the PAC has established offices in various African countries and at the United Nations as well as in London; its headquarters are today in Dar-es-Salaam. There is still considerable rivalry between its leadership and that of the multi-racial ANC.



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