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PORTRAITS


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Reference Portrait
Covering dates C16th - C20th
Held by Royal College of Physicians of London
Extent 244 items
Creators Royal College of Physicians
Related information Sir Eliab Harvey, MP 1635-1698/9
Born St Laurence Pountney 1635, and educated at Merchant Taylors School.
Knighted in 1660, JP and Deputy-Lieutenant for the county of Essex. Was MP for the county from 1678-9; then, for Old Sarum, Wilts. 1679-81, and for Maldon, Essex 1693-8.
Sir Eliab Harvey
Oils on canvas, 49¾ by 39½ inches, by an unknown artist, 1675
Three-quarter length standing to left, holding brown drapery to chest, his gloved left hand by his side: brown eyebrows, brown eyes, long nose curving downwards, thick lips parted, double chin; mid brown wig parted in centre, touching shoulders, white shirt with broad lace cravat and cuffs, grey velvet coat; crimson silk curtains parted top left, base of column on left on which are the remains of an inscription now very rubbed: Eliab Harvey / / presumably incorporated in the more recent inscription, bottom left: Sir Eliab Harvey Knt Aetalis 40. AD 1675. Lit from the right.
Property of the Harveian Society of London: on loan to the College. November 1968. From the collection of Sir Francis Whitmore, Orsett Hall, Romford: anonymous property. Christies, 11 December 1964. lot 54. with the portrait of Lady Harvey sec next entry.
This and the companion portrait of Lady Harvey have been incorrectly ascribed to Kneller. They are by a less able hand or hands capable of attractive landscape painting, but weak in figure drawing, and stemming rather from the Lely workshop. It does not seem possible to get closer. A portrait of this Eliab Harvey, or of Eliab. William Harvey's brother, was in the Harvey family collection at Rolls Park, where recorded by Neale. He also appears in the family group of William and Mary Harvey and their three sons.
Ref: J.P. Neale, Viewes of the seats of Noblemen and Gentlemen, 2nd series. III. 1826.
Returned to the Harveian Society - Dec 1993
Lady Dorothy Harvey 1638-1725/6
(Date of birth on portrait almost certainly wrong)
Third daughter of Sir Thomas Whitmore, (1st) Bt. - of Shropshire (not to be confused with Sir Thomas Whitmore KB. husband of Anne Whitmore).
Married Sir Eliab Harvey at St Giles-in-the-Fields 1658.
Lady Dorothy Harvey
Oils on canvas, 49 by 29 inches, by an unknown artist, 1675-
Nearly whole length seated to right in landscape, and resting her head on her left hand, right hand in lap; curly brown hair, parted in centre, flat on top, a long ringlet falling on either side, deep blue eyes, light brown eyebrows, downward curving nose, full lower lip, slightly pink complexion; single string of pearls at throat, low-cut orange dress, fastened in front with five buckles (?) each of two pearls and a black diamond, similar decoration round her right shoulder, purple drapery: background of rocks and foliage: a distant landscape on right under cloudy pink sky. Inscribed bottom left, in yellow: Dorothy Harvey / suae (?) AEtalis 33 No. 1675 and in a more recent hand on right: Daughter of Sir Thomas Whitmore Bt Born 1648.
Property of the Harveian Society of London: loan to the College. November 1968. Like the companion portrait of her husband from the collection of Sir Francis Whitmore. of Orsett Hall. Romford whose ancestor Sir William Whitmore. 2nd bart. 1627-1699 married the sitter's daughter Mary: Christies, 11 December 1964. lot 54, with the portrait of Sir Eliab Harvey, anonymous property.
Ref: Burke, Landed Gentry. 1952 pp. 2705-06.
Returned to the Harveian Society - Dec 1993
Anne (Lady) Whitmore d. 1775
Wife of Sir Thomas Whitmore KB.
Oils on canvas, 503/8 by 401/8 inches, by Edward Penny, 1757
Nearly whole length, seated to left, but looking towards spectator, her right wrist on table her left hand in lap; dark brown eyebrows, blue eyes, dark brown hair dressed with pearls, short lips, fresh complexion; golden half-sleeved dress with white lace collar and cuffs, two rows of pearls at bosom and four on her left wrist; tall blue-upholstered chair, blue curtain and tassel on left, plain background. Signed, or inscribed, and dated bottom left; E.Penny Pinx. 1757.
Inscribed top right, the inscription now rather illegible:
Ann[e?] Wife to St Tho. Whitmore/Eldest Daughter to St Jonathan Cope Bart. / AEtalis Suae 39 E Penn[e?]y pinx 17 [57?]
Property of the Harveian Society of London, lent to the College November 1968.
Anonymous property, Christies 11 December 1964. lot 53. bt. Agnew, as Anne, wife of Sir Thomas Whitmore. K.B., daughter of Sir Jonathan Cope of Brewern, aged 39. A portrait of Sir Thomas's sister Catherine, also by Penny (misread Penner in the sale catalogue) was the previous lot. The portraits of Sir Eliab and Lady Harvey, above, also bought Agnew, were lot 54 of the sale.
Ref. Correspondence, Harveian Society 1 and 6 November 1968.
Returned to the Harveian Society, Dec. 1993
Sir William James Erasmus Wilson 1809-84
Known as Erasmus Wilson, he was born in Marylebone, London.
In 1836 he established Sydenham College, a school of anatomy, which, however, failed. He was himself a skilful draughtsman and his anatomical sketches were very fine. On the advice of a colleague, sometime around 1840, he switched from anatomy and physiology to dermatology. Dermatology was then a virtually untried area of medicine. Erasmus was to become extremely successful and the money he made he invested cleverly so that he ended up a very rich man - he left some £200,000 at his death. It is said that he knew more about diseases of the skin than any of his contemporaries. To broaden his knowledge on the subject, he travelled extensively, as far as Ethiopia.
There are three outstanding things, among many, that he did with his money: (1) he founded in 1870 a Chair of Dermatology at the Royal College of Surgeons, which he was the first to occupy; (2) he paid some £10,000 for the transportation of Cleopatra's Needle to London in 1877; and (3) he established the Erasmus Wilson Professorship of Pathology at Aberdeen University in 1881 in his father's memory. He was clearly an unusually generous man and his benefactions were numerous and varied.
Wilson became a Fellow of the Royal College of Surgeons in 1843 and in 1881 was elected President. The RCS benefited substantially from his generosity: not only did he establish the Chair of Dermatology and, in addition, donate his collection of anatomical specimens, drawings, etc., but the bulk of his fortune went to the College after his wife's death; (they had no children).
In 1857 he saved the life of a would-be suicide who tried to drown herself and was awarded the Royal Humane Society's silver medal.
To Erasmus Wilson is given the credit for popularizing the bath among the middle - and upper-classes
At one stage in his career, he was asked to give evidence in the case of a man who had apparently died from the injuries inflicted by a regimental flogging. Wilson confirmed that this was the cause of the man's death and, after ten adjournments, the jury supported him by bringing in a verdict to that effect. A Parliamentary enquiry followed and this in turn led to the abolition of flogging in the army.
Oils on canvas, now 30 by 25 inches, (?) by Stephen Pearce of c. 1872
Short half length to left, head turned towards spectator: curly grey hair and side whiskers, grey eyebrows, blue eyes, fresh complexion: white collar and shirt, loosely tied black bow, black coat, black gown with crimson edges: a beige-covered table ? bottom left: plain brown background, a window extreme left: lit from the right.
Property of the British Association of Dermatology, on loan to the College July 1963.
Pearce wrote that he painted three portraits of Wilson in his robes as Professor of Dermatology. The sitter was an old friend whom he had known since 1852 or 3. He exhibited one at the R.A. in 1873. Three versions are known at present: that in the Middlesex Hospital: that on loan to the College which measured 50 by 40 inches when in the London art trade in 1962 before its purchase by the British Association of Dermatology: and a copy by John Lewis Reilly also 50 by 40 inches, presented to the Royal College of Surgeons of England in 1898. An engraving of the type by Alexander Scott. R.A.. 1873 (1302) was published by Graves in 1873. Wilson was also painted by J. Andrews R.A.. 1854 (1129). A marble bust by Thomas Brock was commissioned by the Royal College of Surgeons. May 1885 and completed 1888. Brock also was responsible for the bronze statue erected in front of the Margate Infirmary 1886, of which like the Royal College of Surgeons of England, the sitter had been a benefactor.
Ref: R.A. catalogues 1854 (1129): 1872 (431): 1873 (1302): 1885 (2042), an unidentified marble; 1886 (1772), the Margate bronze: 1888 (1969, the R.C.S. marble); S. Pearce, Memories of the Past. 1903, pp. 85-87: W. LeFanu. 1960, p. 76; al. from the British Association of Dermatology, 6 July 1963.
Transferred to the British Association of Dermatology, Jan. 1997

Contents:
Portraits and items of individuals associated with medicine



Basil William Sholto Mackenzie, 2nd Baron Amulree 1900 - F. 1946  Portrait/X001T  1966

Oils on canvas, 36 by 28 inches

Source of acquisition: On indefinite loan from the sitter, to whom it was presented by the British Geriatric Society.


Administrative history:
Only son of the 1st Baron Amulree whom he succeeded in 1942. Educated at Lancing College, and Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge, subsequently studying in Paris and at University College Hospital, London. He spent much of his early career as a medical officer in the Ministry of Health and was then appointed Physician to University College Hospital where he established a national reputation for his emphasis on the special care required by the elderly. The portrait was presented as a tribute to him by members of the British Geriatric Society, of which he was President. An elegant bachelor, Amulree is a familiar figure in the House of Lords where he has devoted much thought to problems of health care and the quality of medical education and practice, and where he has overcome a natural hesitancy in speech to play a leading role in debates on such subjects.

Contents:
By Raymond Piper
Half length seated, slightly to right, hands clasped to table; white hair, deep blue eyes, fresh complexion; grey pin-stripe coat, white collar, white striped shirt, grey tie, gold monocle suspended on black cord; a lamp above his right shoulder, and on the wall behind a large earthenware plate, and the bottom of a framed picture. Signed and dated bottom left: Raymond Piper 66.
Painted in Lord Amulree's room; the chair in which he sits, the antique vase and the Picasso plate were among his favourite pieces. The sitter was photographed for the National Photographic Record in 1949 and 1963.

Bibliography: al. R. Piper, 12 March 1976 al. T. H. Howell. 20 Sept. 1975.


Max Leonard Rosenheim, 1st Baron Rosenheim of Camden 1908-1972 F. 1941 P. 1966-1972  Portrait/X300  1972

1. Oil (acrylic(?) on canvas, 36¼ by 28¼ inches

Source of acquisition: Commissioned by the College: received 1973. Exhibited at the Royal Academy 1973, their label on back.



Related information: 2. Oil (acrylic(?)) on canvas, 20 by 16 inches, by Rhoda Pepys
Head and shoulders, looking to right; receding grey hair, spectacles, double chin, eyes and right side of face in green shadow, yellow flesh colour, pink shirt, purple tie, light blue coat; scarlet background shading to purple at edges. Signed, bottom right: RHODA / PEPYS. Inscribed in black on the back of the canvas: 163 / PROFESSOR / SIR MAX ROSENHEIM / By Rhoda Pepys / London 1966.
Presented by the artist, 1973. Returned to the artist, 1993
3. Brown chalk on buff(?) paper, 17 by 11½ inches, by Rhoda Pepys (not reproduced here)
Head only, sketch for the above: signed Pepys bottom right. Inscribed on the back: No. 7. / Professor Sir Max Rosenheim / P.R.C.P. / By Rhoda Pepys.
Presented by the artist, 1973.
A photograph was taken for the National Photographic Record in 1969 by Lotte Meitner-Graf.
Ref: al. from J. Pepys (undated) and from the Registrar 19 June 1973.
Returned to the artist, 1993

Administrative history:
Born in London, and educated at Shrewsbury School; St John's College, Cambridge; and University College Hospital Medical School.
In 1938 he was awarded the Bilton Pollard Travelling Fellowship and worked as research assistant for Dr Fuller Albright at the Massachusetts General Hospital. On his return from Boston, he worked with Professor (later, Sir) Harold Himsworth.
He joined the RAMC in 1941 and served in the Middle East and Italy. He left the Army as a brigadier, though nobody looked less like a military man than he did. In 1945-46, Rosenheim was consultant physician to the Allied Land Forces in South East Asia, giving him a lifelong interest in medicine and medical education throughout that vast area. From 1949 for the next 21 years, he was Professor of Medicine at UCH, but resigned his Chair when he felt he could not devote enough time to it. He retained his links with UCH, however, acting as a part-time physician to the Hospital.
As the Sir Arthur Sims Commonwealth Travelling Professor in 1958, he visited Australia and New Zealand - and these commonwealth links were to be forged more strongly later on when he was President of the RCP, to which he was elected in 1966. Max Rosenheim was a great traveller and. under him, the College expanded its activities and its membership, and ceased to be merely a London club for physicians - a criticism that had been levelled at it in the past. Max Rosenheim was particularly concerned about postgraduate medical education, and medical education in developing countries. He also passionately wanted the general public to receive better health education. Other fervent concerns of his were cigarette-smoking, which he again and again called on the Government to ban; alcoholism; the need for fluoridation of drinking water; the quality of life. He spoke often about the old and it obviously worried him that, although it was now possible to prolong life, the quality of that life was not necessarily good, and he questioned the amount of money spent on research, wondering whether we had not reached a point when we might devote ourselves more to the application of the knowledge already gained than spend large sums on increasing our knowledge still further.
In 1972 he was admitted FRS by special election. His own particular medical interests were renal disease and hypertension, and he was among the first in his profession to convince his fellows that hypertension could be treated. A large proportion of his patients were themselves doctors and their relatives.
He never married, but was a devoted son of a mother who died only shortly before he did. Friends said that he 'suffered fools gladly'. A stout, genial figure, comfortable to be with, he needed only five hours' sleep and had time for all those who sought his advice; an excellent mediator. Max was very good at getting people to co-operate, and is remembered with real affection by a host of colleagues and patients.

Contents:
By Judy Cassab,
Half length to left, seated in wooden chair, his right hand and left forearm on the chair arms; greying hair brushed close, eyes looking at spectator, light eyebrows, brown spectacles, dimpled chin; soft white shirt, plain blue tie, plain blue lounge suit, the coat fastened with single button, blue background, lighter behind head. Signed bottom right: Cassab / 1972.

Bibliography: Annals, 25 January 1973, p. 32


Edward Browne 1644-1708 F. 1675; P. 1704-1708  Portrait/X180  n.d

Oils on panel, 131/8 by 103/4 inches

Source of acquisition: Purchased from Sir Solly Zuckerman (Lord Zuckerman) January 1969, From Bryan Hall, Banningham, near Aylsham. Norfolk bt. G. Haves. Swaffham); from the collection of David Stewart 11th Earl of Buchan. 1742-1829.


Administrative history:
Edward Browne was the eldest son of Sir Thomas Browne, author of 'Religio Medici', and was born in Norwich. He qualified as bachelor of medicine at Trinity College, Cambridge, and travelled abroad the next year to Paris and Italy, in the company of Sir Christopher Wren and others. In 1667 he obtained his MD at Merton College, Oxford. The same year he was made a Fellow of the Royal Society, and in the following year set out on another journey, farther afield this time, returning in 1669. Three years later he married the daughter of Dr Christopher Terne, a Fellow of the Royal College of Physicians, and in 1673 he published an account of his travels in East Europe, remarkable for the scrupulous accuracy of its reporting. Browne never tried to embroider his experiences - an unusual quality in those days - and his contemporary, [Dr Johnson found the book dull and made no bones about it] but Charles II, to whom Browne was a physician-in-ordinary, spoke of him as 'learned as anyone at the College, and as well-bred as any at court'. Other written works of his included translations of the lives of Themistocles and Sertorius for an edition of Plutarch's Lives.
Edward Browne's patients included the celebrated Earl of Rochester, and it was through his friendship with the Marquis of Dorchester that the latter promised his library to the College on his death.

Contents:
By an unknown artist
Half length to right, his right elbow resting on ledge, left hand not shown; mid-brown hair, thin light brown curving eyebrows, dark blue eyes, long upper lip with faint moustache, blue jowl, cleft chin, middle-aged appearance; broad white cravat with lace edge, white shirt with matching lace front and cuff, half-sleeved black coat; plain dark brown background, a mountain with twin summit seen through an opening on the right, inscribed at bottom: a small white object held between the thumb and forefinger of his right hand, a blue stone beneath the opening on the right. Inscribed on the back: Sir Thomas Brown / of Norwich M.D.
Although not closely dateable, the costume suggests the first decade of the Restoration, and the sister's age, not perhaps quite as young as at first sight nevertheless rules out the elder and more famous Browne. In view of the inscription and the chalk figure 16 still visible on the back, this must be the picture from the 15th Earl of Buchan's collection sold by Dowells, Edinburgh, 22 January 1944, lot 16. as Sir Thomas Browne. A panel of almost the same size, lot 6. was sold as Edward Browne, but described as resting his right hand on a bust. This may have been the portrait from which an engraving was published by Harding in 1801 after an original in Buchan's collection. Buchan was a sometimes indiscriminate collector; it is not known when the portrait came to him. The engraving, which might not represent the whole picture however, shows a younger man in a different cravat and clothing, including drapery over the sitter's left shoulder, and a jerkin sewn together down the front opening. The object held in the right hand in our portrait is now nearly indecipherable, but might be a white stone mineral specimen, such as is mentioned in Browne's Travels. He visited Olympus which he there described as a mountain with several summits. The iconography of Edward Browne is overshadowed by and confused with that of his father, but it seems improbable that he would have sat, at any rate frequently, and no further portraits are recorded.

Bibliography: E. Browne, A Brief Account of Some Travels in divers Parts of Europe... With some Observations on the Gold, Silver, Copper etc...., 1685, p. 35 and passim; F. Johnson, Catalogue of Engraved Norfolk and Norwich Portraits, 1911, p. 27; Burgess, 1973, p. 53.


Sir John Conybeare 1888-1967 F. 1926  Portrait/X161  c. 1950

Oils on canvas, 30 by 25 inches

Archival history:
The only version, commissioned by the sitter: exhibited at the Royal Society of Portrait Painters in 1950 (98).

Source of acquisition: Presented by the Trustees and Executors of the sitter, January 1970.


Administrative history:
Known as 'Cony' to his colleagues, Sir John's life was bound up with Guy's Hospital in one way or another.
Born in Oxford, and educated at Rugby; New College, Oxford; Guy's Hospital. Read classics at Oxford before reading medicine. Fought in World War I while still a medical student, completed his studies, returned to battle and gained the Military Cross.
1929 saw the publication of Textbook of Medicine, edited and partly written by him. Cony favoured plain, clear speech and writing.
Warden of Guy's College in 1923 for 14 years. In 1946, he was elected a governor, though he did not actually retire from the staff until 1953.
A great champion of causes; very popular; sociable - entertained a good deal and belonged to many dining clubs; manner said to have been 'brusque and forthright', but essentially courteous; a bachelor, he always had two or three students sharing his flat and felt he had many sons; he played golf with Lord Nuffield and it was probably through this association that Guy's was to benefit so much from Lord Nuffield's generosity.

Contents:
By (Alfred) Neville Lewis
Half length to left, head looking back towards spectator and cigarette in his right hand which rests on back of chair, left hand on lapel of coat; straight grey hair thinning on top, bushy black eyebrows, mid-brown eyes, long nose, cleanshaven tanned complexion; soft light blue shirt, dark blue tie with thin light blue and red diagonal stripes (R.A.F.), plain light grey coat and trousers; dark blue background; lit from left. Signed in red, top right: Neville Lewis. An undated label of the Royal Society of Portrait Painters on the back of the frame, with the address: Neville Lewis, c/o TLTLewis FRCS, Guys Hospital.

Bibliography: R.S.P.P. catalogue 1950, p. 14; als. from executors, G. H. Greenwell and W. N. Mann 22 February 1967, and from Mr. T. L. T. Lewis, 18 March 1976.


Thomas Forrest Cotton 1884-1965 F. 1931  Portrait/X129  c. 1926

Oils on canvas, 22 by 18 inches.

Source of acquisition: Received with Dr. Cotton's bequest to the College and hung, 1967.


Administrative history:
A Canadian, Thomas Cotton was born in Quebec 4 November 1884, and educated in Montreal. He qualified in medicine at McGill University. In 1913 he moved to London and worked under Sir Thomas Lewis. Then back to Montreal for a time to run a department of electrocardiography. The Military Hospital, Hampstead, had been established for research into the heart disorders of soldiers and it was here that Thomas Cotton resumed work in London in 1914. He collaborated with Osler and other pioneers in the heart world to investigate 'soldiers' heart' or effort syndrome, as Sir Thomas Lewis named it.
He was the first to recognize clubbed fingers as a sign of subacute bacterial endocarditis and probably his most important original contribution was a report to the Medical Research Council on this condition.
In 1924 he was appointed to the National Hospital for Diseases of the Heart and, because of his long experience in the subject, was invited to act as consultant cardiologist to Queen Alexandra's Military Hospital and the Ministry of Pensions.
A good mixer, he communicated cheerfulness and optimism to patients and staff. Successful investments in Canada enabled him to make a major bequest towards the Osler Room at the College, so named at his request. His ashes lie next to Osler's in the Osler Library at McGill.

Contents:
By David Jagger
Head and shoulders, slightly to left; smooth light brown hair, pale grey eyebrows, pale blue eyes, full lips; white collar with green stripe, black tie, black coat, red handkerchief, plain green waistcoat; plain black background, lit from left; signed, bottom right. JAGGER.

Bibliography: al. from Mrs. M. A. Cotton, 17 October 1967.


James Curry d. 1819 L. 1801  Portrait/X250  c. 1805

Miniature, watercolours on ivory, 25/16 by 213/16 inches, oval

Source of acquisition: From the collection of Sir John Conybeare, presented by his executors, October 1968.


Administrative history:
James Curry was born in Antrim, N. Ireland, but it is not known precisely when. In 1784 he graduated MD from Edinburgh and, hoping to practise his craft in Bengal, got himself hired as surgeon to a native of that country. But his health forced him to return to England and for some years he was physician to Northampton County Hospital.
His next move was to London, where he worked as physician to Guy's. He helped to popularize the use of mercury in the treatment of patients and one of his written works bears the title 'Examination of the Prejudices commonly entertained against Mercury, as beneficially applicable to the greater number of Liver Complaints, and to various other forms of Disease, as well as to Syphilis'.
About James Curry the private man, nothing appears to be known.

Contents:
By an unknown artist
Head and shoulders to left; high greyish-white hair surmounted by two curls, pale brown eyebrows, grey eyes, full bottom lip, firm jaw; he wears steel spectacles, white neckband and shirt, black coat with a high collar; blue background. A modern inscription on the back: Dr James Currie / Physician to Guy's Hospital / 1802-1819 / from the Collection of Mrs Dont (?) / the actor, and, in another hand, & later, the property of / Sir John Conybeare KBE MC FRCP.
Mrs Dont (?) is very uncertain, and has not been identified. The artist is competent, but there seems little prospect of identifying him, or her. The fashion and hair style of the portrait indicate a date of c. 1805. A portrait by F. Simonau was engraved by I. Mills in 1819.

Bibliography: O'Donoghue, I, 1908, p. 543; al. from the executors, G. H. Greenwell and W. N. Mann 22 February 1968.


Elizabeth Denman (Wife of Thomas Denman) 1747-1833  Portrait/X240  c. 1813 - 1829

Miniature, watercolours on ivory, 3¼ by 29/16 inches

Source of acquisition: Presented by Miss Angela Oliver, 1972.


Administrative history:
The daughter of Alexander Brodie, an army accoutrement maker of Queen Street, Golden Square, London, and aunt of Sir Benjamin Brodie, Elizabeth was described as 'a handsome and engaging young gentlewoman of Scottish descent.'
In 1770 she married Thomas Denman (q.v.) who later wrote '... it would have been impossible to have chosen a wife more suitable to my disposition and circumstances. Her manner was amiable, her disposition gentle, her understanding naturally good... She is frugal without meanness, temperate and cheerful and it is impossible for any two people to have lived together with more harmony ...'
Thomas and Elizabeth Denman had three children, Margaret who married Sir Richard Croft, Sophia (q.v.) who married Matthew Baillie, and Thomas who became Lord Denman. The last named was born in Queen Street, Golden Square, now Denman Street, named after him.
Elizabeth may have been gentle and engaging; she was also a woman of strong character: '... she drew up forty-six rules for the regulation of her own conduct in the minutiae of daily life, e.g. the precise extent to which she was to indulge in dinner parties and morning visiting.'

Contents:
By George Engleheart
Short half length to right, head turned back towards spectator; wispy black hair, black eyebrows, blue eyes, large nose, thin lips; pale blue bonnet with double lace foreedge and large bow on top, pale blue lace collar and plain black cross-over dress with broad black lace edge; grey background, lighter on right; lit from left. Inscribed in ink on the backing paper of the frame: This portrait of my mother / kindly lent to me by my / nephew William Hunter Baillie / March 23, 1845. / must be restored to him at / my death D.
Formerly known as Sophia Baillie, 1771-1895, on apparent age and date the sitter is far more likely to be of the previous generation. The inscription is presumably in the hand of Thomas, 1st Baron Denman (cr. 1834), William Hunter Baillie's uncle. On the strength of this our miniature should represent Elizabeth, née Brodie d. 19 January 1833) who married Thomas Denman M.D., 1 November 1770, rather than her daughter, Sophia, William Hunter Baillie's mother. No portraits of Elizabeth are available for comparison, though a marble bust by C. Moore of a Mrs. Thomas Denman, exhibited at the Royal Academy 1828, presumably was of her. If Baillie is really the sitter's name, Mrs. James Baillie 1721-1806 might be indicated, but there is little resemblance to the Pine of her in the Hunterian (above, under James Baillie). There is on the other hand, a good deal of similarity between the features in our miniature, especially the nose, and the oil of Sophia. Hitherto unattributed, the miniature is a typical and fine George Engleheart. Although possibly incomplete, the published list of his sitters 1775-1813 does not include any Baillies or Denmans and the likelihood is that the miniature was painted between 1813 and the artist's death in 1829: but the costume suggests a date near the beginning of this period.

Bibliography: R.A. catalogue 1828 1146: G. C. Williamson and H. L. D. Engleheart, George Engle-heart, 1902: Annals. 27 April 1972. p. 90a.


Thomas Denman 1733-1815  Portrait/X292  c.1788 - 1812

Oils on canvas, 30 by 25 inches

Source of acquisition: Presented by Miss Angela Oliver, 1972.


Administrative history:
Born at Bakewell, Derbyshire, the son of an apothecary, Denman began his medical studies at St George's Hospital, but then entered the medical service of the Navy, first as surgeon's mate, then as surgeon. After nearly ten years he left the Navy and had the good fortune to come under the influence of William Smellie, turning his main interests towards midwifery.
After graduating MD at Aberdeen, he practised in Winchester to such poor effect that even the Navy seemed preferable. Failing to re-enter the service, he had the luck to be granted £70 a year for occasional duties on a royal yacht. With an easier mind he began to give lectures on midwifery, so successfully that he was appointed physician accoucheur to the Middlesex Hospital from 1769 until 1783, by which time his popularity in private practice overwhelmed his hospital duties.
Denman seems to have gone through life with a direct simplicity, regular habits, and a care for the common man, which he may well have owed to his naval up-bringing.
He and his wife Elizabeth (q.v.) had three children. The son, Thomas, became Chief Justice of England, and of the twin daughters, one married Matthew Baillie and the other Sir Richard Croft MD.
He was buried in St James's, Piccadilly, where there is a simple tablet to his memory.

Contents:
By an unknown artist
Half length seated to left, head tilted to left, eyes directed at spectator, a red book in his left hand; receding straight white hair, pale blue eyes, prominent nose, narrow lips, double chin, fresh complexion; white collar, brown double-breasted coat buttoned up with black velvet collar, matching waistcoat; red upholstered bench, dark brown background.
Although this portrait has been known as William Denman, 1821-1907, it bears considerable resemblance portrait of Thomas Denman, engraved by W. Skelton after L. F. Abbott in 1792 presumably after the original lent by his son Lord Chief Justice Denman (Thomas, 1st Baron Denman, 1779-1854) to the third National Portrait Exhibition. South Kensington, 1868 (34). The hair is straighter in our portrait, but it might well represent Thomas Denman about 1810. Apart from the Abbott, the only portraits recorded, other than engraving, were a miniature by M. Haughton R.A. 1810 (625) and a drawing by J. J. Halls R.A. 1812 (782).An anonymous engraving after T. C. Lochée 1788, might indicate a medallion, since Lochée sometime worked for Wedgwood: a small engraving was also published as the frontispiece to Denman's Aphorisms on the... Use of Forceps, etc. 1824.

Bibliography: O'Donoghue, II, 1910, p. 33, VI, 1925, p. 127: exhibitions cited in text: Annals, 27 July 1972, p. 156a.


Sir Charles Dodds Bt. 1899-1973 F. 1933 P. 1962-66  Portrait/X64  1967

Oils on canvas, 357/8 by 28 inches

Source of acquisition: Commissioned by the College: received 1967.


Administrative history:
Educated at Harrow County School and Middlesex Hospital Medical School he remained throughout his working life a 'Middlesex man'.
At only 25, he was appointed Courtauld Professor of Biochemistry at the Middlesex and, in 1928, he became the first Director of the Courtauld Institute of Biochemistry until his retirement from both the Chair and the Directorship in 1965. He radically reorganized the teaching of biochemistry and chemistry there, insisting that they be integrated. As a 'chief', he was a sympathetic listener to the problems of his staff and allowed them considerable autonomy.
In 1942, he was elected FRS, and in 1954 knighted for the synthesis of various new oestrogens - notably stilboestrol, which he had discovered in 1938 and which, amongst its other uses, had been employed in the control of carcinoma of the prostate - and for his Directorship of the Courtauld Institute of Biochemistry.
The first 'laboratory man' to be elected President of the RCP; although not a practising physician, his contributions to medicine were substantial. His Presidency has been described as 'unobtrusive and efficient'. He was an excellent Chairman, limiting his own words to the fewest possible, and discouraging others from wasting time.
During his Presidency, he frequently expressed concern about the possible effects on women of oral contraceptives taken over many years, and presided over a com-mittee set up by the Medical Research Council to look into the matter.
He was doggedly loyal to his staff who in turn were devoted to him. A faithful member of the Society of Apothecaries, he found in it what others gained from their universities: a love of ceremony and tradition and fine wine and companionship; unusually, he was Master for two successive years, and his influence on the wine cellar lasted at least a generation.
Despite the comfort of his family - his son married the daughter of Sir Daniel Davies, FRCP - he survived with difficulty the death of a beloved wife.

Contents:
By Raymond Piper,
Half length seated to left, leaning on his left elbow and holding formula for stilboestrol in his lap: grey hair brushed down, bald on top, horn-rimmed spectacles, pale blue eyes, short nose, lips parted, double chin, a pimple or spot below his left ear, fresh complexion: soft white collar, red silk tie, mid-grey pin stripe suit, the jacket open: gold watch with metal strap, chair back upholstered in grey: plain green background, lit from left. Signed and dated. bottom left, in black: Raymond Piper 1967.
A photograph was taken in 1970 for the National Photographic Record.

Bibliography: Annals.26 October 1967. p. 148a.


John George Lambton, 1st Earl of Durham 1792-1840  Portrait/X364  n.d

Oils on paper (?) laid down on canvas, 113/8 by 93/8 inches

Administrative history:
Whig politician and a fire-eating radical. He pushed for electoral reform and finally helped to prepare the first Reform Bill (not as reformed as he would have liked it to be). Hated political dealing and conciliation and was always quarrelling with someone - once fought a duel with one of his critics.
Married twice and, through his second wife became son-in-law of Earl Grey, in whose administration he served. He apparently was the stronger personality of the two men; at any rate, he had considerable influence with his father-in-law. But Melbourne, when approached, refused to make room in his cabinet for Lambton because of the latter's overbearing temper and lack of tact.
In 1838 Lambton was appointed High Commissioner of Lower Canada and Governor-General of the British provinces of North America but resigned in the same year when criticized for his high-handed actions by the British Government, which withdrew its support from him.
He tried once for the leadership of the Party but failed. Without doubt, a very able man: energetic, ambitious; but uncomfortable as a colleague because of his arrogance and unwillingness to compromise. He had many of the qualities that were the downfall of Coriolanus.
He died quite young, only 48 years old, at Cowes. It is said that his health had never been good.

Contents:
By an unknown artist
Hall length, holding glass and bottle, body to left, head slightly to right; curly black hair, black eyebrows, brown eyes: brown coat, red drapery over: in an interior, a cupboard right with jars and small skeleton on top. Inscribed on the backing canvas: John Connolly (sic) F R C S etc., three lines now illegible.
The attribution of Connolly (he was F.R.C.P.) to the surgeons and the letters '-ence', presumably for Lawrence, then legible in the inscription, raised doubts about the authenticity of the portrait which proves to be a pastiche of Lawrence's portrait of the first Earl of Durham, probably painted over the engraving of it by J. Cochran.

Bibliography: O'Donoghue, II, 1910, p. 107.


Horace Evans, 1st Baron Evans of Merthyr Tydfil 1903-1963 F. 1938  Portrait/X198  [n.d.]

Oils on canvas, 397/8 by 297/8 inches

Source of acquisition: Commissioned by the College, 1966.


Administrative history:
A Welshman, born on New Year's day, the son of an organist and conductor. The father must have hoped his son would grow up to be a musician like himself, for when Horace was 12 he was sent to the Guildhall School of Music. However, Horace reverted to his grandfather's interest in medicine (he had been a pharmacist) and at the age of 18 entered the London Hospital Medical School. Apparently he was regarded as only an average student, giving no hint then of the great physician he was to become.
Work at the London Hospital with Arthur Ellis and Clifford Wilson on hypertension and nephritis secured his appointment as assistant physician in 1933 and physician in 1947.
In 1944 Evans was appointed physician to Queen Mary and this was the beginning of an association with the royal family that only ended with his death: in 1949 physician to George VI; 1952 physician to Elizabeth II. Created Baron in 1957.
At the College, he was examiner, councillor. Censor and Senior Censor and it was he who persuaded the Wolfson Foundation to contribute splendidly towards the College's new building in Regent's Park.
Evans disliked committee work and professional politics. A man of great charm, he enjoyed dining out and was an enthusiastic attender at the dinners of the Society of Apothecaries, of which he was Senior Warden when he died.
He was beloved for his unfailing kindness; never in the least pompous or unapproachable; the nurses at the London referred to him affectionately as Horace; apart from delighting in his friendships and good food, he also loved horse-racing, though he did not gamble; his manner was relaxed and serene - he never appeared to be in a hurry despite the demands on his time; he was throughout his life an unassuming man, and a good listener, waiting patiently for everyone else to speak before giving his own quietly delivered opinion; devoted to his patients, he worked long hours and took an interest in their personal problems as well as in their physical condition. Many of his patients were doctors and their relatives.
In his private life he bore with quiet courage the death of a daughter and serious illnesses of his wife, and remained gentle, courteous and considerate throughout the very painful illness leading to his death at the age of 60.

Contents:
By Joyce Aris after Sir James Gunn (Herbert James Gunn)
Three-quarter length seated to front, his right hand on crossed knee, his left arm on mahogany chair: smooth receding black hair, blue eyes, transparent spectacles, long lips, fleshy chin: black tie, white collar and shirt, plain slate-grey double-breasted suit, gold cuff links: grey drapery behind, lit from left. Painted on Herga canvas supplied by Windsor and Newton.
Copied from the original in the Clinical Theatre West, London Hospital. A good likeness, it received the warm approval of the sitter's daughter. Photographs were taken for the National Photographic Record in 1962 and 1969.

Bibliography: Annals, 28 July 1966, p. 217; Commentary, July 1968. p. 82.


Sir John Forbes 1787-1861 F. 1844  Portrait/X263  c. 1847

Oils on canvas, 291/8 by 37¾ inches

Source of acquisition: The date and source of acquisition of the picture is not known; but Partridge's notebook suggests a version was painted for the sitter.


Administrative history:
Born at Cuttlebrae, Banffshire, John Forbes was educated at Fordyce Academy, where he formed a lifelong friendship with Andrew Clark, and Aberdeen Grammar School. From there he went to Marischal College and thence to Edinburgh University for a year. Having taken the diploma of surgery in 1807, he joined the Navy as an assistant surgeon until 1816. He returned to Edinburgh to graduate in 1817 and, for the next five years, practised general medicine in Penzance. In 1822 he moved to Chichester, where he was largely responsible for the foundation of the local infirmary. He was a popular physician and the practice was a lucrative one, but it was through his written works that he became famous. In 1821 his translation of Laennec's Treatise on the Diseases of the Chest helped to establish auscultation in England His next task in 1832-35 was the joint editorship with Alexander Tweedie and John Conolly of the Cyclopaedia of Practical Medicine.
In 1840 he moved to London in order to be conveniently situated for the editing of the successful and highly regarded British and Foreign Medical Review, which he had initiated in 1836. The move meant a financial sacrifice despite his appointment that year as physician to the Queen's Household. Ironically, it was an article by Forbes himself that contributed to the decline of the Review. Entitled Homoeopathy, Allopathy and 'Young Physic', the controversial article was thought by many of his colleagues to be too sympathetic to homoeopathy. Forbes continued to receive many honours, however, and in 1853 was knighted by the Queen.
In later years he took up such varied subjects as phrenology, clairvoyance and mesmerism, giving free range to the curiosity that appears to have motivated him throughout his life.

Contents:
By John Partridge
Half length to right, reading, the fingers of his right hand in pages of a book held in the left; short receding grey hair, dark eyes, side whiskers, white shirt, dark coat; on a table in the right foreground, paper, a small red leather case, and quill(?) and ink; the rest of the picture is obscure, being extensively damaged by the artists' use of bitumen. On the back an excise mark TB 2 47 and a colourman's stamp BROWN / 163 / HIGH HOLBORN / LONDON /. An old manuscript label, written in ink Sir John Forbes MD FRS DCL etc / This Picture painted by Partridge was given to John De Burgh Forbes / by his Godfather John Forbes-Clark Esqr / the 3rd of May 1861 / Picture painted about 1847.
The notebook, a transcript of which is in the library of the National Portrait Gallery, records in 1848 'John Forbes Esqr M.D. 52. 10' and in 1851 - Forbes Esqre 52. 10'. He had already in 1844 listed 'Master John Forbes' at '78. 15' and in 1845 there is an entry 'Mrs George Forbes 63. 0.' '52. 10' would be appropriate to the size of our canvas. The two entries rather suggest two portraits, but if '- Forbes' was also our sitter, only the portrait in the College is known. A three-quarter portrait by T. H. Maguire 1848 was engraved in lithograph. Partridge's portrait was engraved by W. Walker, as a private plate in 1852. A painting stated to represent the sitter in early life is in the Board Room of the Royal West Sussex Hospital. Chichester.

Bibliography: Illustrated London News, xxxix. 1861, p. 390; John Partridge, notebook, ms. in N.P.G. library: O'Donoghue. II. 1910. p. 234: F. W. Steer. The Royal West Sussex Hospital (The Chichester Papers No. 15, 1960, pl. 3.


John Freind 1675-1728 F. 1716  Portrait/X002T  1675-1728

75/8 x 6 inches; Medallion, boxwood, oval; On the backing board, now incomplete, an old inscription in ink: Dr. John Friend (sic). / born 1675. Died 172[8] / buried in Westmin[er] / Abbey. Also the remains of two seals: at the top in green and on the bottom in red wax: the green wax has the initials [G?] WD in the centre within an oval lettered -- MED.

Source of acquisition: Source and date of acquisition unknown.


Administrative history:
Classicist and chemist, specialist in fevers and politician. Committed once to the Tower and released when Richard Mead refused otherwise to treat the Prime Minister, Robert Walpole. Became physician to George II and Queen Caroline.

Contents:
By an unknown artist
Head and shoulders, slightly to right, short curly 'classicised' hair, protruding lower lip, double chin; toga with brooch on his right shoulder.

John Farquhar Fulton 1899-1960 F. 1953  Portrait/X31  1965

Oils on canvas, 351/8 by 281/8 inches

Source of acquisition: Given by Mrs. Lucia Fulton, July 1965, for whom it was painted by Deane Keller.


Copies information: Copy of the portrait by Kelly in the Yale Medical Historical Library.


Administrative history:
Born in St Paul, Minnesota, son of a physician and ophthalmic surgeon and related to Robert Fulton, pioneer of the steamboat, John left school at 16 and worked with a surveying team on the West Coast. He enrolled at the University of Minnesota in 1917. He failed his entrance examination to Harvard because he had discovered writers such as Tolstoy and had neglected his studies for his new love, but then enlisted in the Army and entered Harvard as a 'veteran'. Graduated magna cum laude, and was admitted as a Rhodes Scholar to Magdalen College, Oxford, in 1921.
Seconded to Cambridge to help Sir Arthur Shipley in the preparation of his classic work, Life, on elementary biology - the book is dedicated to Fulton. Under Sir Arthur's influence, he became a gastronome and his hospitality later was famous.
While University demonstrator in Physiology at Oxford, he was the pupil of Sir Charles Sherrington. He published papers in Journal of Physiology and Proceedings of the Royal Society, and with Dr W. Francis (Osler's nephew) and Mr Reginald Hill of the Bodleian Library, compiled the Bibliotheca Osleriana, and was at this time inspired with the desire to collect medical books. He left Oxford, after graduating D. Phil. in 1925, and returned to Harvard. It was as assistant neurological surgeon at the Peter Bent Brigham Hospital that he came under the supervision of Harvey Cushing, whose biographer he would eventually be - indeed, this biography, published in 1946, has been compared with Cushing's own biography of Osler.
In 1928 he went back to Oxford to be a Fellow at Magdalen, but in 1930 was in America again, having been given the Chair of Physiology at Yale, later to be known as the Sterling Professorship. He called his department 'the Laboratory' and it was here that his work on the brain of the chimpanzee enabled Egas Moniz to perform the first prefrontal lobotomy on man in 1936. Work done on the physiology of man at high altitudes was to be of particular value to the British and American Air Forces in the Second World War. In 1938, his classic textbook, Physiology of the Nervous System, was published.
On Cushing's death in 1939, Fulton helped to establish the Cushing Library at Yale, something that Cushing had dreamed of, and out of this sprang a new university department. In 1951 Fulton was appointed Sterling Professor of the History of Medicine and soon made Yale the mecca of all medical historians.
A handsome man in his youth, and a humanist: John Fulton never actually met the man who had so much influenced his life Osler - because he arrived at Oxford two years after Osler's death, but he knew Lady Osler well and became steeped in the Osler tradition.
He died suddenly on 29 May 1960 in Connecticut, aged 60.

Contents:
By Deane Keller 1965, after a portrait by Sir Gerald (Festus) Kelly c. 1957
Half length, seated in a library and looking across table, spectacles in his right hand, a handkerchief in his left; close cut wavy grey hair, parted in centre, arched grey eyebrows, pale blue eyes, long thin upper lip; soft white collar held with gold tie-pin, blue tie, light grey jacket with red rosette in button hole (Legion of Honour), white handkerchief in breast pocket, matching grey waistcoat, watch with steel strap, tortoiseshell spectacles; on the table an open quarto, and an engraving unfolded, and an octavo, both bound in calf; in the foreground a tray in which the top paper is addressed, upside down to the viewer, Deane Keller / Yale Art Gallery /... John Fulton, and on the right of the table a blue paper slip on which is written John Fulton / Gerald Kelly; books behind and to left. a shuttered window top left. Inscribed in black on the back of the canvas: Copy by Deane Keller / Yale Univ. / New Haven / Conn., U.S.A. / 22 Feb 1965 completed / from original of / Dr. John F. Fulton / by / Sir Gerald Kelly / past P.R.A.

Bibliography: R.A. catalogue 1957 (585); Annals, 29 July 1965, p. 89; Commentary. July 1968, p. 82.


Sir Alfred Baring Garrod 1819-1907 F. 1856  Portrait/X118  1882

Oils on canvas, 43 by 33 inches

Source of acquisition: Given by Dr. John Garrod to the Heberden Society, 1974; on indefinite loan to the College.


Administrative history:
Born in Ipswich and educated there in the Grammar School, and later at University College Hospital, London, where he won the Galen medal of the Society of Apothecaries for botany, and gold medals with his MB and MD.
In 1847, as assistant physician, he discovered the presence of uric acid in the blood of patients with gout and in 1859 published a treatise on Gout and Rheumatic Gout (a landmark in its own field): he also separated rheumatoid arthritis as a disease distinct from gout.
In 1851 he became full physician and Professor of Therapeutics and Clinical Medicine at University College, but left his own school in 1863 when elected physician to King's College Hospital and Professor of Materia Medica and Therapeutics at King's College.
He was knighted in 1887, and in 1890 appointed physician-extraordinary to Queen Victoria.
At the College he was censor and vice-president, and the first recipient, in 1891, of the Moxon Medal. At the time of his death he was the second oldest surviving Fellow.
One of his six children was Sir Archibald Garrod, FRCP, FRS.

Contents:
By Sir Hubert von Herkomer,
Three-quarter length seated, body slightly to left, head directed at spectator, hands on arms of leather-upholstered chair; grey hair full at sides, thinning on top, long near white side-whiskers, point of chin clean-shaven: arched grey eyebrows, bluish-grey eyes, thin gold spectacles, long lips, some red in cheeks; double-breasted black coat, black bow, white shirt, grey trousers: plain brown background: signed bottom right with initials H H82.
Herkomer exhibited a portrait of Garrod at the Grosvenor Gallery in 1883, which may be the above E. Nora Jones exhibited a miniature at the R.A. in 1893.

Bibliography: The Grosvenor Gallery... Summer Exhibition, 1883 (188): R.A. catalogue 1893 (1299).


George III 1738-1820  Portrait/X173  n.d

Oils on copper, 13¼ by 11 inches, oval

Source of acquisition: Presented by the Misses Angela and Dorothea Oliver, January 1970.


Administrative history:
'Farmer George' - as he later came to be known because of his fascination with agricultural matters - was the grandson of George II and the first of our Hanoverian kings whose mother tongue was English. He was dominated by his mother and exhorted by her to 'be king'. In an attempt to wean him away from her George II offered him £40,000 a year. His grandson took the money but stayed with his mother. He grew up believing in his own infallibility, a belief that was never shaken in spite of his disastrous relations with his ministers.
In private he was a very simple man whose lack of dignity was regarded with contempt, but now he would probably be praised for informality. He was religious, intolerant of change, pennypinching, a faithful husband, and begot in all 15 children. His court was dull.
Through the 60 years of his reign, George was persecuted and harassed in one way or another ridiculed, stoned, and even shot at. And by 1765, a new and horrible form of persecution began. In this year George had his first attack of what for over two centuries was assumed to be madness. It was not until 1967 that Macalpine and Hunter published their diagnosis of porphyria, which has aroused wide interest. The conventional treatment for madness in those days was severe and must have added to the king's misery. His doctors were hamstrung both by ignorance and by a rigid protocol which insisted that the king always be the first to speak. By 1809, George was totally blind. He died, a pitiable old man, 11 years later, and remains for historians, and to a lesser extent for doctors, a controversial figure.

Contents:
By an unknown artist, after a painting by Sir William Beechey of 1799/ 1800
Head and shoulders slightly to left, shoulders fronting spectator; grey eyes and eyebrows, lips parted, grey wig tied in queue, heavy jowl, flushed complexion: black hat with black cockade, scarlet jacket with black collar and revers, gold lace and epaulettes, star of Garter. An old manuscript label on the back nearly illegible Picture of King George 3rd given by to Matthew Baillie MD.
Our portrait is a reduced head and shoulders copy after the whole length portrait by Beechey at Buckingham Palace in general officer's uniform, with his charger, held by a groom, and a troop of cavalry in the distance. This was shewn at the Royal Academy in 1800, and seems to have been painted as a companion to the whole length of the Queen painted by Beechey at Windsor in 1796. The type was frequently repeated, both life size and in miniature.

Bibliography: O. Millar. The Later Georgian Pictures in the collection of Her Majesty the Queen. I. 1969, pp. 5-6. II, pls. 156-7; Annals, 29 January 1970, p. 204a.


Sir George Godber 1908- F. 1947  Portrait/X82  1974

Bronze bust, hollow cast. 21¼ inches high

Source of acquisition: Presented to the College by Fellows and Collegiate Members in recognition of Sir George's services as Chief Medical Officer from 1960 to 1973.


Administrative history:
Born in Bedford and educated at Bedford School and New College, Oxford, where he rowed for the University, George Godber qualified in medicine from the London Hospital and added shortly afterwards a diploma in public health. In 1939 he joined the staff of the Ministry of Health, and by 1960 had risen to the top as Chief Medical Officer.
During the Second World War, Godber was a Principal Regional Medical Officer for the North Midlands Region and undertook with others a survey of the region's hospitals. He served also as a member of the Working Party on Medical Staffing Structure in the Hospital Service under the then Sir Robert Platt's chairmanship. A dedicated believer in the National Health Service, he has fought courageously to defend its ideals against the opposing pressures of doctrinaire politicians, of both main parties, and of no less doctrinaire doctors.
Knighted in 1962 and advanced to GCB in 1971, Sir George retired in 1973 but continues to ride fearlessly to the crusades, in loyalty to the Health Service, and against two old public health adversaries, venereal disease and smoking. He looks to the day when society will reject promiscuity, and make smoking a socially unacceptable habit. In recognition of the value to public health of his influential leadership, he was awarded the gold medal in Therapeutics of the Society of Apothecaries in 1973, and he is an Honorary Fellow of the Royal Society of Medicine.
A quiet man - unless roused - it was characteristic of him that at his retirement party there was no smoking, no alcohol, no speeches

Contents:
By David McFall
Head and shoulders, cut off just below the breast pocket, head tilted slightly up and to right; close cut hair, parted on left, furrowed brow, a monocle in his right eye; soft shirt, collar and tie, jacket. Incised on the back, bottom left: McFall 1974.

Bibliography: Annals, 25 July 1974, Doc. 17a.


Sir Archibald Gray 1880--1967 F. 1918  Portrait/X003T  1956

Oils on canvas, 30 by 25 inches

Archival history:
Property of the British Association of Dermatology, who commissioned the portrait and presented it to the sitter c. 1958. After Sir Archibald's death. it was given to the Association by his widow in 1968. and lent by them to the College.

Copies information: A photograph was taken for the National Photographic Record. 1952.


Administrative history:
Born in South Devon, and educated at Cheltenham College, University College Hospital, London, and later the University of Berne, Switzerland.
Gray set out to be a gynaecologist but UCH invited him to succeed Henry Radcliffe Crocker and he went to Berne to study dermatology. He took up the appointment on his return and was to be his generation's leading dermatologist in this country. Whatever speciality had been opened to him it is likely he would have been equally successful.
During World War I, he was attached to the general staff of the War Office and acted as consulting dermatologist in the Army Zone of the British Expeditionary Force, with the rank of lieutenant-colonel RAMC (TA). He was knighted in 1946.
From 1948 to 1962 he was adviser in dermatology to the Ministry of Health.
At the College he gave the Harveian Oration in 1951, and in 1952 he was President of the first International Dermatological Congress to be held after World War II, which gave him special pleasure.
Towards the end of his long life, illness incapacitated him though his mind remained alert and vigorous. He had been an 'excellent committee man'; he was not one for the limelight, but he liked to wield behind-the-scenes influence - the politics of his profession fascinated him. Physically he was a little man. He could be irascible at times, but never bore grudges.
Sir John Gray, FRS, former Secretary of the Medical Research Council, is his son.

Contents:
By Rodrigo Moynihan,
Halt length seated to left, arms by side, hands not seen; grey hair brushed flat, pale brown eyebrows, pale blue eyes, rimmed spectacles with gold frame, long thin lips, clear complexion; white collar, patterned blue tie, blue shirt, open bluish-grey coat, matching waistcoat, with chain through fourth button, his left shoulder higher than his right: mahogany chair back low on right: green background. Signed top right and dated Moynihan 56. There are pentimenti above the shoulders. On the back of the canvas is the stamp of the suppliers Roberson & Co. of 71 Parkway NW1.

Bibliography: als. from E. Gray. 25 April 1968; from S. C. Gold, 10 May 1968.


Baldwin Hamey Sr. 1568--1640 L. 1609/10  Portrait/X226  1633

Oils on canvas, 253/8 by 201/2 inches

Source of acquisition: Given anonymously 28 July 1967; anonymous property, Christies, 28 July 1967, lot 284; bought at a country dealer's about five years before.


Administrative history:
Descended from Odo de Hame, who was present at the siege of Acre, the father of Baldwin Hamey Jr. was born in Bruges and obtained his medical degree at Leyden. It took him a long time to graduate but when he finally did he distinguished himself, and his professors recommended him as physician to the Czar of Russia.
He held this appointment for five years. In 1598 he returned to Holland, married and went to live in London.
The victim of a fever epidemic, Baldwin Hamey Sr. died in 1640, and was buried in the church of All Hallows, Barking, where there is an epitaph composed by his distinguished son. In his Will he bequeathed the sum of £20 to the College.

Contents:
By an unknown artist,
Head and shoulders, looking at spectator; greying hair, dark brown eyebrows, dark brown eyes, white close-trimmed pointed beard and moustache with falling ends, broad face, ruddy complexion; black cap trimmed with white lace, large white ruff, plain black costume; plain brown background, lit from right; coat of arms top left. Inscribed top right: .AETATIS.SVAE 64 /. A°. DNI. 1633 the AE in monogram; a faint inscription in black, not necessarily contemporary, to left of the sitter's head: Bald: Hamey / Senr M.D. / Van S(?)oamer Pinx.
No other portraits are available for comparison. Ralph Palmer, the sitter's great-grandson, and author of the manuscript biography in the College library, possessed, c. 1733 at his house in Little Chelsea, portraits of Hamey and his wife by Cornelius Jonson. The oil of Hamey has been equated with the signed and dated Jonson, 1624, last heard of when lent to the R.A. 1879 (77) by J. F. Stanford. Only the immediate provenance of our portrait is known; its identity rests at present on the internal evidence. The coat of arms, which appears to be contemporary or nearly so, seems correct: gules, a fesse between a roebuck, courant in chief. or and three estoiles in base argent. The rubbed inscription below gives the sitter's identity. though the attribution is unlikely: while there is a strong Netherlandish influence, the portrait is surely by a much more robust hand than Van Somer. The prominent, though perhaps slightly later, inscription top right is a year out: Hamey would have been sixty-five in 1633, but this might be due to the change in the calendar, or even to strengthening of the last figure of the date.

Bibliography: J.J. Keevil, Hamey the Stranger, 1962.p. 179, and refs. therein cited: Annals, 26 October 1967, p. 148a.


Dorothy Christian Hare 1876-1967 F. 1936  Portrait/X719  c. 1955

Oils on canvas, laid down on board, 38¾ by 287/8 inches

Source of acquisition: Presented by Mrs. H. A. T. Child and Mr. Ewan Hare, niece and nephew of the sitter, October 1968.


Administrative history:
Born 14 September 1876 at Bath. She was educated privately till the age of 19 - then, Cheltenham Ladies' College; London School of Medicine for Women, graduating 1905.
House appointments at the Royal Free and Elizabeth Garrett Anderson Hospitals for 5 years.
1910-16 practised general medicine in Cambridge; 1916 Malta, attached to the RAMC.
1918-19 appointed chief medical director, Women's Royal Naval Service during which period she became concerned for the plight of patients with VD and, in particular, the patient who was a single woman and pregnant. No 'respectable' home for unmarried mothers wanted them and treatment then was protracted and tedious. Dorothy Hare set up two hostels for treatment and after-care which continued to be busy until antibiotics made them redundant.
Awarded CBE in 1919. In the same year she became medical registrar at the Royal Free Hospital. She was appointed to the staff of Royal Free and Elizabeth Garrett Anderson Hospitals in 1929.
She sang and drew well; took a keen interest in amateur theatricals; liked to travel.
A calm, confident presence.

Contents:
By Frederick John Hayes Whicker,
Nearly whole length seated to right, hands in lap. in an interior: light greyish-brown hair, grey eyebrows, pale blue eyes, short prominent nose, short lips, brownish, wrinkled complexion: doctoral hat and scarlet robe lined with purple, over plain black high-necked dress: stool upholstered in brown: light brown wall with dark brown dado below: through the window left the Senate House of London University: signed bottom left: F. Whicker.
F. Whicker is the signature of Frederick John Hayes Whicker, of Falmouth, (1956).

Bibliography: Who's Who in Art, 8th ed. 1956, pp. 757-758; Commentary, April 1969, p. 48.


(?) William Harvey 1578-1657 F. 1607  Portrait/X34  c 1670's

Oils on canvas, 30 by 25 inches.

Source of acquisition: Presented in memory of Sir Daniel Davies in his widow. Lady Davies. January 1967


Administrative history:
The discoverer of the circulation, outstanding physiologist and inspirer of medical science. Physician to James I and Charles I, he lost the Wardenship of Merton College, Oxford, and his house in London in the Civil War.

Contents:
From the studio of Sir Peter Lely
Head and shoulders to left, eyes directed at spectator, hands not shewn: hair beneath tight-fitting black cap, brown eyes, grey eyebrows, tuft moustache and chin, large straight nose, a small pimple by the left nostril; plain white broad hands, black gown: plain brown background, sculpted oval: lit from the right.
A typical Lely studio product of the mid 1670s: perhaps, on comparison with authentic portraits, intended for a posthumous representation of Harvey, but the liveliness suggests rather another unidentified sitter painted from life. From the dress, the sitter might equally be a divine or lawyer.

Bibliography: Catalogue I, 1964, pp. 202-15: Annals, 26 January 1967, p. 6f.


William Hunter 1718-1783 L. 1756  Portrait/X238  n.d

Enamel miniature, 13/8 by 1¼ inches.

Source of acquisition: Presented by Miss Angela Oliver, 1972.


Contents:
Scottish born anatomist, surgeon and midwife, who became one of the great teachers and practitioners in London, forming a superb library and collections of medals and natural history specimens. Elder brother of John Hunter.
By an unknown artist
Head and shoulders to left, head turned towards spectator; brown eyebrows, blue eyes; bushy grey wig touching shoulders, black solitaire, white neckband and shirt ruffle, bright blue coat with long gold button-holes: green background.
John Bogle exhibited a miniature of the late Dr. W. Hunter at the R.A. in 1785, as did W. Brown. Neither is known to have worked in enamel: William Brown was a gem engraver. Our miniature seems to be taken from Ramsay portrait of Hunter, but is closer to the copy presented to the College in 1829 than to the original painted c. 1760 in the Hunterian collection. Glasgow University.

Bibliography: R.A. catalogue 1785 (281. 362); Catalogue I, 1964, pp. 230 ff.; Annals, 27 April 1972, p. 90a.


William Hunter 1718-1783 L.1756  Portrait/X45  c. 1784

Oils on canvas, 30½ by 25¼ inches

Source of acquisition: Presented by Miss Angela Oliver, 1972.


Contents:
? by James Barry,
Half length seated, eyes directed to right, his right hand in coat, left hand on arm of chair; white wig, brown eyebrows, dark brown eyes, sunken cheeks, pursed lower lip; white neckband and shirt front, and wrist ruffles, dark blue ? coat. green upholstered chair; plain brown background, lit from the right. On back on bottom bar of relining stretcher an early manuscript label; William Hunter M.D. F.R.S. / Believed to be by Pine.
The type is not by Pine but by James Barry, and relates to the head of Hunter in the series of murals illustrating the Progress of Human Culture painted for the Great Room of the Society of Arts in the Adelphi 1777-1783. Hunter is introduced into the Fifth Picture; The Distribution of Premiums in the Society of Arts and is next to the Duke of Northumberland, the Earl of Radnor and William Locke. Though clearly early, it is hard to judge in its present condition whether our portrait precedes or follows the group; the only comparable known work, the study for the head of Samuel Johnson, N.P.G. 1185, is much more incisive, but this has recently been cleaned.
Scottish born anatomist, surgeon and midwife, who became one of the great teachers and practitioners in London, forming a superb library and collections of medals and natural history specimens. Elder brother of John Hunter.

Bibliography: J. Barry, Works II. 1809. pp. 340-41; E. K. Waterhouse, Painting in Britain 1530-1790 (Pelican History of British Art), 1969. p. 189.


Geoffrey Hales Jennings 1905-1992 F.1949  Portrait/X218  1958

Oils on canvas, 30 by 25 inches; Pentimenti down the right side of his face, indicating that it has been turned more towards the spectator.

Source of acquisition: Presented by the sitter, 1970, who commissioned it as a record of the first consultant physician at Edgware General Hospital.


Administrative history:
Retired now and living in Sussex.

Contents:
Born in Horsham, Sussex, the son of a schoolmaster. Educated at Christ's Hospital; Cambridge; St Mary's Hospital. Senior physician to the Edgware General Hospital, 1951-63 Member, Board of Governors, National Heart Hospital. Wrote 'Arteritis of the Temporal Vessels' - the first paper to be published in Europe on the subject - and numerous other papers.
Athletic in his youth - a keen cricketer and rugby player; artistic - one of his great loves is opera; he has written several opera libretti, and he has had poetry published in The Field magazine; he also likes photography and painting in water colours.
By Patrick Edward Phillips,
Half length seated to left, hands clasped in lap; short, greying hair, grey eyebrows, pale blue eyes, horn rim spectacles, long lips, firm chin; white striped collar, plain blue tie, scarlet M.D. gown over blue jacket; wooden chair, plain blue background, lighter to left; lit from right. Signed bottom right Phillips. On the back, the label of the Royal Society of Portrait Painters where it was exhibited 1958.

Bibliography: Catalogue of R.S.P.P. 1958 (4); als, from the donor, 4. 21 June 1970; Annals, 28 January 1971, p. 12b.


John Latham 1761-1843 F. 1789 P. 1813-1819  Portrait/X366  c. 1806

Miniature, watercolours on ivory, 3¼ by 29/16 inches, oval

Source of acquisition: Bequeathed by Miss R. E. Ormerod. December 1959, and lent to Mrs. J. C. Wilford, March 1960.


Administrative history:
A hard-working, conscientious and religious man, of uncertain health, who did great service to the College, particularly in regard to its library.

Contents:
By Alexander Pope
Head and shoulders, seated slightly to right; straight grey hair, covering ears, grey eyebrows, light grey eyes, large nose, long upper lip, firm jaw, pale complexion; white cravat tied in large bow, brownish purple double-breasted coat, white waistcoat with yellow stripe; chair up-holstered in scarlet cloth, grey background. An early manuscript label on the back of the contemporary frame: John Latham MD, FRS. / born 1761, died 1843. / Painted about 1806, / by Alexander Pope, Comedian. / G (?). Q (?).
Alexander Pope 1763-1835, born in Cork, was a pupil of the pastel painter H. D. Hamilton. He painted mainly miniatures, and acted in Dublin and London. His first two wives, both actresses, died young. His third was the widow of the painter Francis Wheatley. He had some celebrated sitters, including Mrs. Siddons.

Bibliography: Annals, 28 January 1960, p. 114d; al. to Mrs. J. C. Wilford 11 March 1960; Catalogue I, 1964, pp. 244-45; D. Foskett, A Dictionary of British Miniaturists, I, 1972, pp. 453-54.


Jean Andre De Luc 1727-1817  Portrait/X260  c. 1816

Oils on panel, 11½ by 9½ inches

Administrative history:
Born in Geneva; educated by his father, who distrusted rationalism and taught his son to do so.
Jean De Luc became a merchant and politician, but when his business failed he moved to England. Geology had long been a serious 'hobby' with him and his appointment as reader to George III's wife, Queen Charlotte, provided him both with security and the freedom to pursue his researches.
He attempted to explain phenomena in terms of the Old Testament. As well as geology, he was interested in meteorology and in 1771 published the first correct rules for measuring the heights of mountains barometrically. He invented the 'dry pile' - a method of producing an electric current.
Because he had always to be near the Queen, he lived at Windsor and, after being confined to his home by illness for a number of years, he died there.

Contents:
By an unknown artist,
Half length facing spectator, holding steel folding spectacles in his right hand; curly grey hair, full at sides, bald on top, pale brown eyes, light arched eyebrows, large nose, thin lips; black coat with turned down collar, black waistcoat, white shirt; plain brown background.
Inscribed on the back of the panel; J A De Luc. F.R.S. Died November 1817 sic aged 91. / This portrait was painted about a year before his death.
A drawing by C. Penny is known by his engraving; a portrait by W. de Stetten was engraved by Schroeder, and a painting by H. Wyatt was engraved by P. Audinet.

Bibliography: O'Donogue, II, 1910, p. 30; Burgess, 1973, p. 96.


John Coakley Lettsom 1744-1815 L. 1770  Portrait/X231  1809

Medallion, pink wax, 4¼ inches diameter

Source of acquisition: Source and date of acquisition unknown.


Administrative history:
One of a pair of twins, the only children to survive of seven sets of twins born to his mother, Lettsom was born on the island of Little Vandyke, nr. Tortola, in the Virgin Islands. En route to school in England he was befriended by a preacher who was the brother of Dr John Fothergill, and who later became his guardian.
Lettsom served his apprenticeship in Yorkshire, afterwards returning to the estate on Little Vandyke that had passed to him on his brother's death, and his first act was to free all the slaves - an act which left him penniless. However, he managed to save enough money from his practice on Tortola to return again to England.
He attended the lectures of Dr Cullen in Edinburgh on fever - a subject of particular interest to him - and in his first publication drew on a number of Dr Cullen's ideas and opinions without, unfortunately, revealing his source. Through the patronage of Dr Fothergill and Lettsom's co-religionists from the Society of Friends, he built up a very substantial practice in London - the largest, indeed, in the city. And he also had the good fortune to marry a woman of means. But although rich, he was a philanthropist and spent money lavishly, and consequently was never in a position to retire.
A rather curious interest of his was the mangel-wurzel which he was very keen to have introduced into this country. He did his best to promote the vegetable - grew it himself, imported it and distributed it, and translated a French pamphlet about it called 'An Account of the Mangel-Wurzel, or Root of Scarcity'. Other interests included the eradication of intemperance; beekeeping; prison reform; and he wrote voluminously, much of it apparently done in his carriage en route to and from his patients. Not known to be an outstanding physician, it is mainly as a philanthropist and as peacemaker in the quarrels of his medical colleagues that he is remembered. With the intention of bringing together in companionship physicians, apothecaries and surgeons, Lettsom was the principal founder, in 1773, of the Medical Society of London.

Contents:
By T.R. Poole,
Bust in profile to left; large straight nose, double chin; wig with two rows of curls over ear, shirt ruffle, two buttons of coat seen below; incised Dr. Lettsom / and signed and dated Poole 1809 on the cutaway; dark brown glass background. On the back of the contemporary frame, Poole's trade label, on which has been written John Coakley Lettsom MD LD DCL... President of the Medical Society.
Our wax is evidently the source of the engraving 'from a model' by W. Skelton published in 1817 as the frontispiece to Pettigrew's Memoirs of Lettsom. Another version belongs to his great-great grandson, J. H. A. Elliott. Lettsom addresses a group of the 'Institutors of the Medical Society of London' painted by S. Medley. and engraved by R. Wilkinson, 1801: a separate portrait by Medley was engraved by W. Ridley. c. 1803: both portraits are still in the possession of the Society. Another small engraving by T. Holloway was published in the European Magazine 1787. A group ascribed to Zoffany. showing Lettsom and his family in the grounds of Grove Hill. c. 1773. is now in the Wellcome Institute.

Bibliography: Dictionary of National Biography, XI. 1909.P. 1015: O'Donoghue. III. 1912. pp. 53-54. V.1922. pp.60-61: J.J. Abraham Lettsom: His Life. Time. Friends and Descendants, 1933.p.438: T. Hunt. The Medical Society of London. 1972. frontispiece and title-page and pp. 22 35: Burgess. 1973.p. 214 and references there given: E.J. Pyke. A Biographical Dictionary of Wax Modellers, 1973. pp. 112 13.


William MacMichael 1784-1839 F. 1818  Portrait/X88  1823

Watercolours on white paper, 1115/16 by 9¾ inches

Source of acquisition: The gift of Miss Joan Cheese, great-grand-daughter of the sitter, and Mrs. Mary Hindle.


Administrative history:
A banker's son, William MacMichael was born in Shropshire and educated at Bridgnorth Grammar School; Christchurch, Oxford; Edinburgh under Alexander Munro; and St Bartholomew's where Abernethy was active. In 1811 he was awarded a Raddcliffe travelling fellowship and this enabled him to see such romantic and mysterious places as Greece, Turkey, Bulgaria, Rumania, Russia, Sweden, and Austria, where he acted as physician to the British Ambassador. He graduated DM from Oxford in 1816 and then had two further years of travel, described in his Journey from Moscow to Constantinople, with illustrations by himself.
Twice he was Censor for the College, in 1820 and again in 1832, and he held the office of Registrar for five years from 1824. and was Consilarius in 1836. While physician to the Middlesex Hospital, he was, thanks to his friend and patron, Sir Henry Halford, appointed physician-extraordinary to George IV in 1829. The following year saw him as William IV's librarian, and the next, as physician-in-ordinary to the king. King William gave him his own gold-headed cane, saying that since MacMichael had cured him of gout he no longer needed it. In 1827 MacMichael cleverly and dilightfully used the device of ownership of Radcliffe's cane to write brief biographies of Radcliffe, Mead, Askew, William and David Pitcairn and Baillie, in The Gold-Headed Cane (reproduced in facsimile in 1968 by the RCP).
William MacMichael was fond of society and society was fond of him. His easy-going disposition and fund of anecdotes from his adventures abroad made him an attractive personality.
In 1837 he was struck down by a stroke and compelled to retire, so that he did not attend King William at his death in that year, and two years later he died.

Contents:
By William Haines,
Short half length seated to right, head and eyes turned towards spectator; receding curly grey hair cut short. large brown eyebrows. greysih blue eyes. dimpled chin. fresh complexion: white collar and stock, double (?) breasted grey coat. matching waistcoat: armchair lightly outlined in pencil, stippled light grey background to right of body, lit from left. Faintly signed and dated in pencil, bottom right: W. Haines Pt / Aug 1823. Modern labels on the back giving biographical details of the sitter and the name of a former owner J. Cheese (?) N(?)ewby.

Bibliography: Annals, 25 July 1974, Doc. 17a.


Sir Arthur MacNalty 1880-1969 F. 1930  Portrait/X220  1958

Oils on canvas, 30 by 24 inches

Source of acquisition: Bequeathed by the sitter. October 1969.


Administrative history:
This quiet, scholarly man will be remembered both for his work in public health and preventive medicine, and for his numerous historical publications, which included Henry VIII: a Difficult Patient.
In 1908, with Sir Thomas Lewis, he recorded for the first time the use of the electrocardiograph in diagnosing heart disease. For 5½ years from 1935 he was Chief Medical Officer to the Ministry of Health and Board of Education, having joined the Ministry originally in 1919. In 1940, thanks to MacNalty, anti-diphtheria vaccine was made available free to local authorities. His recommendations, contained in his report on infant measles and pneumonia, were adopted by the Local Government Board and, in consequence, there was a noticeable reduction in the mortality rate. From 1937-40 he was hon. physician to George VI. He helped to organize the emergency medical services for World War II and from 1941, at the invitation of Churchill, was Editor-in-Chief of the official Medical History of the War, a monumental work that he lived to see completed.
Other instances of the fascination that medical history had for him were his Hon. Presidency of the British Society for History of Medicine and his role as an official historian of the RCP's College Club. The Tudor period was the one in which he specialized, but his writings were by no means confined to one period and, indeed, among other things, he wrote a biography of Walter Scott, translated the odes of Horace and was the author of A Book of Crimes.
A friend of Monckton Copeman, he gave the first Monckton Copeman Lecture when an old man in his 80s.
Always quiet and self-effacing and. it is suggested, underestimated, he was nonetheless a very determined man. First and foremost. MacNalty was a scholar who liked such quiet pursuits as fishing, boating, philately and painting, but medical history was clearly his great and abiding love.

Contents:
By Clare Collas,
Half length, looking to right, his left hand on jacket, body fronting spectator: smooth grey hair, light grey-brown, pale blue eyes, long thin lips, rather pale complexion: white collar and shirt, black tie, black gown with scarlet hood over single-breasted black coat and waistcoat; bookshelves behind: lit from the right. Signed, bottom right in red. C. Collas.

Bibliography: Annals, 30 October 1969, p. 164b.


William Murray, 1st Earl of Mansfield 1705-1793  Portrait/X004T  c. 1738

Administrative history:
Born at the Abbey of Scone, William Murray was fourth son of the 5th Viscount Stormont, and was educated at Perth Grammar school, Westminster (where he was King's scholar), and Christ Church, Oxford. Younger son of an impoverished Scottish peer, he was destined for the Church, but was assisted by a friend Thomas Foley (later Baron Foley) to read law.
An early talent for declamation was studiously rehearsed, sometimes in front of his friend Alexander Pope. Lifelong enmity with Pitt (Earl of Chatham) began when Murray beat Pitt for a Latin poem prize at Oxford.
Called to the Bar at Lincoln's Inn in 1730, KC and solicitor-general 1742, attorney-general 1754 and Lord Chief Justice 1756 - turning down the Duchy of Lancaster and a pension of £6000 offered to him to stay in the Commons, where he was an outstanding leader.
Macaulay described him as 'the father of modern toryism'. In American affairs he was wholly for coercion and when he failed to inspire a coalition to cope with the situation, he retired from politics.
Famous cases included his refusal to allow prosecutions against Roman Catholic priests for saying mass, which carried the penalty of life imprisonment. Mansfield freed the West Indian slave, James Somersett, in 1771 on grounds that slavery was 'so odious' that nothing could 'be suffered to support it'. He was the first to allow a Quaker to affirm in place of taking an oath. A sincere Christian, he would nevertheless have tried a case on Good Friday if counsel had not pointed out that he would be following a precedent set by Pontius Pilate. Although a victim of the Gordon riots - his house was wrecked - he tried Lord George Gordon with strict impartiality. In the struggles between the RCP and its licentiates, 1767-1771. Mansfield accepted the distinction between fellows and licentiates, but warned the College to review its statutes and not to make admission so narrow that even a Boerhaave resident in London would be excluded.
At his request he was buried in the North Cross, Westminster Abbey, near the scene of his early education.

Contents:
William Murray, 1st Earl of Mansfield (formerly called John Arbuthnot by Charles Jervas. c. 1715) by J. Vanloo,
Despite its inscription, as Gibson points out our portrait proves to represent Mansfield. It is too young a man. too late to represent. Arbuthnot and is a version of the earlier portrait by Vanloo, with the same face but in a wig engraved by Basire as painted in 1732. A fine Kit-cat size version still in Lord Clarendon's collection belonged to his ancestor. the sitter's friend. Henry Cornbury and Baron Hyde. 1710-1753, who was also painted by Vanloo. It is listed in his catalogue of 1750: Lord Hyde's Dressing Room... MR.SOLICITOR-GENERAL MURRAY.

Bibliography: Catalogue I. 1964. pp. 28-29: R. Gibson. Catalogue of Pictures in the Collection of the Earl of Clarendon, 1977. (51). (96) and refs. there cited.


Sir Theodore de Mayerne 1573-1655 F. 1616  Portrait/X158  n.d

Oils on canvas, 13¼ by 11¼ inches

Source of acquisition: Presented by Mrs. Douglas Hearn, October 1966.


Administrative history:
A Protestant born in Geneva, de Mayerne was one of the first to use chemical remedies including mercury. He refused to conform to the Catholic Church in France and came to England where he achieved great distinction, became physician to the Royal family, and was elected Fellow of the College at a special Comitia called for the purpose.

Contents:
By an unknown artist after Sir Peter Paul Rubens
Nearly whole length seated, head tilted to his right, hands in lap; white hair, dark eyes, long drooping moustache and beard: white collar and cuffs, black robes, dark green sleeve, scarlet chair: landscape seen through window, plain black background.
Our oil is a simplified reduction from the portrait taken by Rubens about 1630, discussed in the previous volume. It follows the North Carolina oil, but omitting the statue of Aesculapius. It seems to be eighteenth century work, and could derive either from an engraving or from an oil of the North Carolina type. One, conceivably N.P.G. 1652. was in Dr. Mead's collection.

Bibliography: D. T. Piper. Catalogue of the Seventeenth-Century Portraits in the National Portrait Gallery, 1963, p. 229: Catalogue I, 1964, pp. 276-79; Annals. 27 October 1966, p. 247.


Charles McMoran Wilson, 1st Baron Moran of Manton 1883- F. 1921 P. 1941-50  Portrait/X155  1951

Oils on board, 24 by 19½ inches

Source of acquisition: Commissioned for the College, 1951, and received 1974. A replica was presented to the sitter by the College. The original was exhibited at the Royal Academy.


Administrative history:
Born in Skipton, Yorkshire, the son of Dr John Forsythe Wilson. Knighted 1938; made a baron 1943. Physician to Winston Churchill for 25 years, from 1940-65, Churchill said of him that he was 'the man who saved my life'.
Obtained the Military Cross through his work in the Battle of the Somme during World War I. Entry from the BMJ (II, 1916 Sept. 30 p. 471): 'Temporary Captain C. McM. Wilson MD RAMC - For conspicuous gallantry and devotion to duty during operations. He worked for over an hour digging out wounded men, at great personal risk. He then returned to his aid post and attended to the wounded. Later, hearing that an officer had been wounded, he passed through 100 yards of the enemy's artillery barrage, dressed his wounds, and finally got him into safety as soon as the barrage permitted. On other occasions he has done fine and gallant work'.
In 1945 live popular and highly successful Anatomy of Courage was published. It is a non-technical psychological analysis of courage in a modern army, based upon Lord Moran's experiences in the two world wars. He believed that courage was self-willed, a conscious act of decision, not an accidental gift of nature, and that it could wear out: that to preserve it, rest was vital.
He has always been very concerned about medical education. From his Address as President of the RCP in 1941, he said: 'We have to extirpate this blind cult of memory and the stored fact. We have to ask how the quick curiosity of the average child has been converted into the dull drudge we so often encounter in the finals ...'
He was Dean of St Mary's Hospital Medical School from 1920-1945, a guiding spirit throughout a period of development and change.
Lord Moran was against the National Health Service because he thought it would interfere with the freedom of doctors, and he was worried also that the Government might be trying to get medical service 'on the cheap'. He was Chairman (the first) of the Distinction Awards Committee, 1949.
He answered questions anonymously on the BBC's Brains Trust: intellectual, 'pale, ascetic': religious - and, being something of a puritan, he probably disapproved of Churchill's self-indulgence: loves the country, hates cities.
The highly controversial diaries (Winston Churchill. The Struggle for Survival, published in 1966) made him an almost notorious figure. Ironically, in 1950, a piece from The Sunday Times (January 15) Portrait Gallery read as follows: 'No statesman's observations on the great men and events with which he was brought into contact would be more valuable than Lord Moran's, or wiser,' Moran's diaries caused a furore, which he must have foreseen. He himself justified them by saving that 'it is not possible to follow the last 25 years of Sir Winston's life without a knowledge of his medical background. It was exhaustion of mind and body that accounted for much that is otherwise inexplicable in the last year of the war, for instance the deterioration in his relations with President Roosevelt.... and in justice to him ought not to be left out of his story.... I may add that I told Sir Winston about what I proposed to do'. (Letter to The Times 25/4/66.) (The diaries were published 15 months after Churchill's death. In a later letter, 2/6/66. Lord Moran said Winston Churchill approved, saying he was sure he would like whatever he wrote about him.
One is bound to wonder what Lord Moran's motives were in publishing the diaries so soon after Churchill's death. Perhaps Moran's publish-and-be-damned attitude showed in him a certain courage (a motive in itself, even?).

Contents:
By Pietro Annigoni,
Head and shoulders, head tilted to left, but looking up to right, body to left, the thumb of his left hand marking place in an open book; receding grey hair, wrinkled forehead, thin light brown eyebrows, blue eyes, pale complexion: President's gown of gold lace on black, white collar, black tie, black coat and waistcoat; window-like blue background, brown panelling; book bound in scarlet morocco. Signed on the panelling level with his right shoulder: P. ANNIGONI / monogram / L1. LONDRA.
Presumably the portrait exhibited at the Royal Academy 1952; exhibited Wildenstein 1954 (23) their label on the back, and lent by the sitter to the Aningoni exhibition 1961 (8). Juliet Pannett exhibited a portrait at the Royal Society of Portrait Painters 1960.

Bibliography: R. A. catalogue 1952 (802): R.S.P.P. catalogue 1960 (231): BMJ, 21 July 1951; Who's Who's in Art, 16th ed., 1972. p. 617.


Charles Mitchell 1783-1856  Portrait/X270  n.d

Oils on canvas, 37¼ by 281/8 inches

Source of acquisition: On indefinite loan from J. C. Medley.


Administrative history:
Naval surgeon. While he was surgeon on board the flagship Vigo, based at St. Helena, Charles Mitchell was called in to consult with Shortt, Arnott and Antommarchi about the condition - then grave - of Napoleon, but he never actually saw the patient alive. He was, however, present at the post-mortem examination of Napoleon and signed the official report.
Retired to the Isle of Wight and died there aged 73.

Contents:
By an unknown artist
Half length to right, lorgnette in his right hand, his left hand resting on base of column: dark brown hair parted on right, brown side whiskers, lighter brown eyebrows, pale blue eyes, full lower lip, chin clean-shaven, fresh complexion; white collar and shirt, broad black neckband, black coat, open, black waistcoat; dark brown background, lighter to right. On the back of the canvas, a stamp: Prepared by J.H.SIMPSON / ARTIST COLOURMAN / 54 /LONDON ROAD / Southw[ark?]
The hand has not been identified, but is not far from Stephen Pearce, who had a number of medical and naval sitters.

Bibliography: Annals, 30 April 1964, p. 179.


Charles Murchison 1830-79 F. 1859  Portrait/X221  c. 1860

Chalk and wash on paper, in an oval mount, 257/8 by 20 inches

Source of acquisition: Presented by the sitter's grandson. Dr. A. M. Humphry, October 1964.


Administrative history:
Born in Jamaica, the son of the Hon. Alexander Murchison MD; raised in Scotland; educated at Aberdeen University, where he was an arts student, then Edinburgh, where he read medicine with distinction.
His first post was as physician to the British Embassy in Turin. From 1853-55 he was Professor of Chemistry at Calcutta Medical College and during this period he accompanied an expedition to Burma. Soon after his return to England he was appointed physician first at King's College Hospital, then the Middlesex, with a second appointment at the London Fever Hospital, where he edited the reports for many years. Finally he came to the fore as a brilliant clinical teacher at St Thomas's.
Before he died, he was physician-in-ordinary to the Duke and Duchess of Connaught. Suffered from a serious heart disease for years but was determined to continue working. He died, in fact, in his consulting room, having just seen the last of the day's patients.
Charles Murchison was a man with very solid - what are thought of as 'typically British' qualities; honest, thorough, with plain manners; a reliable friend - a man one felt one could trust. He liked geology, natural history, fishing.
The Murchison scholarship in medicine was established in his memory and is administered each year alternately by the RCP and Edinburgh University

Contents:
By Henry Joseph Fradelle
Head and shoulders to left; blackish-brown hair brushed close, side whiskers, brown eyes, and eyebrows, drooping moustache on upper lip, curly beard, pale complexion; white shirt with narrow slate-coloured cravat, grey coat open over double-breasted waistcoat with wide lapels.
Signed Fradelle above his right forearm.
Fradelle died in London in 1865, but the portrait may antedate this by a few years; the only other likeness available for comparison is the marble bust, for St. Thomas's Hospital, by E. Roscoe Mullins, exhibited Royal Academy 1881, and which may have been posthumous. Stephen Pearce exhibited a portrait at the Royal Academy in 1871. A lithograph after Fradelle lettered Portrait de Murchison is dated 1849 but represents Sir Roderick Impey Murchison, 1792-1871, on comparison with authentic portraits.
The previous paragraph states that the marble bust is the only other likeness for comparison. In fact, the RCP Library has several others.
(i) A lithograph (accn 4399 L) signed 'Fradelle', with 'Charles Murchison MD.' written in ink below.
(ii) A photograph (accn 7116 S) given by Sir Robert Drew in 1969.
(iii)The photo reproduced in Sir Arthur Newsholme's Fifty years in public health (1935), facing p.36.
The 3 above all show a similar face and pose to the chalk and wash drawing reproduced on p.161.
There are also 5 photos of C.M. beardless, but compare especially the hair and forehead (accn 4686 M, 6334 S, and 3 in the album of Fellows, 1864).
RCP has a mezzotint of Sir R.I. Murchison by W. Walker after W.H. Pickersgill, 1851 (accn 4440 L) showing a different man from the RCP's 9 pictures of Charles Murchison

Bibliography: R.A. catalogues 1871 (1109), 1881 (1471); U. Thieme and F. Becker, Allegemeine Lexikon der bildenden Kunstler, XII, 1916, p. 272; al. from donor, 16 May 1964; Annals, 30 July 1964, p.2929.
See also Sir K. Murchison Family notes and reminiscences [1940], facing p.47.


William Murray 1839-1920 F. 1872  Portrait/X216  n.d

Oils on canvas, 30 by 24 inches

Archival history:
The artist exhibited the portrait at City of Carlisle Art Gallery, 1962.

Source of acquisition: Presented by Miss D. L. Murray, 1972, her exhibition label on the back.


Administrative history:
William Murray's career was mainly spent in his native North. He died in Cumberland, having married twice and fathered three sons - one of whom was G. R. Murray FRCP - and five daughters.
His early education was at Durham School but his medical education seems to have been of a rather peripatetic nature - Edinburgh, Newcastle, University College London, and Paris. In 1859 he qualified, and his first house appointment was at University College Hospital. From 1864-78 he lectured on physiology at Newcastle School of Medicine. He helped to found the Hospital for Sick Children there, and held appointments at several local hospitals. Although first and foremost Murray was a paediatrician and a gynaecologist, he was one of the first to treat abdominal aneurysm successfully by pressure.
Said to have been a man of 'strong personality', he was religious and one of his activities was to deliver lunchtime talks on religion to factory-workers. He also enjoyed such countryside pursuits as shooting and fishing, retiring to live close to his favourite river, the Eden.
The image one is left with is of a thorough-going Victorian, a man very much the product of his time.

Contents:
By his daughter Dorothy Lever Murray
Almost whole length standing to left and looking down, his left hand in pocket; curly white hair, bald on top, white side whiskers, dark eyes and eyebrows, straight nose, pointed chin, fresh complexion: soft white collar, black tie, grey jacket with red and blue handkerchief, brown pullover with green and brown pattern, matching grey plus fours, dark brown socks, brown background. Signed with initials bottom left D.L..M.. and in full, bottom right, D. L.. Murray.

Bibliography: Correspondence with Miss D. L. Murray 1972; Annals, 27 April 1972, p. 90a.


Henry Percy, 9th Earl of Northumberland 1564-1632  Portrait/X50  n.d

Oils on canvas, 50½ by 40½ inches

Source of acquisition: Given by Dr. C. E. Kellett, 1975.


Administrative history:
Born at Tynemouth Castle, eldest son of the eighth Earl, Henry Percy was early educated in the protestant faith. Later during a visit to Paris he came under suspicion of sharing the views of catholic friends. He succeeded his father in 1585. His main interests were in alchemy and astrology and through his scientific experiments he became known as 'the Wizard Earl'. He was installed as a Knight of the Garter in 1596 and in 1599 bore the insignia of the Garter to Henry IV of France.
The Earl was an irascible, quarrelsome man and a harsh landlord. His marriage to Dorothy, sister of the second Earl of Essex, was uncongenial to both of them. He became strongly addicted to tobacco - he made many protests about the imprisonment of Sir Walter Raleigh - and lost large sums in gambling.
When James VI of Scotland came to the English throne, Northumberland in- gratiated himself with the King and, although no avowed catholic, sought and obtained assurances of toleration for English catholics.
On November 4 1605 he received his kinsman Thomas Percy for dinner at Syon House. The next day the Gunpowder Plot was discovered and Thomas Percy incriminated as one of the chief conspirators. Despite Northumberland's protests of disinterest in religion and politics, he was brought before the Star Chamber Court and sentenced to pay £30,000, to lose all offices and be kept in the Tower for life. Eventually he paid £11,000 and stayed in the Tower, where he employed a staff in studies of military fortification, astrology and medicine, for 16 years, emerging with defiant splendour to pass the remaining eleven years of his life at Petworth, where he and his wife are buried.

Contents:
After Sir Anthony Van Dyck
Nearly whole length, seated, head resting on his right hand; dark brown hair with quiff on top, receding over temples, dark brown eyes, dark brown moustache and full beard; plain white collar and cuffs, black gown with gold frogging; white paper on table left, a curtain behind, column on right.
An old, relined, copy of Van Dyck's original at Petworth (223) where the sitter was buried: there are reproductions at Castle Howard and in Lord Denbigh's collection, Dr. Kellett bought his version from Andersons and Garland in 1935; its previous history is not known, but it is probably seventeenth or early eighteenth century work and possibly from a North country house. The date of the original is not known, but if from life, should be either 1621 or 1632, the only years in which sitter and artist are likely to have met. An earlier whole length, ascribed to Mytens (Petworth 590, repetition or copy at Alnwick) is near the engraving by Francis Delaram, 1697 (Hind 27): its true date is probably c. 1602 as it has an inscription alluding to Northumberland's service in the Low Countries. Another engraving by Delaram (Hind 26) shews the sitter in a hat: it was afterwards altered to represent Ernest Count Mansfield. Miniature by Isaac Oliver of a Knight of the Garter in the Fitzwilliam Museum and the Rijksmuseum though alike are not necessarily both of the same person, and may represent either Northumberland or the Earl of Mulgrave.

Bibliography: C. H. Collins Baker, Catalogue of the Petworth Collection, 1920, pp.29.86. and pls. facing: A. M. Hind, Engraving in England, II, 1955. pp. 228-29m and pl. 131: V. & A. Hillard and Oliver, exhibition catalogue, 1947 152. 168: Annals, 29 January 1976. Doc. 6 .


Christopher Robert Pemberton 1765-1822 F. 1796  Portrait/X285  n.d

Oils on canvas, 36 by 27¾ inches

Source of acquisition: This, and the portrait of Mrs. Pemberton were purchased from Mrs. Pemberton Cotton. July 1964.


Administrative history:
Grandson of a Lord Chief Justice. Christopher Pemberton was born in Cambridge- shire and educated at Bury St Edmund's and Caius College, Cambridge. He was Censor in 1796, 1804 and 1811, delivered the Goulstonian Lecture in 1797 and the Harveian Oration in 1806. A Fellow of the Royal Society, he was appointed physician- extraordinary to the king, and from 1800-08 physician to St George's Hospital. Sadly it became impossible for him to carry on; he suffered from tic douloureux and no treatment of the day offered any alleviation from the terrible pain, though Sir Astley Cooper tried dividing several branches of the 5th nerve. Pemberton bore it bravely but retired at last to Kent, where death came to his rescue suddenly, in the form of a stroke, at the age of 57.

Contents:
By an unknown artist
Half length to right, writing, the head tilted to right and turned towards the spectator; close cut grey hair, touching collar, dark brown eyebrows, brown eyes, straight nose, clean shaven: white cravat, black coat: red curtain background. On the back modern labels giving the sitter's identity.
The only published type is the portrait by Sir Thomas Lawrence c.1810, which was c 1964 in the collection of Stanley M.Pemberton of Washington. Sussex, Its dimensions are approximately the same as our portrait, which seems as an early copy of it.

Bibliography: 'A Catalogue of the Paintings... of Sir Thomas Lawrence' by K. Garlick. Walpole Society, XXXIX. 1964. p.160: Annals, 30 July 1964. p.229:information K.Garlick.Esq.


Sarah Pemberton  Portrait/X284  n.d

Oils on canvas, 30 by 25 inches

Source of acquisition: This, and the portrait of Christopher Robert Pemberton, were purchased from Mrs Pemberton Cotton. July 1964.


Administrative history:
First wife of C. R. Pemberton. Maiden name and dates of marriage and death unknown. In August 1794 Pemberton married Eleanor daughter of James Hamilton.

Contents:
By an unknown artist
Head and shoulders, hands not shown; curly chestnut hair resting on shoulders, high arched dark brown eyebrows, large blue eyes, plump face, high colour; light v-necked lemon slip edged with white lace, roses in bosom, pale blue low-cut dress; plain background, lit from right. Stamp on the back of canvas: JOHN - ARTIST COLORMAN /JOHN ST/ TOTTENHAM COURT RD; also two modern labels identifying the sitter.
Although having the same provenance as that of her husband, the portrait of Mrs. Pemberton does not derive from Lawrence but is by a lesser hand.

David Pitcairn 1749-1809 F. 1785  Portrait/X253  c. 1809

Miniature, enamel, 4¾ by 3¾ inches (sight)

Source of acquisition: Presented by Miss Angela Oliver, 1972.


Copies information: Copied from the College's portrait, painted about 1800. Bone's reduced squared drawing in the National Portrait Gallery library is inscribed: The late Dr. Pitcairn after Hoppner / for Mrs Baillie May 1809.


Administrative history:
Son of a Scottish army officer who was killed at Bunker Hill, David Pitcairn became physician to St. Bartholomew's Hospital. He was a doctor whom other doctors consulted, and whose patients enjoyed his full care and attention, often without charge.

Contents:
By Henry Bone after Hoppner
To waist, seated to left, hands not seen; curly white hair brushed back on top of forehead and covering the tip of ear, brown eyebrows, blue eyes looking at spectator, large nose, fresh complexion; white shirt ruffle, double-breasted brown velvet coat unbuttoned at waist, grey waistcoat; green upholstered chair, buttoned along top edge, plain brown background; lit from right. Inscribed in the same hands as on the back of the Bone of Matthew Baillie, and framed as a companion. The ink inscription on the backing paper reads: David Pitcairn M.D. / Born 1749 / Died April 1809 /, and in another hand Pd. for the Enamel 45 / guineas / Frame 7, guineas /, in another, Henry Bone 15 Berners Street and another from a Picture of Hoppner.

Bibliography: Henry Bone, Sketchbooks, III, p.13, N.P.G. library; Catalogue, I, 1964, pp. 332-333; Annals, 27 April 1972, p. 90a.


Robert Platt, 1st Baron Platt of Grindleford 1900-F. 1935 P. 1957-62  Portrait/X163  1963

Oils on canvas, 49½ by 39½ inches

Source of acquisition: Commissioned by the College.


Copies information: A photograph was taken for the National Photographic Record in 1959.


Administrative history:
Born in London. Robert Platt qualified in medicine at Sheffield University Medical School. He was appointed physician to the Royal Infirmary, Sheffield; then from 1946-65 Professor of Medicine. Manchester University. A musician, he plays the cello in string quartets at the houses of friends, and was on various committees connected with music. During the second World War he served as consulting physician to the southern army in India and held the rank of brigadier. For ten years from 1948 he edited the Quarterly Journal of Medicine, He has been widely recognized as an authority on renal disease, hypertension and medical genetics.
Platt was elected President of the RCP in 1957 - the first 'provincial' to hold the office, which he filled for 5 years. In 1959 he was made a baronet, and created a Life Peer in 1967, in which year he gave the Harveian Oration. He played a leading role in the move of the College from Pall Mall East.
In 1957 he was Chairman of the Committee for Research in General Practice, and he also chaired a committee which reviewed the establishment of hospitals in the National Health Service (NHS), resulting in the Platt Report.
Platt has had a running battle with the BMA. In 1948 he resigned his membership because he disliked the Association's antagonism towards the NHS and, in 1963, when delivering the Rock Carling Lecture, he criticized the BMA for descending to the level of a trades union. During this lecture he also called for the reform of hospital management committees and boards of governors, etc., which he considered carried too high a proportion of 'relatively inefficient and inexpert onlookers'. Again in 1966 he was criticizing the BMA for its tactics; he accused it of making an enemy of the Ministry and felt that it had damaged the image of general practice in this country.
Platt has always cared greatly about the general practitioner, for whom he has a high regard, although he strongly disapproves of doctors who talk of strike action -which he regards as unforgivable in a professional man - and those who threaten to emigrate. He has suggested longer postgraduate training for potential GPs and at one time a system of financial rewards for doctors of outstanding ability.
Platt is also very concerned about the patient, whom he wants treated as an individual - to him there are no bad patients, only some who present more of a challenge than others. He considers there is a great need for better psychology in doctor-patient relations.
In 1962 the RCP report. Smoking and Health, was published; Lord Platt had chaired the Committee which had undertaken to examine smoking in relation to lung cancer and other diseases.
Platt has approved euthanasia in principle and. it seems, has had liberal views on abortion, although, as President of the Family Planning Association, he saw no need for the distribution of pamphlets on birth control in schools contending that the types most likely to need such advice were the ones least likely to seek or accept it.
Retired now and living in Esher, but active in the House of Lords and still making music with and for his friends. He has written an autobiography, Private and Controversial, published in 1972.

Contents:
By Merlyn Evans,
Nearly whole length, seated to left, hands on arms of wooden chair: smooth dark grey hair, parted on left, dark grey eyebrows, brown eyes, thin upper lip: white collar and shirt, black tie, plain dark grey coat and trousers: light brown background, suggesting an interior wall; lit from the right. Signed in red, bottom left: Evans. 63.

Bibliography: Annals, 25 April 1963. p. 73.


Clive Riviere 1872-1929 F. 1909  Portrait/X273  1925

Oils on paper, 10 by 12 inches

Administrative history:
Born in Gloucestershire, the son of a Royal Academician. He began his education at St Andrew's University; then at University College School and University College, London, before studying medicine at Barts and Tübingen University.
At Barts., his interest in diseases of the chest began. When he died he was physician to the City of London Hospital for Diseases of the Chest and here he had gained his worldwide reputation. As a pioneer in artificial pneumothorax treatment, he was renowned for his extraordinarily light touch and is said to have had a 'well-nigh perfect technique'.
His three publications, Tuberculin Treatment (1912, in collaboration with E.C. Morland), The Early Diagnosis of Tubercle (1914) and The Pneumothorax Treatment of Tuberculosis (1917) illustrate best where his special interests and talents lay.
A man of charm and transparent integrity: sensitive to suffering; liked music, reading, the countryside; modest; never in the least petty or jealous, he stayed away from professional politics, whilst achieving a reputation for success in organizing international congresses.
Pneumonia killed him after a week's illness.

Contents:
By himself,
Head and shoulders, full face, wearing spectacles: grey hair. Inscribed (probably by the artist) in pencil on the back: At Menaggio (Como) Mar 1925 Self Portrait C Riviere.

Bibliography: Catalogue I, 1964, p. 455.


Sir Kenneth Robson 1909- F. 1943  Portrait/X229  1975

Oils on canvas, 36 by 27¾ inches

Source of acquisition: Commissioned by the College, 1975.


Copies information: A photograph for the National Photographic Record was taken in 1970.


Administrative history:
Kenneth Robson was educated at Bradfield School, Christ's College, Cambridge, and the Middlesex Hospital where he qualified in 1933.
In 1938 he was appointed physician to St George's Hospital but from 1939-1946 he served in the Royal Air Force, in charge of medical divisions of hospitals in England and India, ending the war as Air Commodore and Consultant in Medicine to the RAF in India and the Far East. Since 1949 he has been Civil Consultant-in-Medicine to the RAF.
Kenneth Robson's main interest has been in diseases of the chest. He was secretary of the Thoracic Society from 1947-60, and its President in 1965.
For the RCP Kenneth Robson has served as examiner, Censor, Goulstonian Lecturer, and from 1961-1975 as an outstanding Registrar. Unmarried, he devoted much of his life to every aspect of the welfare of the College. He was created CBE in 1959 and knighted in 1968.

Contents:
By Walter Woodington,
Three-quarter length seated and looking to right, elbows resting on arms of chair, hands clasped in lap: receding grey hair, grey (?) eyes and eyebrows: Cambridge M.D. gown over plain dark blue lounge suit, light blue soft shirt, plain dark blue tie: wooden chair, light blue background. Signed and dated bottom left: Woodington 1975.

Bibliography: R.A. catalogue 1975 (924): Annals, 31 July 1975, Doc. 13.


Albert Schweitzer 1875-1965  Portrait/X202  1953

Oils on canvas, 35¾ by 28 inches

Source of acquisition: Presented by Mrs. C. Pugh, October 1967.


Administrative history:
Musician, philosopher, theologian, author and physician, Albert Schweitzer, like all extraordinary individuals, has been, and still is, the subject of heated controversy. Those for him and those against him tend to adopt extreme attitudes, and Schweitzer is either loved and revered as a saint or denounced as an egoist and even, by some as a rogue.
Born in Kayserberg, Alsace, 14 January 1875 into a musical and devout family - his father was pastor of Kayserberg - the combined atmosphere of religion and music in which Albert grew up was to determine the pattern of his career. He began playing the organ at eight and deputized for the local church organist by the time he was nine. Surprisingly, ordinary schoolwork was harder for him to master.
In 1912 he married Helene Bresslau and, a year later, he and his wife set out for Lambaréné in French Equatorial Africa where, at Schweitzer's own expense, he built his famous hospital. For the rest of his life he was to commute between Africa and Europe, raising funds by giving lectures and organ recitals.
Schweitzer has been called paternalistic and authoritarian; he demanded of one of his colleagues that Lambaréné be regarded as Mount Olympus, and himself as Zeus. His rages were formidable but soon over. Critics have cast doubt on the quality of the medicine practised at the hospital. Certainly Lambaréné was run on unorthodox lines: patients were permitted to surround themselves with their relatives and pets - a concession that had the virtue of making them feel more at home and less afraid of the white man's mysterious medicine.
Schweitzer was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1952 and the Order of Merit in 1955.
He died, a very old and much honoured man, at his beloved Lambaréné. His wife had predeceased him; they had one daughter.

Contents:
By Felix Szezesny Kwarta,
Three-quarter length to right, standing in a landscape, head bent forward, hands clasped round book: bushy grey hair, grey eyebrows, dark brown eyes, bushy grey moustache covering upper lip, sun tanned complexion; white bush (?) jacket, open at neck; river landscape with mountains on low horizon, cloudy sky dark grey at top of picture with ray of sun on right. Signed in red up the right hand edge: f.s. kwarta.
Presumably the portrait exhibited at the Royal Society of Portrait Painters 1953 (159): reproduced in The Times, 20 November 1953. On the back a label from the R.S.P.P. exhibition. The background indicates the sitter's native Rhineland. Other portraits include a painting by Clara Ewald; busts by Louise Hutchinson, exhibited Society of Portrait Sculptors 1956 (52) and L. Cubitt Bevis, Royal Academy 1963 (1240) and H. B. Huxley-Jones. Society of Portrait Sculptors 1966 (9); and, among photographs, the well known example by Yousuf Karsh 1954.

Bibliography: The Times, 20 November 1953: R.S.P.P. catalogue 1956; Y. Karsh, Portraits of Greatness, 1959, p. 178: R.A. catalogue 1963: S.P.S. catalogue 1966: Annals, 26 October 1967, p. 147; Commentary, July 1968. p. 82.


(?) Thomas Sydenham 1624-1689 L. 1663  Portrait/X176  c.1680

Oils on canvas, 24¼ by 20 inches

Source of acquisition: Presented by Dr. Bruce Maclean, F.R.C.P., January 1965.


Administrative history:
Called 'the Father of English Medicine' and 'the English Hippocrates', Sydenham taught the value of clinical observation and the importance of allowing nature to effect a cure. He revolutionized the care of fevers, identified hysteria, discovered convulsions in childhood (Sydenham's chorea), and became a sufferer from and authority on gout. Friend of Robert Boyle and John Locke, and revered in Europe.

Contents:
By an unknown artist
Short half length to right, hands not shewn; dark brown wig, resting on shoulders, dark brown eyebrows, dark brown eyes, straight nose, heavy jowl, cleanshaven; white shirt and necktie, brown lace cravat, brown gown, with a suggestion of gold lace; dark background. On the centre bar of the stretcher, in a late eighteenth(?) century hand, in black paint: Portrait of Dr Tho[s] Sydenham / by / Mrs Beale.; on the bottom bar a cutting from p. 13 of a printed catalogue BEALE, MARY (1632-1697) / 254 Portrait of Dr. Thomas Sydenham (circa 1685-90) in costume of the period, with dark, / flowing wig. 22½ in. by 19., in gilt frame.
It is not certain that the brading on the gown is authentic; there is no conspicuously additional paint, which runs over the craquelure, but on the other hand the pigment here does not look contemporary. Though worn, there remain passages of greater distinction than is normally found in the work of Mary Beale, as in, for example, the cravat; and it may be that the attribution as well as the identification is comparatively modern. The provenance has not been traced and identification rests on comparison with authentic portraits. That of Thomas Sydenham by Mary Beale painted in 1688 in the National Portrait Gallery shews a man of quite other mien, as does the different type presented to the College (2) by the sitter's son in 1691. There is a slightly closer resemblance to the oval portrait in the College (3), but this is itself a derivation of the Beale type, probably through Blooteling's engraving, and the sitter in (5) looks too young for Sydenham. The portrait is not closely datable, but must be post 1660, and perhaps as late as c. 1680. If a member of the Sydenham family, the likeliest candidate would be one of Thomas Sydenham's three sons, William Sydenham, L.R.C.P., pensioner of Pembroke c. 1674, d.c. 1738, but no portraits are known for comparison.

Bibliography: G. F. Sydenham, The History of the Sydenham Family, privately printed, 1928; Catalogue, 1964, pp. 396-405: Annals, 28 January 1965, p. 5.


Unknown man by Richmond  Portrait/X005T  1856

Drawing, black chalk, heightened with white, on paper originally white, 24 by 18 inches

Source of acquisition: Source and date of acquisition unknown.


Contents:
By George Richmond,
Head and shoulders to left, head tilted slightly forward and eyes looking at spectator, the left shoulder cut by the picture edge, the hands not shewn; very dark brown wavy hair, side whiskers, point of chin clean shaven, thick eyebrows, narrow lips touched with carmine; tall shirt collar, coat and waistcoat lightly indicated. Signed and dated, bottom left: George Richmond delit. 1856. Laid down on a cardboard mount 25¾ by 19¾ inches. As with many of Richmond's drawings, the colour of the paper has changed to mid-brown, leaving the work now very much out of key.
The sitter is not Dr. P. M. Latham, the copyright of which is entered in Richmond's accounts for 1854. Richmond's drawing of him, an older man, looking to the right, was engraved by F. Holl. It has not proved possible to equate our drawing with any of the extracts c. 1856 from Richmond's diaries, a copy of which is in the library of the National Portrait Gallery.

Sir Isaac Wolfson Bt. 1897- Hon. F. 1959  Portrait/X148  1953

Bronze bust, 22 inches high, including base 2¼ inches high

Source of acquisition: Commissioned by the College, 1966.


Copies information: A replica made by the Art Bronze Foundry of the original in the sitter's possession, which was presumably the bust exhibited at the Royal Academy, 1954 (1236): the sitter was painted by Sir James Gunn, Royal Academy, 1955 (303). A photograph was taken by Godfrey Argent for the National Photographic Record in 1969.


Administrative history:
The young Wolfson left Queens Park School, Glasgow, at the age of 14 and worked in his father's cabinet-making business in Glasgow, earning 5 shillings a week. His father was a refugee from East Europe. When Isaac was only 9 his father referred to him as 'a financial genius'.
In his 20's, Isaac Wolfson went to London, starting as supplier and merchandise consultant to Great Universal Stores (GUS - the mail order business), becoming joint Managing Director, with Mr George Rose, in 1932, and Chairman in 1946. Under his guidance, GUS pioneered the mass production of furniture. An article in the Sunday Times (1961) called him 'one of the greatest shopkeepers in this nation of shopkeepers'.
In 1955 he founded and became Trustee and first Chairman of the Wolfson Foundation for the advancement of health, education and youth activities in the UK and Commonwealth. A magnificent donation from the Foundation to the RCP, through the mediation of Lord Evans (q.v.), largely made possible the move of the College to its splendid premises in Regent's Park.
Deeply religious, Wolfson is devoted to Israel, where he is a Trustee of the Religious Centre in Jerusalem and Honorary President and Fellow of the Weizmann Institute of Science.
An emotional, volatile man with great warmth and charm; non-smoker and tee-totaller; an enthusiast, always teeming with ideas; at times undeniably demanding of others but totally commanding their loyalty. Thickset and handsome, the Sunday Times described him as 'Spencer Tracy playing the part of Isaac Wolfson'.

Contents:
By Sir William Reid Dick
Head and shoulders, slightly receding hair brushed back, eyes directed slightly to right, lips parted: coat with broad lapels, waistcoat, soft collar, tie: incised on the back of the shoulders: W REID DICK 53.

Bibliography: Royal Academy Illustrated, 1954, p. 87: Commentary, July 1968, p. 81.


A Dwarf  Portrait/X265  n.d

Canvas stuck down on board, 29 by 24 inches

Source of acquisition: Given by Dr. E. C. Carter, 1950.


Contents:
Artist unknown
Three-quarter length, seated to right, his eyes closed; his right hand resting on his stomach.
Apparently of the mid-seventeenth century, not certainly English but possibly Dutch.

The Maniac  Portrait/X18  n.d

Oils on canvas, 60 by 50 inches

Source of acquisition: Presented in 1871 by the Committee of Hanwell Asylum


Contents:
Attributed to George Dawe
A nude male figure, sitting crouched to left, leaning forward, his elbows on his knees, arms crossed, hands clutching his shoulders; bearded with ruffled hair, and a dark contorted face; stormy background.
Said to have belonged to Mr. Field "into whose possession it came direct from Russia" (Dawe was working in Russia from 1819 to 1829). It has been suggested that the figure was inspired by one of the spirits of the damned in Michelangelo's Last Judgement in the Sistine Chapel at the Vatican.

Bibliography: als. from Henry Merritt, 23, 26, 28 May 1873; from W. C. Bagley, 11 May 1873; Roll, III, 397; 1900 List; 1926 Catalogue. The Last judgement has been frequently reproduced: details of a somewhat analogous figure are reproduced by L. Goldscheider, The Paintings of Michelangelo, (Phaidon, 1948), pls. 118, 130.


John Abernethy 1764-1831  Portrait/X006T  1793

Pencil and sanguine, on paper, 9¾ by 72/5 inches

Source of acquisition: Bought 1940; from the collection of the artist's great-grand-daughter.


Administrative history:
The eminent surgeon John Abernethy was born in London, the son of a merchant. He was educated at Wolverhampton Grammar School and was apprenticed at fifteen to a surgeon at St. Bartholomew's Hospital. In 1787 he was elected assistant-surgeon at this hospital; he held this post for twenty-eight years, becoming full surgeon in 1815. He also began to lecture in anatomy and achieved rapid popularity. His success induced the hospital to install a lecture theatre in 1791 and his lectures there constituted the foundation of the St. Bartholomew's Hospital Medical School. He also lectured at the College of Surgeons.
He was greatly influenced by John Hunter's lectures; his own were chiefly an exposition and defence of Hunter's work. Abernethy's many books included a memoir, the Classification of Tumours, and his Surgical Works, which contained his most important contribution, an essay entitled The Constitutional Origin of Local Diseases, which led to the study of the diet and general health of surgical patients.
He had early fame as a surgeon and made several practical contributions, including the restriction of the indiscriminate use of trephining then customary. His later fame was rather due to his vigorous, forceful personality, which compelled attention and the acceptance of his views. In private life he was straight-forward and independent to the point of rudeness, but he was a sincere and generous man.

Contents:
By (?) George Dance,
Half length, seated to left in profile; inscribed in pencil below: John Abernethy Esq Surgeon.
A copy, possibly by Dance himself, of the signed drawing of 1793 now in the National Portrait Gallery. This copy is clearly made for the soft-ground etching by William Daniell, which corresponds exactly to it (in reverse), and may have been made by the engraver.
The best known portrait, by Lawrence, of about 1820, belongs to St. Bartholomew's Hospital; it was engraved by W. Bromley and others, and various copies exist.
Abernethy was also painted by G. Pegler (exhibited at the Royal Academy, 1828), and at least four busts are recorded: one by S. Joseph (Royal Academy, 1819), a second by R. W. Sievier (Royal Academy, 1828), and two posthumous busts: by Chantrey (Royal Academy, 1833) and by W. Groves (Royal Academy, 1837).

Robert Batty 1763-1849 L. 1804  Portrait/X007T  1799

Pencil on paper, 97/10 by 73/5 inches

Source of acquisition: Bought in 1940; from the collection of Miss M. Dance, great-grand-daughter of the artist.


Administrative history:
Robert Batty was born at Kirkby Lonsdale in Westmorland. He studied medicine in London and Edinburgh, receiving his doctorate in medicine at St. Andrews University in 1797.
He settled in London and began to practise there as an obstetric physician, becoming physician to the Lying-In Hospital in Brownlow Street. In 1800 he was admitted to the College as a Licentiate in Midwifery; this distinct order had been created by the College in 1783, in recognition of the development of midwifery as a branch of medicine. Batty became a Licentiate of the College in 1804.
For many years he was editor of the Medical and Physical Journal. He was also well-known as an amateur artist; his son Robert took after him in this and illustrated books of his own adventures in Wellington's army.
Batty retired to Hastings towards the end of his life, dying there at the age of eighty-six.

Contents:
By (?) George Dance,
Half length, in profile to left, inscribed at the bottom in pencil: Dr. Batty.
A copy, either by Dance himself or by William Daniell, for the soft-ground etching by latter, inscribed George Dance delt April 8 1799, published in 1810, and included in Dance's Collection of Portraits, vol. II, 1814. The location of Dance's original drawing from the life is at present unknown; it was exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1799 (449), and sold after the death of his grandson, the Rev. G. Dance, at Christies, 1 July 1898.
In the Print Room of the British Museum is a drawing by W. H. Clift.

Sir James Risdon Bennett]  Portrait/X008T  1908

Pastel on fine white cloth, 23 by 20 inches

Source of acquisition: Presented in 1908 by his son Dr. H. Selfe Bennett. Posthumous.


Contents:
By L. S. Breslau
Head and shoulders, square to the spectator; head turned to right and looking in the same direction; sparse grey hair brushed back from the forehead, grey curling side-whiskers; blue eyes, wide mouth, chin clean-shaven; white shirt, black bow tie, dark suit; wearing the President's gown, black embroidered with gold; lit from the left; signed low on the left: L. S. Breslau 1908.
A bust by W. Jones was shown at the Royal Academy in 1846; also a portrait by Miss M. A. Nichols in 1850, and another by F. Piercy in 1879.

Bibliography: Annals, 29 October 1908; 1926 Catalogue.


Golding Bird 1814-1854  Portrait/X009T  n.d

Miniature plaster bust; Has for some time been broken; the head only (about 2 inches high) remains, remounted roughly on the original socle; hair parted to the left; side-whiskers; chin clean-shaven; eyes not incised.

Archival history:
not located in 1963

Source of acquisition: Presented by C. H. Golding Bird, F.R.C.S., in 1924.


Contents:
By an unknown artist

Bibliography: 1926 Catalogue.


William Brinton 1823-1867 F. 1854  Portrait/X208  c. 1864

Oils on canvas, 29 by 25 inches

Archival history:
probably the portrait by Armitage exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1864.

Source of acquisition: Presented in 1924 by his son, Mr. Hubert Brinton


Administrative history:
William Brinton studied medicine at King's College, London. In 1852 he was elected physician to the Royal Free Hospital, and in 1860 to St. Thomas's, but this appointment came to an end after only four years because of his poor health. Brinton made a study of intestinal obstruction and published many works on the digestive system. Outside his work he was known to his friends for his passion for climbing in the Tyrol. He was a skilled artist and a witty speaker, but he found it hard to accept disappointment, as when he failed to get the chair of physiology at King's in succession to R. B. Todd.

Contents:
By Edward Armitage
Short half length; very dark brown hair; pale grey eyes; white shirt, black bow tie, dark suit; background plain dark brown.

Bibliography: Annals, 29 July 1925; 1926 Catalogue (wrongly as by Edward Armstrong).


Sir Thomas Browne 1605-1682 F. 1664  Portrait/X224  n.d

Panel, 23 by 19 inches

Archival history:
Assumed to have been presented by his eldest son, Dr. Edward Browne (President from 1704 until his death in 1708); noted as in the College by about 1733 by Vertue. Miss Tyldesley (p. 13), who examined the painting shortly after it was cleaned, stated that she could make out the "folds of the cloak as it was gathered together by his arms. The hands covered with brown gauntlet gloves, are clasped in front." These details are now indistinguishable.

Copies information: The portrait is probably not painted from the life, but from an original now lost. Another version, painted by J. Wollaston in 1734, possibly from the College portrait, is in the Bodleian Library. The first engraving recorded is that by J. Brown, 1849; there have been numerous later engravings and reproductions.


Administrative history:
This learned physician and distinguished writer was descended from an ancient family in Cheshire. He was educated at Winchester and Oxford. Later he travelled in France, Italy and Holland, taking the degree of doctor of medicine at Leyden in 1633. He then settled in Norwich. The publication (at first without his knowledge) of his Religio Medici at once brought him into public notice. In this partly sceptical, partly credulous work--"a private exercise directed to myself"--Browne asserted the right to be guided by his own reason where no precise guidance was given by scriptures or by church teaching. In Rome the book was placed in the Index Expurgatorius. His reputation at Norwich was very great and for many years he was the most successful and trusted medical man in that part of the country. Editions of the Religio Medici appeared in rapid succession and his fame, both at home and abroad, was fully maintained by the publication of other treatises, which, if not equal to his first work, were nevertheless highly creditable to him as a scholar and critic. In December 1664 he was elected an Honorary Fellow of the College of Physicians, as a person "virtute et literis ornatissimus", and on 28 September 1671 he was knighted by Charles II, then on his way through Norwich.
"He had an aversion to all finery and affected plainness both in the fashion and ornament. He kept himself always very warm and thought it most safe so to do, though he never loaded himself with such a multitude of garments as Suetonius reports of Augustus, enough to clothe a good family. He was never seen to be transported with mirth or dejected with sadness. Always cheerful but rarely merry; seldom heard to break a jest and when he did he would be apt to blush at the levity of it; his gravity was natural and without affectation. Parsimonious in nothing but his time, whereof he made as much improvement with as little loss as any man in it; when he had any to spare from his practice, he was scarce patient of any diversion from his study, so impatient of sloth and idleness that he would say he could not do nothing. He understood most of the European languages, Latin and Greek critically, and a little Hebrew. He went to church constantly when he was not prevented by his practice, and never missed the sacrament of his parish, he was in town. He read the best English sermons he could hear of, and delighted not in controversies."
MacMichael, Lives of Brit. Physicians, 2nd ed., Lond. 1857.
Dr. Johnson said of him: "He fell into an age in which our language began to lose the stability which it obtained in the time of Elizabeth; and was considered by every writer as a subject on which he might try his plastic skill by moulding it according to his own fancy. Milton, in consequence of this encroaching licence, began to introduce the Latin idiom and Browne, though he gave less disturbance to our structures and phraseology, yet poured in a multitude of exotic words; many indeed useful and significant but many superfluous and some so obscure that they conceal his meaning rather than explain it." The Encyclopaedia Britannica, however, concludes: "But the whole strength of his genius and the wonderful charm of his style are to be sought in the Urne-buriall, the concluding chapter of which, for richness of imagery and majestic pomp of diction, can hardly be paralleled in the English language."

Contents:
By an unknown artist
A short half length; long black hair, brown moustache, dark eyes; plain white falling collar, black gown; dark background; inscribed: Thomas Brown. Eques. Auratus.

Bibliography: Vertue; 1864 Catalogue, p. 7; Roll, III, 393; 1900 List; 1926 Catalogue; Miss M. L. Tyldesley, in Sir Thomas Browne: his Skull, Portraits, and Ancestry, (Biometrika, vol. XV, reprinted for subscribers in 1923), discusses in great detail the portraits of Sir Thomas Browne, and reproduces most of them. The other most important portraits are the double portrait with his wife and the plumbago drawing (both in the National Portrait Gallery); the painting at the church of St. Peter Mancroft, Norwich; the Buccleuch miniature; the engraving by Van Hove and that used for the 1669 (5th) edition of Pseudodoxia.


Sir Thomas Browne 1605-1682 F. 1664  Portrait/X87  1905

Bronze statuette, 12½ inches high (not including wooden base)

Source of acquisition: Provenance unknown; acquired before 1923.


Copies information: A miniature version of Pegram's life-size statue in the Haymarket, Norwich (unveiled by Lord Avebury, October 1905). Pegram exhibited the full-scale model for the statue at the Royal Academy in 1906, and a bronze statuette of it, similar to the College one, in 1907.


Administrative history:
This learned physician and distinguished writer was descended from an ancient family in Cheshire. He was educated at Winchester and Oxford. Later he travelled in France, Italy and Holland, taking the degree of doctor of medicine at Leyden in 1633. He then settled in Norwich. The publication (at first without his knowledge) of his Religio Medici at once brought him into public notice. In this partly sceptical, partly credulous work--"a private exercise directed to myself"--Browne asserted the right to be guided by his own reason where no precise guidance was given by scriptures or by church teaching. In Rome the book was placed in the Index Expurgatorius. His reputation at Norwich was very great and for many years he was the most successful and trusted medical man in that part of the country. Editions of the Religio Medici appeared in rapid succession and his fame, both at home and abroad, was fully maintained by the publication of other treatises, which, if not equal to his first work, were nevertheless highly creditable to him as a scholar and critic. In December 1664 he was elected an Honorary Fellow of the College of Physicians, as a person "virtute et literis ornatissimus", and on 28 September 1671 he was knighted by Charles II, then on his way through Norwich.
"He had an aversion to all finery and affected plainness both in the fashion and ornament. He kept himself always very warm and thought it most safe so to do, though he never loaded himself with such a multitude of garments as Suetonius reports of Augustus, enough to clothe a good family. He was never seen to be transported with mirth or dejected with sadness. Always cheerful but rarely merry; seldom heard to break a jest and when he did he would be apt to blush at the levity of it; his gravity was natural and without affectation. Parsimonious in nothing but his time, whereof he made as much improvement with as little loss as any man in it; when he had any to spare from his practice, he was scarce patient of any diversion from his study, so impatient of sloth and idleness that he would say he could not do nothing. He understood most of the European languages, Latin and Greek critically, and a little Hebrew. He went to church constantly when he was not prevented by his practice, and never missed the sacrament of his parish, he was in town. He read the best English sermons he could hear of, and delighted not in controversies."
MacMichael, Lives of Brit. Physicians, 2nd ed., Lond. 1857.
Dr. Johnson said of him: "He fell into an age in which our language began to lose the stability which it obtained in the time of Elizabeth; and was considered by every writer as a subject on which he might try his plastic skill by moulding it according to his own fancy. Milton, in consequence of this encroaching licence, began to introduce the Latin idiom and Browne, though he gave less disturbance to our structures and phraseology, yet poured in a multitude of exotic words; many indeed useful and significant but many superfluous and some so obscure that they conceal his meaning rather than explain it." The Encyclopaedia Britannica, however, concludes: "But the whole strength of his genius and the wonderful charm of his style are to be sought in the Urne-buriall, the concluding chapter of which, for richness of imagery and majestic pomp of diction, can hardly be paralleled in the English language."

Contents:
By Henry Pegram
Seated figure in seventeenth-century costume, holding a shard of pottery, leaning head on hand. Incised: HENRY PEGRAM, 1905.

Richard Budd 1746-1821 F. 1777  Portrait/X010T  1798

Pencil and sanguine on paper, 97/10 by 7½ inches

Source of acquisition: Bought 1940, from the collection of the artist's great-grand-daughter.


Administrative history:
Richard Budd was born at Newbury in Berkshire; his father was a successful and influential banker in that town. He studied medicine at Jesus College, Cambridge, where his great-great-grandfather had founded a scholarship in 1630, and became a doctor of medicine in 1775.
He practised at first in Newbury, moving to London in 1780. In the same year he was elected physician to St. Bartholomew's Hospital, a post he held until his retirement in 1801. He was also physician to Christ's Hospital, where he was responsible for introducing potatoes into the school diet.
He was elected Censor of the College six times and was Treasurer from 1799 until 1814.
Budd was known as a strong-willed, positive and impetuous man. He married the only child of a wealthy city merchant, and so was not dependent on medicine for his income. One of his sons, the Rev. Henry Budd, became well known as an evangelical clergyman and, through his father's indefatigable canvassing, obtained the chaplaincy of the Bridewell Hospital.

Contents:
By (?) George Dance,
Half length seated to left in profile, in an arm-chair; coat with a big turn-down collar; wearing his own hair tied in a queue, bald on the crown, aquiline nose, high forehead; inscribed in pencil at the bottom: Dr. Budd of Craven St.
A copy, either by Dance himself or by William Daniell, for the purposes of the soft-ground etching by the latter, inscribed Geo Dance delt June 21 1798, published in 1812, and included in Dance's Collection of Portraits, vol. II, 1814. The original drawing was sold with the collection of the artist's grandson, G. Dance, at Christies, 1 July 1898.

Sir George Burrows, Bt. 1801-1887 F. 1832 P. 1871-1876  Portrait/X193  1871

Panel, 37¼ by 28 inches

Archival history:
It was painted apparently October/November 1871, and exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1873; Richmond was paid 200 guineas.

Source of acquisition: Given by Mrs. Esmée Willett, wife of the sitter's grandson, 1953.



Related information: See also Portrait/X256
The College also possesses two photographs of Burrows. A presentation portrait for St. Bartholomew's Hospital was painted by J. P. Knight in 1865.

Administrative history:
George Burrows was born in London and went to school at Ealing, where the future Cardinal Newman was among his fellow pupils. He studied at St. Bartholomew's Hospital before going up to Caius College, Cambridge, in 1820. As an undergraduate he distinguished himself both at work and in sport, being a prominent cricketer and oarsman as well as successively a scholar, Tancred student and tenth Wrangler.
In 1841 he was appointed full physician at St. Bartholomew's Hospital, an office which he held for twenty-two years, and became sole lecturer on medicine. His most notable service, however, was given to the Royal College of Physicians where he rose to be Senior Censor and finally, from 1871 to 1876, President. He was appointed physician-extraordinary to the Queen in 1870 and physician-in-ordinary three years later; he was made a baronet in 1874.
From its earliest days he was connected with the British Medical Association, whose founder, Sir Charles Hastings, was his cousin. He himself was President in 1862. His only contributions to medical literature were a book on The Disorders of the Cerebral Circulation (1846) and articles on measles, scarlet fever and haemorrhage in Tweedie's Library of Medicine. Both as a teacher and in his practice he was a thorough, competent exponent of established methods.

Contents:
By George Richmond,
Half length, seated, his head turned slightly to the right; a book in his left hand, his pince-nez in his right; light brown hair and side-whiskers; blue eyes; wearing the President's gown over a dark suit; plain brown background.

Bibliography: Copy of Richmond's Account Books, National Portrait Gallery Library.


Sir George Burrows, Bt. 1801-1887 F. 1832 P. 1871-1876  Portrait/X256  n.d

Panel, 37¼ by 28 inches

Source of acquisition: Copied in 1888, and presented to the College by friends of the sitter in 1889.



Related information: The College also possesses two photographs of Burrows. A presentation portrait for St. Bartholomew's Hospital was painted by J. P. Knight in 1865.

Administrative history:
George Burrows was born in London and went to school at Ealing, where the future Cardinal Newman was among his fellow pupils. He studied at St. Bartholomew's Hospital before going up to Caius College, Cambridge, in 1820. As an undergraduate he distinguished himself both at work and in sport, being a prominent cricketer and oarsman as well as successively a scholar, Tancred student and tenth Wrangler.
In 1841 he was appointed full physician at St. Bartholomew's Hospital, an office which he held for twenty-two years, and became sole lecturer on medicine. His most notable service, however, was given to the Royal College of Physicians where he rose to be Senior Censor and finally, from 1871 to 1876, President. He was appointed physician-extraordinary to the Queen in 1870 and physician-in-ordinary three years later; he was made a baronet in 1874.
From its earliest days he was connected with the British Medical Association, whose founder, Sir Charles Hastings, was his cousin. He himself was President in 1862. His only contributions to medical literature were a book on The Disorders of the Cerebral Circulation (1846) and articles on measles, scarlet fever and haemorrhage in Tweedie's Library of Medicine. Both as a teacher and in his practice he was a thorough, competent exponent of established methods.

Contents:
By Miss G. Donkin after Richmond
A faithful copy of Portrait/X193

Bibliography: Annals, 7 February 1889; 1900 List; 1926 Catalogue.


Sir George Burrows, Bt. 1801-1887 F. 1832 P. 1871-1876  Portrait/X185  1873

Marble bust, 28 inches high, on a circular socle; Slightly damaged on the base and in the drapery.

Source of acquisition: Exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1874 (no. 1576); bequeathed to the College by the sitter, 1888.



Related information: The College also possesses two photographs of Burrows. A presentation portrait for St. Bartholomew's Hospital was painted by J. P. Knight in 1865.

Administrative history:
George Burrows was born in London and went to school at Ealing, where the future Cardinal Newman was among his fellow pupils. He studied at St. Bartholomew's Hospital before going up to Caius College, Cambridge, in 1820. As an undergraduate he distinguished himself both at work and in sport, being a prominent cricketer and oarsman as well as successively a scholar, Tancred student and tenth Wrangler.
In 1841 he was appointed full physician at St. Bartholomew's Hospital, an office which he held for twenty-two years, and became sole lecturer on medicine. His most notable service, however, was given to the Royal College of Physicians where he rose to be Senior Censor and finally, from 1871 to 1876, President. He was appointed physician-extraordinary to the Queen in 1870 and physician-in-ordinary three years later; he was made a baronet in 1874.
From its earliest days he was connected with the British Medical Association, whose founder, Sir Charles Hastings, was his cousin. He himself was President in 1862. His only contributions to medical literature were a book on The Disorders of the Cerebral Circulation (1846) and articles on measles, scarlet fever and haemorrhage in Tweedie's Library of Medicine. Both as a teacher and in his practice he was a thorough, competent exponent of established methods.

Contents:
By M. Wagmüller,
Head turned to the right, the eyes incised; a drapery over his shirt which is unfastened at the throat. Inscribed at the back: M. Wagmüller. München. 1873.

Bibliography: Annals, 2 February 1888; 1900 List; 1926 Catalogue.


Sir William Butts d. 1545 F. 1529  Portrait/X225  c.1880

Oils on panel, 18½ by 15 inches

Source of acquisition: Presented by the painter, George Richmond, R.A., in 1880.


Copies information: The original portrait by Holbein, formerly in the possession of Pole Carew, is now in the Gardner Museum, Boston, U.S.A., together with the companion portrait of his wife. A good early copy is in the National Portrait Gallery.


Administrative history:
William Butts was educated at Gonville Hall, Cambridge, of which he became a Fellow. He was admitted a Fellow of the College of Physicians in 1529 and although highly esteemed by his colleagues he apparently never filled any collegiate office. He was a physician and close confidant of Henry VIII and he seems to have been favourable to the Reformation. He was a friend of Wolsey, Cranmer, and Hugh Latimer, and was immortalized by Shakespeare in Henry VIII. He appears in Holbein's picture of the delivery of the Charter to the Barber-Surgeons.
Sir William Butts is characterized in the Annals as "vir gravis, eximia literarum cognitione, singulari judicio, summa experientia, et prudenti consilio, doctor".

Contents:
Painted by George Richmond, after Hans Holbein
Short half length; grey hair; dark dress trimmed with fur, with a gold chain round his neck: inscribed ANNO AETATIS SVE. LIX. On the back of the panel is written: Sir William Butts/Principal Physician to Henry VIII/Copied by Geo. Richmond R.A./from the picture by Hans Holbein/belonging to Pole Carew Esq/and presented by the painter/to the Royal College of Physicians/through John W. Ogle Fellow/G.R. 1880.

Bibliography: Annals, 29 July 1880; 1900 List; 1926 Catalogue. For the Holbein references, see no. 2 below.


Sir William Butts d. 1545 F. 1529  Portrait/X172  n.d

Oils on panel, 15¾ by 12½ inches

Source of acquisition: Presented by Miss N. E. W. Collie, 1958; formerly in the collection of her aunt, Mrs. E. M. Hannes of High Sabington.


Administrative history:
William Butts was educated at Gonville Hall, Cambridge, of which he became a Fellow. He was admitted a Fellow of the College of Physicians in 1529 and although highly esteemed by his colleagues he apparently never filled any collegiate office. He was a physician and close confidant of Henry VIII and he seems to have been favourable to the Reformation. He was a friend of Wolsey, Cranmer, and Hugh Latimer, and was immortalized by Shakespeare in Henry VIII. He appears in Holbein's picture of the delivery of the Charter to the Barber-Surgeons.
Sir William Butts is characterized in the Annals as "vir gravis, eximia literarum cognitione, singulari judicio, summa experientia, et prudenti consilio, doctor".

Contents:
Copy after Hans Holbein
Half length, almost in profile to the right, holding gloves in his hand; dark brown with brown fur and a gold chain round his shoulders. In a painted oval inscribed: DOCTO VR WILLIAM BVTTS PHYSICIAN TO KING HENRY VIII/THE 1st DAYE OF MARCHE IN THE YERE OF OVR LORDE GOD 1540/THE THIRTIE SECONDE YERE of the REIGN of our SOVEREIGNE HENRY VIII.
Probably a nineteenth-century work, based on the figure of Butts that appears kneeling before Henry VIII in the group designed by Holbein of the Barber-Surgeons. Both the portrait in this group and that in the single head and shoulders at Boston were probably based by Holbein on one drawing from the life of c. 1540-43.

Bibliography: for Holbein's originals, see P. Ganz, Hans Holbein, 1950, pl. 165 (the Boston painting); R. C. Strong, "Holbein's Cartoon for the Barber-Surgeons Group Rediscovered", Burlington Magazine, vol. CV, 1963, pp. 4-14.


William Cadogan 1711-1797 F. 1758  Portrait/X127  1769

Oils on canvas, 32½ by 26 inches

Source of acquisition: Presented in 1828 by Dr. Whitlock Nicholl


Administrative history:
William Cadogan was born in London. A Fellow of the Royal Society, he was a man of pleasant manners and great good sense. He attracted much attention by his writing, which helped him to build up a lucrative practice. His Dissertation on the Gout and all Chronic Diseases, jointly considered as proceeding from the same Causes ran to eleven editions and called forth a large volume of criticism from persons of acknowledged standing in the profession as well as from others not so well known. He did not deign to reply.

Contents:
By Robert Edge Pine,
Half length, seated; grey wig, grey-brown eyes; white neckcloth; grey coat with gold buttons; on the table a folio volume, propped open, a (?)snuffbox in front of it; dark brown background.
This, or conceivably another version, was engraved in mezzotint by W. Dickinson with the inscription R. E. Pine Pinxit 1769... (the engraving, published in 1772, shows rather more of the design than does the painting).

Bibliography: Annals, 8 March 1828; 1864 Catalogue, p. II; Roll, III, 394; 1900 List; 1926 Catalogue.


John Caius 1510-1573 F. 1547 P. 1555-1560, 1562-1563, 1571  Portrait/X274  1882

Oils on canvas, 30¼ by 25¼ inches

Source of acquisition: Presented in 1882 by Dr. Waller Lewis


Copies information: the original at Caius (the early history of which is unknown) also bears the inscription Aetalis suae 53 Ano Dni 1563, and was engraved in mezzotint by J. Faber in 1714.


Administrative history:
John Caius was born in Norwich. He was educated at what was then Gonville Hall, Cambridge, and was translating Greek and Latin works at an early age. In 1539 he went to Italy and studied at Padua under John Baptist Montanus, the great medical teacher of his time. In 1543 he toured most of Italy, visiting all the most famous libraries, his principal aim being to produce correct editions of the works of Galen and Celsus. He was admitted a Fellow of the College of Physicians in 1547 when he returned to England.
He was physician to Edward VI, Mary and Elizabeth, but is said to have been removed from office in 1568 because he was a Roman Catholic. He was President of the College of Physicians from 1555 to 1560 inclusive, and was reappointed in 1562, 1563, and for the ninth and last time in 1571. When he first became President he began to collect together the transactions of the College from its foundation in 1518, thus establishing the Annals, which he maintained throughout his Presidency. He was an eminent defender of College rights and privileges and when, in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, a difference arose between the physicians and surgeons as to whether the surgeons might give internal remedies for sciatica, French pox, or any kind of ulcer or wound, he was summoned to appear before the Lord Mayor, before whom he learnedly defended the College's rights and attacked the surgeons' practice as being illegal.
Caius was the first to introduce the study of practical anatomy into this country, and the first to teach it publicly, which he did in the hall of the Barber-Surgeons shortly after his return from Italy. He is also believed to have practised medicine in Cambridge and in Shrewsbury and Norwich.
On 4th September 1557 Caius obtained the letters patent of Philip and Mary by which Gonville Hall, Cambridge, was refounded as Gonville and Caius College, Caius being declared a co-founder with Edmund Gonville and William Bateman, Bishop of Norwich. He enlarged the site of the college and built an additional court and the three unusual gates inscribed to Humility, to Virtue and Wisdom, and to Honour. He also endowed the college with lands, gave plate, money, books and other objects, and drew up an elaborate code of statutes for the college. He was persuaded to become Master of the college in 1588.
His intellectual acquirements were very typical of the age in which he lived. Like his distinguished predecessor, Linacre, he was a profound classical scholar, and devoted much of his time to the study of Greek medical authors. His numerous writings establish his claim to a reputation as a linguist, a critic, a physician, a naturalist, and an antiquary.
He was intimately acquainted with the works of Galen. All the medical knowledge of the sixteenth century was considered to be contained within the limits of that physician's voluminous writings and Caius held him in the greatest esteem and veneration. He compared and collated manuscripts of Galen's writings, producing the most correct editions which had so far appeared and rescuing many of his works from neglect. Not many new observations or discoveries in his profession may be expected from a person so in favour of a particular master, and Caius's own works in medicine on the whole confirm this judgement.
Caius appears to have been quite a distinguished naturalist. The accuracy, extent and originality of his information in several branches of natural history made him without equal among his contemporaries in this country, and with few superiors in Europe.

Contents:
A copy, by Claude Speechley of a painting by an unknown artist at Caius College, Cambridge
Half length, turned three-quarters to the right, his forearm resting on a ledge that fills the bottom part of the picture; his right hand holding a carnation and a glove(?), his left hand lying open on the ledge; black cap with round top, fitting close at the sides over his ears; face three-quarters to right; heavy dark grey beard and moustache; dark grey eyes looking at the spectator; black gown with small bows down the sleeves, over a black doublet; two plain gold chains round his neck; small white ruffles at the wrists; jewelled rings on the first and fourth fingers of the right hand and on the first finger of his left hand; plain brown background, lit from the right front; at the top left a coat of arms, and at the top right an inscription: QUISTUDIO EXCOLVIT MVSAS FIORE TIBI ANIS/COTVLIT & PATRIAE COMODA MAGNA SUAE/QVI STRAVIT FACILES ADIT, AD APOLLINIS ARTE/ET FECIT GRATOS VERBA LATINA LOQVI/QVI CATABRIGIAE CVNWELL I ICAE PTA MIVTA/AVXIT, & E PAR VO NOBILE FECIT OPUS/ET QVI MAVSOLEV LIACRO DONAVIT IAEDE/QVAE NUC DE PAVLI NOIE NOMEN HABET/QVI LUCE DEDIT & SOLATIA MAGNA CHIRUGIS/VT SCIRET PARTES ANATOMIA TVAS/ARTE MACHAOIA GALEUS PENE SECUNDUS/ET PATRIAE ATQ AEVI GLORIA RARA SVD/TALIS ERAT CAI, QVALE SVB IMAGIS VBRA/PENE HIC VIVETE PICTA TABELLA REFERT.
Arms were granted to Dr. Caius in 1561, as follows: "Arms; Or, semee with flowers gentle on a square marble stone Vert, two serpents erect their tails nowed together Azure, between a book Sable bossed Organised Gules with a flower gentle in his mouth ...Betokening by the book learning, by the two serpents resting upon the square Marble Stone, Wisdome with grace founded and stayed upon Vertue's sable stone, by sengrene and flower gentle Immortality that shall never fade, as though thus I should say: Ex prudentia et literis virtutis petra firmatis, immortalitas: that is to say, By wisdome and learning grafted in grace and vertue Men come to immortality". Quoted by Willis and Clark, Architectural History of Cambridge, I, 179. Sengrene is houseleek, and flower gentle is amaranth.

Bibliography: Annals, 7 March 1882; 1900 List; 1926 Catalogue; ms. letters from the copyist, 1882; see also below.


John Caius 1510-1573 F. 1547 P. 1555-1560, 1562-1563, 1571  Portrait/X86  c.1893

Oils on canvas, 28¼ by 23¼ inches

Source of acquisition: Presented by Sir Andrew Clark, in 1893, and painted shortly before.


Copies information: The portrait at Caius from which it is taken is said to have been bought in Padua by Sir James Fellowes and given to the Master of Caius about 1840; but a similar portrait seems to have been in Caius by 1620, when it was engraved for Holland's Herwologia. A similar wood engraving, facing the opposite way, which appeared in Caius's De Methodo Medendi (1556) is inscribed Aetalis Suae 43.


Administrative history:
John Caius was born in Norwich. He was educated at what was then Gonville Hall, Cambridge, and was translating Greek and Latin works at an early age. In 1539 he went to Italy and studied at Padua under John Baptist Montanus, the great medical teacher of his time. In 1543 he toured most of Italy, visiting all the most famous libraries, his principal aim being to produce correct editions of the works of Galen and Celsus. He was admitted a Fellow of the College of Physicians in 1547 when he returned to England.
He was physician to Edward VI, Mary and Elizabeth, but is said to have been removed from office in 1568 because he was a Roman Catholic. He was President of the College of Physicians from 1555 to 1560 inclusive, and was reappointed in 1562, 1563, and for the ninth and last time in 1571. When he first became President he began to collect together the transactions of the College from its foundation in 1518, thus establishing the Annals, which he maintained throughout his Presidency. He was an eminent defender of College rights and privileges and when, in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, a difference arose between the physicians and surgeons as to whether the surgeons might give internal remedies for sciatica, French pox, or any kind of ulcer or wound, he was summoned to appear before the Lord Mayor, before whom he learnedly defended the College's rights and attacked the surgeons' practice as being illegal.
Caius was the first to introduce the study of practical anatomy into this country, and the first to teach it publicly, which he did in the hall of the Barber-Surgeons shortly after his return from Italy. He is also believed to have practised medicine in Cambridge and in Shrewsbury and Norwich.
On 4th September 1557 Caius obtained the letters patent of Philip and Mary by which Gonville Hall, Cambridge, was refounded as Gonville and Caius College, Caius being declared a co-founder with Edmund Gonville and William Bateman, Bishop of Norwich. He enlarged the site of the college and built an additional court and the three unusual gates inscribed to Humility, to Virtue and Wisdom, and to Honour. He also endowed the college with lands, gave plate, money, books and other objects, and drew up an elaborate code of statutes for the college. He was persuaded to become Master of the college in 1588.
His intellectual acquirements were very typical of the age in which he lived. Like his distinguished predecessor, Linacre, he was a profound classical scholar, and devoted much of his time to the study of Greek medical authors. His numerous writings establish his claim to a reputation as a linguist, a critic, a physician, a naturalist, and an antiquary.
He was intimately acquainted with the works of Galen. All the medical knowledge of the sixteenth century was considered to be contained within the limits of that physician's voluminous writings and Caius held him in the greatest esteem and veneration. He compared and collated manuscripts of Galen's writings, producing the most correct editions which had so far appeared and rescuing many of his works from neglect. Not many new observations or discoveries in his profession may be expected from a person so in favour of a particular master, and Caius's own works in medicine on the whole confirm this judgement.
Caius appears to have been quite a distinguished naturalist. The accuracy, extent and originality of his information in several branches of natural history made him without equal among his contemporaries in this country, and with few superiors in Europe.

Contents:
Copy by Miss Humphrey from a painting by an unknown artist belonging to Caius College, Cambridge
Head and shoulders in profile to left; almost bald on the crown of the head; short greyish brown hair at the sides; dark brown eye; grey moustache, longish white pointed beard; a very narrow white ruffled collar showing at his neck; close fitting brown doublet with high collar, over it a plain dark mantle with hood, and border of dark brown fur; plain dark brown background; lit from the left.

Bibliography: Annals, 27 July 1893; 1900 List; 1926 Catalogue.
There are a number of engravings of later date, all based apparently on these two types. See C. G. Lewis, The Cambridge Portfolio, 1840, pp. 173/5; J. Venn, History of Gonville and Caius College, 1897-1901, II, p. 291; A. M. Hind, Engraving in England in the 16th. and 17th. Centuries, Part II (1955), p. 157, and pl. 81 (D) (the Herwologia engraving).


John Chambre 1461-1549 F. 1518  Portrait/X239  n.d

Miniature on vellum on card, oval, 17/8 by 1½ inches

Source of acquisition: Bought by the College in 1894; from the collection of Lady Mary Thompson, daughter of the 5th Earl Fitzwilliam, sold at Christies, 5 July 1894, lot 66.


Administrative history:
John Chambre was a native of Northumberland and was destined for the priesthood in early life. In the Church, unlike his distinguished colleague Linacre, who was middle-aged when he was ordained, Chambre obtained preferment before he turned to the study of medicine. He was the first in order of the six physicians specially mentioned in the letters patent of Henry VIII for the foundation of the Royal College of Physicians of London, but is remarkable rather for this position than for his services to the infant institution, in the management and success of which he does not appear to have been warmly interested.
Dr. Chambre was highly thought of by the King, as his pluralities in the Church may prove. His medical qualifications are known only from a manuscript "pharmacopoeia of plasters, spasmadraps and unguents". The directions given for the preparation of these medicaments are very complicated, and, as in all the prescriptions of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, amongst a few efficacious materials there are many which are worthless or out of place.

Contents:
By Peter (?) Oliver, after Hans Holbein
Head and shoulders; blue eyes; black cap with flaps covering his ears; dark coat with deep fur collar; blue background. In fair condition, with touches of restoration in the flesh and the background, but very little faded; mounted on an oval cut from a playing card (ten of spades).
Formerly ascribed to Isaac Oliver (Peter's father), but Peter seems more likely, and indeed this miniature may be identical with one by him that belonged to Charles I, and is described in Van der Doort's inventory of Charles I's collection (before 1640): Item don upon the wrong lighte upon a blew-grounded Card the Picture of doctor Chambers. Phisitian to king Henry the 8th in a black Capp in a furr'd gowne without a ruff in a black tournd box without a Christall.
Of 1¾ - of 1½. (The present frame is modern.)
It is a copy in small of the portrait by Holbein of about 1541-43(?); this is a half length, showing the hands, inscribed AETATIS SUE 88; it was engraved by Hollar in 1648, when in the Earl of Arundel's collection, and is now in the Kunsthistorische Museum, Vienna. The head of Chambre in Holbein's group of the Barber-Surgeons is apparently based on the same design.

Bibliography: Annals, 26 July 1894; 1900 List; 1926 Catalogue; "Abraham Van der Doort's Catalogue of the Collections of Charles I", ed. O. Millar (Walpole Society Publications, vol. XXXVII, 1960, p. 118); for Holbein's originals, see P. Ganz, Hans Holbein, 1950, and R. C. Strong, "Holbein's Cartoon for the Barber-Surgeons Group Rediscovered". Burlington Magazine, vol. CV, 1963, pp. 4-14.


John Chambre 1461-1549 F. 1518  Portrait/X37  n.d

Oils on panel, 11 by 9 inches

Source of acquisition: Date and source of acquisition uncertain.


Administrative history:
John Chambre was a native of Northumberland and was destined for the priesthood in early life. In the Church, unlike his distinguished colleague Linacre, who was middle-aged when he was ordained, Chambre obtained preferment before he turned to the study of medicine. He was the first in order of the six physicians specially mentioned in the letters patent of Henry VIII for the foundation of the Royal College of Physicians of London, but is remarkable rather for this position than for his services to the infant institution, in the management and success of which he does not appear to have been warmly interested.
Dr. Chambre was highly thought of by the King, as his pluralities in the Church may prove. His medical qualifications are known only from a manuscript "pharmacopoeia of plasters, spasmadraps and unguents". The directions given for the preparation of these medicaments are very complicated, and, as in all the prescriptions of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, amongst a few efficacious materials there are many which are worthless or out of place.

Contents:
Artist unknown (based on Holbein)
Half length to right; pointing to an anatomical plate in a folio which he holds open on a table to the right; a skull and hour-glass in the top left-hand corner. Inscribed: Anno Domi 1539[?] JOHANN CHAMBRE MD.
Apparently a modern pastiche, based on Holbein's image of Chambre (see no. I above), and by the same hand as the pastiche of Fludd (q.v.) also in the College.

Walter Charleton 1619-1707 F. 1664  Portrait/X36  n.d

Oils on canvas, 30½ by 25 inches

Source of acquisition: The date and source of acquisition of this picture are at present unknown; it was however, in the College by about 1733, when noted by Vertue. Exhibited, National Portrait Exhibition, 1866 (989).



Related information: It corresponds to an engraving by Loggan (inscribed D. Loggan ad vivum delin. et sculp.), which is dated 1679 and which was used for the Inquiries into Human Nature of 1680. In view of the inscription on the engraving, it is probable that the painting is made up from the engraving rather than vice versa: there is moreover no evidence that Loggan ever worked in oils. A copy, by J. Wollaston, is in the Bodleian Library.
An engraving of him as a young man, by P. Lombart, is prefixed to his Immortality of the Soul, 1657. A painting by Kneller, from Dr. Mead's collection, is in the Hunterian Collection in Glasgow University.

Administrative history:
Walter Charleton was born in Somerset. He was made a doctor of medicine at the time when Charles I retired to Oxford, after the civil war had broken out. Soon afterwards he was appointed physician to the King. He was one of two travelling physicians to Charles II and was appointed physician-in-ordinary to the King in Exile, an honour he retained after the Restoration. He was one of the original Fellows of the Royal Society, and practised for most of his life in London. A prolific writer, he published more than a score of works. His contemporary, Wood, described him as "a learned and an unhappy man, aged and grave, yet too much given to romances".

Contents:
Artist unknown (based probably on an engraving by David Loggan)
Head and shoulders; black hair; grey-brown eyes; plain white square-cut bands; black embroidered gown; background dark brown; spandrils painted in at the bottom but not at the top; inscribed in yellow letters: Gualterus. Charlton. M.D.

Bibliography: Vertue; Roll, III, 394; 1864 Catalogue, p. 8; 1900 List; 1926 Catalogue.


William Dingle Chowne 1791-1870 F. 1857  Portrait/X17a  n.d

Oils on canvas, 29¾ by 24¾ inches

Source of acquisition: Presented in 1889 by Sir Richard Webster, Q.C.(Lord Alverstone)


Administrative history:
William Chowne qualified in 1813 and then settled in practice in the Holland district of Lincolnshire. After several years, however, he abandoned his practice, took the degree of M.D. at Edinburgh University and continued his studies abroad. In 1833 he established himself as a physician in London. From 1834 until his death Charing Cross Hospital was his main interest; he was, in fact, one of the organizers and one of the four original managers of its Medical School. He was an advocate of sanitary reform and a frequent contributor to medical journals.

Contents:
By an unknown painter
Head and shoulders; short curly hair, brown touched with grey and thinning at the temples; dark blue-grey eyes, mutton chop side whiskers, mouth and chin clean-shaven; white wing-collar with a jewelled stud (no tie is visible); in a black gown with a crimson hood over his shoulders; dark brown background, with a red curtain on the right.

Bibliography: Annals, 19 December 1889; 1900 List; 1926 Catalogue.


Sir Andrew Clark, Bt. 1826-1893 F. 1858 P. 1888-1893  Portrait/X27  1888

Oils on canvas, 50¼ by 40 inches

Archival history:
Exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1888 (22).

Source of acquisition: Bequeathed in 1922 by his widow, Lady Clark


Administrative history:
Andrew Clark was born at Aberdeen. His mother did not survive his birth, and his father, a doctor, died when Clark was only seven. Two uncles took charge of his education and he was apprenticed to a doctor in Dundee at the age of thirteen. A threat of tuberculosis led him to take up a naval career, and from 1846 to 1853 he held a commission as an assistant surgeon, being employed on pathological work at Haslar for most of his service. In 1853 Clark applied successfully for the new curatorship of the museum at the London Hospital. His enthusiasm for the task of reorganizing the museum lost its impetus a year later when he was elected assistant physician to the Hospital, but he continued to hold his first office for another eight years. His new appointment revealed the true nature of his genius and although he never failed to stress the value of pathological aids, it was as a practising physician that he quickly built up a huge reputation for himself, both in the London Hospital's wards and in private practice. At the College he was elected Fellow in 1858 and President from 1888 until his death.
Clark owed his fame as London's leading physician entirely to his abilities as a practising consultant. These were manifested in his remarkable powers of observation, his thoroughness and his scientific approach--although he had little knowledge of science. His method of expression, verbal and written, was precise and distinctive. Such qualities inclined him to overestimate the influence of wrong habits of living on disease and to supply set formulae to meet the problems of every case. He was a man of serious turn of mind who never played a game and who for relaxation turned to theology and speculative philosophy. The Gladstones were among his friends and patients--he made their acquaintance at the time of the cholera epidemic of 1866--and not the least of his achievements was to preserve the Grand Old Man into a ripe and vigorous old age.

Contents:
By Frank Holl
Three-quarter length, seated; iron grey hair, beard and moustache; white wing collar, black cravat, black morning coat, dark grey trousers; a brown desk with an open book and pigeon holes behind; very dark background; signed: Frank Holl 1888.

Bibliography: Annals, 15 March 1922; 1926 Catalogue; A. M. Reynolds, The Life and Work of Frank Holl, 1912, p. 270.


Sir Andrew Clark, Bt. 1826-1893 F. 1858 P. 1888-1893  Portrait/X53  1894

Oils on canvas, 44½ by 33¼ inches

Archival history:
Exhibited at the Royal Academy, 1895 (511).

Source of acquisition: Presented in 1894 by Fellows and Members of the College and by Lady Clark; painted posthumously, "to a large extent from personal recollections only"



Related information: (a remarkably similar photograph from life is in the National Portrait Gallery archives)

Administrative history:
Andrew Clark was born at Aberdeen. His mother did not survive his birth, and his father, a doctor, died when Clark was only seven. Two uncles took charge of his education and he was apprenticed to a doctor in Dundee at the age of thirteen. A threat of tuberculosis led him to take up a naval career, and from 1846 to 1853 he held a commission as an assistant surgeon, being employed on pathological work at Haslar for most of his service. In 1853 Clark applied successfully for the new curatorship of the museum at the London Hospital. His enthusiasm for the task of reorganizing the museum lost its impetus a year later when he was elected assistant physician to the Hospital, but he continued to hold his first office for another eight years. His new appointment revealed the true nature of his genius and although he never failed to stress the value of pathological aids, it was as a practising physician that he quickly built up a huge reputation for himself, both in the London Hospital's wards and in private practice. At the College he was elected Fellow in 1858 and President from 1888 until his death.
Clark owed his fame as London's leading physician entirely to his abilities as a practising consultant. These were manifested in his remarkable powers of observation, his thoroughness and his scientific approach--although he had little knowledge of science. His method of expression, verbal and written, was precise and distinctive. Such qualities inclined him to overestimate the influence of wrong habits of living on disease and to supply set formulae to meet the problems of every case. He was a man of serious turn of mind who never played a game and who for relaxation turned to theology and speculative philosophy. The Gladstones were among his friends and patients--he made their acquaintance at the time of the cholera epidemic of 1866--and not the least of his achievements was to preserve the Grand Old Man into a ripe and vigorous old age.

Contents:
By Rudolph Lehmann,
Three-quarter length, seated to left in armchair, his right forearm resting on the arm of his chair, in the hand a folded diploma of the College bearing the College arms; his legs crossed; head almost in profile to the left; short grey hair, beard and moustache, dark grey eyes; white wing collar, very dark blue spotted cravat; wearing the President's gown, black heavily braided with gold; a signet ring on the third finger of the left hand; background lightish brown; lit from the right; signed at the bottom with monogram: RL 1894.

Bibliography: 1900 List; 1926 Catalogue; Royal Academy Pictures, 1895, p. 153 (reproduction): R. Lehmann and H. C. Marillier, Men and Women of the Century, 1896, p. 15 (with reproduction).


Sir Andrew Clark, Bt. 1826-1893 F. 1858 P. 1888-1893  Portrait/X237  n.d

Miniature painting on ivory, oval, 1¾ by 1½ inches

Source of acquisition: Presented by Mr. Oldfield Thomas, 1928.


Administrative history:
Andrew Clark was born at Aberdeen. His mother did not survive his birth, and his father, a doctor, died when Clark was only seven. Two uncles took charge of his education and he was apprenticed to a doctor in Dundee at the age of thirteen. A threat of tuberculosis led him to take up a naval career, and from 1846 to 1853 he held a commission as an assistant surgeon, being employed on pathological work at Haslar for most of his service. In 1853 Clark applied successfully for the new curatorship of the museum at the London Hospital. His enthusiasm for the task of reorganizing the museum lost its impetus a year later when he was elected assistant physician to the Hospital, but he continued to hold his first office for another eight years. His new appointment revealed the true nature of his genius and although he never failed to stress the value of pathological aids, it was as a practising physician that he quickly built up a huge reputation for himself, both in the London Hospital's wards and in private practice. At the College he was elected Fellow in 1858 and President from 1888 until his death.
Clark owed his fame as London's leading physician entirely to his abilities as a practising consultant. These were manifested in his remarkable powers of observation, his thoroughness and his scientific approach--although he had little knowledge of science. His method of expression, verbal and written, was precise and distinctive. Such qualities inclined him to overestimate the influence of wrong habits of living on disease and to supply set formulae to meet the problems of every case. He was a man of serious turn of mind who never played a game and who for relaxation turned to theology and speculative philosophy. The Gladstones were among his friends and patients--he made their acquaintance at the time of the cholera epidemic of 1866--and not the least of his achievements was to preserve the Grand Old Man into a ripe and vigorous old age.

Contents:
By an unknown artist
Head and shoulders to left, looking in the same direction; grizzled hair and beard, white collar, grey suit, red spotted cravat with jewelled pin; lit from the right. Set in a gold locket, with a cutting of his hair in the back, and inscribed round the edge of the case: ANDREW CLARK NOV: 6th 1893.

Bibliography: ms. letter from Oldfield Thomas, 16 May 1928


Sir Andrew Clark, Bt. 1826-1893 F. 1858 P. 1888-1893  Portrait/X186  1888

Marble (?) bust, 26 inches high

Source of acquisition: Presented by his widow, Lady Clark, in 1904; she wrote that she did "not consider it a very good likeness but it is better than nothing".



Related information: A portrait by Lilian Dickenson was shown at the Royal Academy in 1881, and in the National Portrait Gallery there is a painting by Watts.

Administrative history:
Andrew Clark was born at Aberdeen. His mother did not survive his birth, and his father, a doctor, died when Clark was only seven. Two uncles took charge of his education and he was apprenticed to a doctor in Dundee at the age of thirteen. A threat of tuberculosis led him to take up a naval career, and from 1846 to 1853 he held a commission as an assistant surgeon, being employed on pathological work at Haslar for most of his service. In 1853 Clark applied successfully for the new curatorship of the museum at the London Hospital. His enthusiasm for the task of reorganizing the museum lost its impetus a year later when he was elected assistant physician to the Hospital, but he continued to hold his first office for another eight years. His new appointment revealed the true nature of his genius and although he never failed to stress the value of pathological aids, it was as a practising physician that he quickly built up a huge reputation for himself, both in the London Hospital's wards and in private practice. At the College he was elected Fellow in 1858 and President from 1888 until his death.
Clark owed his fame as London's leading physician entirely to his abilities as a practising consultant. These were manifested in his remarkable powers of observation, his thoroughness and his scientific approach--although he had little knowledge of science. His method of expression, verbal and written, was precise and distinctive. Such qualities inclined him to overestimate the influence of wrong habits of living on disease and to supply set formulae to meet the problems of every case. He was a man of serious turn of mind who never played a game and who for relaxation turned to theology and speculative philosophy. The Gladstones were among his friends and patients--he made their acquaintance at the time of the cholera epidemic of 1866--and not the least of his achievements was to preserve the Grand Old Man into a ripe and vigorous old age.

Contents:
By Henry Bain-Smith,
On a circular socle; wearing gown, collar and cravat. Incised at the back: H. BAIN SMITH 1888. The stone has been painted.

Bibliography: Annals, 28 April 1904 (the bust was omitted for some reason from the 1926 Catalogue).


Sir James Clark, Bt. 1788-1870 L. 1826  Portrait/X121  1853

Oils on canvas, 49½ by 40 inches, by John Andrews

Source of acquisition: Presented in 1908 by Mrs. Forbes. Probably to be identified with the portrait exhibited by Andrews at the Royal Academy in 1853 (330): said to have been given to the donor's father-in-law, Sir John Forbes, by the sitter.



Related information: Portraits of the same sitter and of Lady Clark, by Bryce Smith (probably miniatures) were shown at the Academy in 1848; there is also a portrait etching by James Sant, and a drawing (in the Scottish National Portrait Gallery by A. J. Stewart.

Administrative history:
James Clark spent the early part of his career in the Navy, in Canada, North America and the West Indies, and then practised for several years in Rome. His visits to the chief continental spas impressed on him the importance of climate and mineral waters in the treatment of disease, and he used mineral waters extensively and successfully in his practice when he settled in London in 1826. His best and most important work, The Influence of Climate in the Prevention and Cure of Chronic Diseases, more particularly of the Chest and Digestive Organs, established his reputation, and in 1835 the Duchess of Kent appointed him her physician-in-ordinary, which meant that Princess Victoria was in his medical care. The eyes of the nation were fixed on the Princess and attention was necessarily attracted to Clark, whose practice and reputation increased rapidly.
Early in Queen Victoria's reign, the sad case of Lady Flora Hastings occurred to mar his prospects. The general public assumed that he had supported a slander against her character by sharing suspicions which his medical knowledge should have cleared away. The exact facts may never be known, but Clark certainly gave advice which, had it been followed, would have cleared Lady Flora's name. As it was, he bore the blame and his practice suffered. The affair was never wholly forgotten. It is not clear whether he was offered the Fellowship and refused it, or was elected and not admitted because of the scandal at Court. However, long before his death it was realized that he had been wrongly blamed.
With this exception, his career was prosperous. "Always about the Court, high in the favour of the sovereign and known to be greatly esteemed by the Prince Consort, he became the person to whom statesmen constantly referred for advice connected with medical matters and polity. He was always ready with advice, with suggestion and wise, carefully considered counsel. To him the medical section of the University of London owes its shape and much of its usefulness and to him the College of Chemistry chiefly owes existence and many other institutions much of their support."*
* Lancet, 9 July 1870.

Contents:
Almost whole length, seated, holding in his left hand his yellowish gloves, in his right a black silk top-hat; dark eyes, short grey hair and side-whiskers, bald on the crown of the head; striped stock, tied with a bow, white shirt front, black waistcoat, long brown coat open down the front with broad silk-faced lapels.

Bibliography: Annals, 30 July 1908; 1926 Catalogue (neither states the artist).


Sir Charles Mansfield Clarke, Bt. 1782-1857 F. 1836  Portrait/X119  1832(?)

Oils on canvas, 50 by 39 inches

Archival history:
Presumably the portrait exhibited by Lane at the Royal Academy in 1832 (75). Engraved by T. Hodgetts, 1833; by J. Cochran (for the National Portrait Gallery 1846/48); and by David Lucas. Lent by the sitter's daughter, Miss Clarke, National Portrait Exhibition, 1868, no. 326. This is presumably the original, and no other versions are recorded, but the 1868 catalogue records rather mystifyingly that it is dated at the back "Aug. 21, 1847" (not now visible), so that there is a possibility that there were two versions.

Source of acquisition: Presented in 1957 by his great grand-daughter, Lady Kathleen Bingham


Administrative history:
Charles Mansfield Clarke was the son of a surgeon of Chancery Lane, London. After leaving St. Paul's school he studied medicine at St. George's Hospital and the Hunterian school. He served for a few years as surgeon in the army, but left it to specialize in diseases of women and children. He was surgeon to Queen Charlotte's Lying-In Hospital until about 1821, and published his Observations on those Diseases of Women which are attended by Discharges. After appointment as physician to Queen Adelaide he received a baronetcy, and both Cambridge and Oxford awarded him honorary degrees.
Highly thought of within the profession, Clarke was the personal friend of its leading celebrities, but he would go out of his way to attend the families of unknown doctors. He was president, and an enthusiastic supporter, of the Society for the Relief of the Widows and Orphans of Medical Men.

Contents:
By Samuel Lane,
Almost whole length, seated in black court dress: his right elbow on table to the left, his hand to his chin; in his left hand a book. Papers and inkpot on the table; a rich red curtain behind with a landscape glimpsed on the right. Bald head, greyish-white side-whiskers.

John Clarke ?1582-1653 F. 1622 P. 1645-1650  Portrait/X63  c.1645/50

Oils on canvas, 29¾ by 25 inches

Source of acquisition: Presented in 1709 by his grand-daughter, Anne, daughter of Sir John Micklethwaite; painted about 1645/50.



Related information: Annals, 6 May 1709; 1 July 1709; 1864 Catalogue, p. 12; Roll, I, 180; III, 394; 1900 List; 1926 Catalogue.

Administrative history:
John Clarke was born at Wethersfield in Essex, of a family long-established there. He went up to Cambridge to study medicine, taking his M.D. at Christ's College in 1615, and moved to London to practise.
In 1634 he succeeded to the post of second physician at St. Bartholomew's Hospital. This position had been created because Harvey, the physician to the hospital and also the king's physician, was so frequently absent at Court. Clarke was therefore a contemporary of Harvey at St. Bartholomew's. Apparently they were never more than acquaintances, and the differences between them became more marked with time. These differences were partly political; during the Civil War, Harvey followed the Court on its movements around the country, while Clarke, a Parliamentarian, remained in London and organized medical aid for the Parliamentary army. For these services, the House of Commons tried unsuccessfully to replace Harvey at St. Bartholomew's by Clarke's son-in-law. Clarke's enhanced prestige, resulting from the war, led to increasing power within the College, and he became President in 1645. Harvey apparently refused to attend meetings during Clarke's presidency and did not resume his duties at St. Bartholomew's.
Clarke became reader in Anatomy at the College. During his presidency, he brought out a new edition of the College Pharmacopoeia (1650). Apart from this, he left no written works, nor did he make any original contributions to medical knowledge. Nevertheless, he was influential and well-known in the medical profession during his lifetime. He built up a flourishing practice in London and Essex. A dispute is recorded between Clarke and Dr. Laurence Wright, who had a neighbouring practice; evidently Clarke emerged the victor from this quarrel.
Clarke added properties to the family estate and finally acquired the manor of Wethersfield, thus greatly improving the social position of his descendants.

Contents:
By an unknown artist
Short half-length; sparse long grey hair; grey eyes; grey moustache and tuft on lower lip; whitish turn-down collar, with tasselled strings; very dark gown; background very dark brown; inscribed in yellow letters: Johannes. Clarke: M.D.

John Clendinning 1798-1848 F. 1828  Portrait/X297  1842

Oils on canvas, 35¾ by 27½ inches

Archival history:
Probably the picture exhibited in the Royal Academy in 1842 (119).

Source of acquisition: Presented in 1896 by his daughter, Miss Clendinning.


Administrative history:
John Clendinning graduated in medicine at both Dublin and Edinburgh. Afterwards he attended Göttingen and other foreign universities before being incorporated as a D.M. of Oxford in 1827. He was best known as an active Fellow of the College of Physicians, for he had neither the patience nor the inclination to be a successful practitioner. Unattractive in appearance and manner and of an unusual independence of mind, he won his colleagues' respect by unswerving devotion to his liberal and reformist principles.

Contents:
By W. Armfield Smith,
Half length, seated in a red chair; holding a paper; short curly dark brown hair, narrow dark-rimmed spectacles, blue-grey eyes; white wing-collar and shirt, with high black stock; black coat and waistcoat; a gold ring on the little finger of his left hand; background of reddish-brown drapery with shelves of books to the right.

Bibliography: Annals, 30 January 1896; 1900 List; 1926 Catalogue.


Josiah Clerk 1639-1714 F. 1675  Portrait/X57  c.1690

Oils on canvas, 43½ by 33¼ inches

Archival history:
the inscription however groups it with a number of portraits in the College which were all similarly inscribed apparently in the first quarter of the eighteenth century; it was certainly in the College by about 1733, when noted by Vertue. Painted about 1690.

Source of acquisition: Date and source of acquisition unknown


Administrative history:
Josiah Clerk, who studied at Peterhouse, Cambridge, held many offices in the College. He was elected President on 13th September 1708, and his election was confirmed at the general election of officers on the 30th of the same month. However, for reasons that are not known, he was unable to act as President after 28th November 1708, and he resigned on 18th December. He was Treasurer from 16th April 1709, until his death.

Contents:
By an unknown artist,
Three-quarter length seated; holding a paper covered with writing (now illegible); long brown wig, brown eyes; very dark brown coat; background very dark; inscribed in yellow letters: Josias Clarke. M.D. Perhaps cut down from a whole length; the painting extends over the edge of the stretcher.

Bibliography: Vertue; 1864 Catalogue, p. 14; Roll, I, 379; III, 394; 1900 List; 1926 Catalogue.


Charles Coates 1826-1909 F. 1873  Portrait/X262  1903

Oils on canvas, 31¼ by 27¾ inches

Source of acquisition: Presented by his niece, Miss Harriet Selina Hope, in 1938.


Administrative history:
Charles Coates was born at Headingley near Leeds. After taking his M.D. degree in 1857 he settled in Bath. There he was elected physician to the Royal Mineral Water Hospital and to the Royal United Hospital. His practice grew to be the largest in the neighbourhood. He presented £1,000 to the Bath Bluecoat School and an equal sum to the Royal College of Physicians, to be expended on hospitality.

Contents:
By Hubert von Herkomer,
Head and shoulders; thin grey hair, bright blue-grey eyes; dark grey coat and waistcoat; white wing collar, jewelled pin in the black cravat; reddish-brown background; signed: HvH/1903.

Bibliography: Annals, 28 April 1938.


John Conolly 1794-1866 F. 1844  Portrait/X382  1866

Marble bust on a circular socle, 28½ inches high

Source of acquisition: Presented by Baron Mundy, 1867, in the name of the Medico-Psychological Society. Posthumous.


Administrative history:
John Conolly was born at Market Rasen, Lincolnshire. The need to earn his living led him to take up medicine and he graduated as M.D. at Edinburgh University, choosing insanity as the subject for his inaugural dissertation. After short periods of practice at Lewes and Chichester, he settled in Stratford-on-Avon for five years. He took a prominent part in municipal affairs and was twice elected mayor. In 1827 he started to practise in London, becoming professor of the practice of medicine at University College in the following year. In spite of his friendship with Lord John Russell and other eminent men, Conolly failed to make his name as a practitioner, nor was he distinguished as a professor.
In 1839 he was put in charge of the Middlesex Asylum at Hanwell. His connexion with this institution as resident physician and subsequently as visiting physician raised his name to the top rank of his profession and gave him a permanent place in the history of the treatment of the insane. For Conolly wholeheartedly adopted the most advanced practice of the day, the "non-restraint" system originated by William Tuke and already followed by Charlesworth and Gardiner Hill at Lincoln. The significance of Conolly's action lay in the scale on which he applied the system at Hanwell and in the sympathetic attitude which he introduced into the treatment of mental disorder. Within twelve years of his abandonment of all mechanical restraints at the Asylum in 1839, a revolution had been effected in the care of the insane in England. To Hanwell, Conolly brought two qualities, enthusiasm and administrative ability, which, though they had proved inadequate to compensate for his deficiencies in judgement and patience in other spheres, were invaluable in overcoming every difficulty confronting his reforms. Thanks to his success, insanity came to be studied as a disease and not as a crime. In his later years Conolly established a large consulting practice and managed a private asylum in the village of Hanwell.

Contents:
By Giovanni Maria Benzoni,
Bust facing spectator; mutton-chop whiskers, hair worn long, falling over his forehead; lips and chin clean-shaven; eyeballs incised; coat with fur collar and an open-neck shirt. Inscribed at the back: G. M. BENZONI. F. ROMA A. 1866.

Bibliography: Annals, 15 April 1867; Roll, III, 403; 1900 List; 1926 Catalogue; Sir James Clark, A Memoir of John Conolly, 1869, pp. 190/193.


James Copland 1791-1870 F. 1837  Portrait/X267  c. 1835 (?)

Oils on canvas, 30 by 24¾ inches

Source of acquisition: From the collection of the sitter's daughter; presented in 1896 by the Reverend Thomas Framley



Related information: Engraved in stipple by J. Brain (first published 1838).
A portrait by Miss E. E. Hendrick was shown at the Royal Academy in 1840; there is also a lithograph from a drawing by T. Bridgford.

Administrative history:
James Copland, who became known as an indefatigable and prolific writer, was born in the Orkneys. He graduated as a doctor of medicine at Edinburgh in 1815. He then came to London, but he soon tired of an inactive life and accepted a medical appointment to the settlements on the Gold Coast. In 1820 he began the literary career which was the main characteristic of his life. He contributed some exhaustive essays to the Quarterly Journal of Foreign Medicine on fever and the medical topography of the West Coast of Africa. In 1882 he became the editor of the London Medical Repository. In 1825 he had the idea of producing an "Encyclopaediac Dictionary of the Medical Sciences", but his intentions were frustrated. At the end of 1830 he undertook to write a dictionary of practical medicine for Messrs. Longman and Co. The first part appeared in September 1832, the title showing that the whole would comprise "General Pathology, the Nature and Treatment of Diseases, Morbid Structures and the Disorders especially incidental to Climates, to the Sex, and to the different Epochs of Life. With numerous Prescriptions for the Medicines recommended; a Classification of Diseases according to Pathological approved Formulae. The whole forming a Library of Pathology and Practical Medicine, and a Digest of Medical Literature". It was more than a quarter of a century before it was completed and the last part appeared in 1858.
Considered as the production of one man, the Dictionary of Practical Medicine is an extraordinary work. The information contained in its volumes is enormous. The material was most carefully selected from all existing sources, digested, elaborated and arranged into compact and simple form. Copland's extensive learning enabled him to collect information from all authorities, ancient and modern, foreign and domestic. He worked on the dictionary without assistance and without respite for many years, under circumstances and contingencies which few could have endured.
Copland stood high in the regard of his fellow physicians and held many offices and lectureships in the College.

Contents:
By Henry Room,
Short half-length, seated; brown hair, turning to grey; brown eyes; black stock; white shirt front; black waistcoat and coat; in the background a red curtain; on the right, shelves of brown-backed books.

Bibliography: Annals, 30 April 1896; 1900 List; 1926 Catalogue.


Daniel Coxe 1640?-1730 F. 1680  Portrait/X247  c.1680

Miniature, watercolours on paper, 35/8 by 27/8 inches

Source of acquisition: Presented by Dr. W. S. A. Griffith, 1924


Administrative history:
Daniel Coxe became a doctor of medicine at Cambridge (per Literas Regias) in 1669, and was admitted an Honorary Fellow of the College of Physicians in 1680. He was a Fellow of the Royal Society and a distinguished colonial adventurer. He acquired interests in East and West Jersey and became Governor there in 1697.

Contents:
Artist unknown
Long wig, bunched fan-shaped white cravat; brown coat with red sash over his right shoulder; blue eyes; pale background
Its early history is unknown. Apparently by an amateur, of about 1680. The identification is tentative; previously described as "Dr. Cox". An inscription in a late nineteenth-century hand on a label on the back reads: "Dr. Coxe. Physician to Queen Caroline (George II's queen). His daughter Mary married Colonel Montgomery of Ballyleek, Co. Money... She was Maid of Honour to Queen Anne. The marriage took place in 1752. After Col. John Montgomery's death she married William Clement LL.D. Vice Provost of Trinity College, Dublin and M.P. both for the College and the city of Dublin. She died at Beaulieu, Co. Louth in 1790 aged 97 years."

Bibliography: 1926 Catalogue.


William Croone 1633-1684 F. 1675  Portrait/X136  c.1680

Oils on canvas, 36 by 27¾ inches; It is now obscured by old varnish, but seems to have been enlarged at some time from an oval which measured approximately 30 by 24 inches, and it was probably considerably repainted at the same date.

Archival history:
Exhibited, National Portrait Exhibition, 1866 (982).

Source of acquisition: Presented in 1738 by William Woodford M.D.


Administrative history:
William Croone was born in London and educated at Cambridge. He was made professor of rhetoric at Gresham College in 1659 and shortly after this was appointed secretary to the Royal Society, of which he was one of the original Fellows.
He contributed some curious and original observations de Ovo to the Philosophical Transactions long before Malpighi's book on that subject appeared, and anticipated many of the statements in it. Croone left behind him a plan for two lectureships, one to be read before the College of Physicians with a sermon to be preached at the church of St. Mary-le-Bow, the other to be delivered yearly before the Royal Society upon the nature and laws of muscular motion. But as his will contained no provision whatever for the endowment of these lectures his widow arranged that the King's Head Tavern, Lambeth Hill, should go in trust to her executors and that four parts out of five should be settled on the College of Physicians to found the annual lecture now called the Croonian Lecture, the fifth part being settled on the Royal Society.

Contents:
By Mary Beale,
Half length; very long dark brown wig, light blue-grey eyes; whitish lace cravat, white fur hood, apparently wearing a gown with black sleeves and a scarlet front; background very dark brown.
Originally of c.1680. A copy of letter from the donor, preserved in the Annals, describes this as manu perita Dna Mariac Beal accurata depictum.

Bibliography: Annals, 13 June 1738; Roll, III, 394; 1900 List; 1926 Catalogue.


Bertrand Edward Dawson, Viscount Dawson of Penn 1864-1945 F. 1903 P. 1931-1938  Portrait/X146  1937

Oils on canvas, 52½ by 38 inches

Archival history:
Exhibited at the Leicester Galleries, London, 1937.

Source of acquisition: Presented by the sitter in 1939


Administrative history:
Bertrand Dawson was born at Croydon. His great career as a physician and man of affairs was founded on his experience at the London Hospital. He attended King Edward VII and King George V and in January 1936 he wrote the celebrated bulletin announcing that "the King's life is moving peacefully to its close".
Before the end of the First World War, Dawson had called attention to the position of medicine in the "brave new world" to come. He was a leading member of the British Medical Association's committee set up to plan a Ministry of Health. His own proposals for a comprehensive health service were outlined in his Cavendish Lectures of 1918. One of his first acts for the new Ministry was to draw up a Report which contained the seeds of the future National Health Service.
In 1920 Dawson became the first medical consultant to be raised to the peerage while still engaged in active practice and teaching. He was made a Viscount in 1936 and began to speak in the House of Lords on many topics on which he felt he could bring his judgement to bear.
Outside the House, in addition to his rounds at the London Hospital, and a distinguished private practice, Dawson found time for a multitude of activities. During his Presidency the College became more representative and he encouraged the younger Fellows to take part in College affairs; committees were formed to co-ordinate research in particular fields, to follow new developments and to review wider issues such as medical education.
At the outbreak of war in 1939, Dawson at once occupied himself with the organization of the Emergency Medical Service.
When talk of a National Health Service was once more in the air, Dawson again welcomed the idea of such a service.
Dawson treated all men, whether dukes or dustmen, with the same sympathy and respect. His great qualities of humanity were matched, in the words of the Lancet, with "a greatness of general ability rather than some particular excellence: in many ways, he was a shade better than the average first-class man".
Lord Dawson died in London, having had to move home twice on account of raid damage. He kept his strikingly handsome appearance, his dark hair, and brisk upright carriage to the end of his life.

Contents:
By Philip de Laszlo,
Almost whole length, seated; a partly folded paper in his right hand; very dark hair, pale blue eyes; white collar, blue and red tie, dark grey suit; wearing the President's gown; dark brown background; signed: de Laszlo/vii 1937.

Bibliography: Annals, May 1939.


King Edward the Seventh 1841-1910 Hon. F. 1897  Portrait/X181  1905

Oils on canvas, 33¼ by 26¼ inches

Source of acquisition: Presented by the Fellows of the College, 1906.



Related information: The head corresponds almost exactly with the State portrait of 1902 by Fildes, of which there is a version in the National Portrait Gallery.

Administrative history:
Edward VII was elected to the Honorary Fellowship of the College in 1897, when he was Prince of Wales. To mark the occasion, he was presented with a replica of the cane which had been carried in turn by Radcliffe, Mead, Askew, Pitcairn and Baillie and which had been given to the College by the widow of Matthew Baillie. The Prince had already shown his interest in the country's medical service by inaugurating the Prince of Wales's (later King Edward VII) Hospital Fund for London earlier the same year.
During his reign, Edward VII opened the new wing of the London Hospital and laid the foundation stones of three other hospitals, including the new King's College Hospital. He also took considerable interest in the foundation of the Radium Institute and in the reorganization of the Army Medical Service.

Contents:
By Sir Luke Fildes,
In a painted stone oval; short half length; grey hair, greyish-brown moustache, and trimmed beard; grey eyes; florid complexion; white bow tie, black dress coat; the blue ribbon of the Garter seen underneath it, crossing his stiff shirt front; the star of the Garter on his left breast, and the jewel of another order on a ribbon round his neck; dark reddish-brown background; signed: Luke Fildes 1905.

Bibliography: Annals, 25 January 1906; 1926 Catalogue.


John Elliotson 1791-1868 F. 1822  Portrait/X369  n.d

Oils on canvas, 35 by 25 inches

Source of acquisition: Presented by his sister, Miss Emma Elliotson, in 1874.



Related information: A rare lithograph of the head and shoulders of this portrait exists. Painted probably 1830-40.
Two busts by T. Butler were shown at the Royal Academy, one in 1841 and the second in 1849; and two portraits by B. R. Green were also shown, in 1837 and 1845 respectively. There is a lithograph of 1844 by C. Baugniet, drawn from the life.

Administrative history:
John Elliotson was the son of a wealthy Southwark druggist. At the age on fourteen he was sent to Edinburgh to study medicine. In 1817, he became assistant physician to St. Thomas's Hospital. He applied unsuccessfully for permission to lecture on forensic medicine there, and then offended his colleagues and the hospital authorities by lecturing on that subject at the neighbouring private school of medicine in Webb Street. He was, however, elected physician to St. Thomas's in 1823, in spite of much opposition. In 1832 he was appointed professor of medicine at University College and, in 1834, senior physician to University College Hospital.
For some years, Elliotson commanded a larger class than had any previous teacher of medicine in London. He had unusual powers of observation and his diagnoses were accurate and minute; he spared no efforts in his investigation of diseases. He was one of the first in this country to recognize and teach the value of the stethoscope.
In 1837, at the height of his reputation and success, Elliotson began to investigate and practise mesmerism, at his own house and also in the wards of University College Hospital. The effects were disastrous. His employment of mesmerism in the hospital was thought so objectionable by a majority of his colleagues there that the council of University College intervened. Elliotson, who resented any interference in his methods of practice, indignantly resigned his posts at the college and hospital. Shortly afterwards, he founded the London Mesmeric Infirmary in Weymouth Street. He fell rapidly from the position he had achieved as one of the best-known and most popular of London's physicians and teachers, and his later career was mainly one of opposition to his professional colleagues.
Elliotson was the founder and for many years the president and main support of the Phrenological Society of London. In 1844 he established a journal devoted to the advancement of his two favourite subjects, phrenology and mesmerism. Most of his writings from this time are querulous and aggressive in style. He continued to practise mesmerism, and to give his services to the Mesmeric Infirmary, until his health failed.

Contents:
By James Ramsay
Half length seated, clasping his hands; dark brown eyes; curly black hair and side-whiskers, white shirt, black stock, and black coat; a curtain behind with some bookshelves.

Bibliography: Annals, 29 January 1874; Roll, II, 262; III, 394; 1900 List; 1926 Catalogue.


Thomas Elliotson 1800-1850 F. 1833  Portrait/X160  c.1837

Oils on canvas, 36 by 28¼ inches

Archival history:
Probably the picture by Ramsay exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1837 (448); exhibited, National Portrait Exhibition, 1868(442).

Source of acquisition: Presented in 1851 by his sisters, Emma and Eliza Elliotson.



Related information: A bust by B. Jennings was shown at the Royal Academy in 1849.

Administrative history:
A brother of John Elliotson, Thomas Elliotson went to Jesus College, Cambridge. Afterwards he lived in Clapham, and in Regent Street, London, and then went abroad to Rome. He died in Malta.

Contents:
By James Ramsay,
Half length seated; black curly hair and short side-whiskers; high black stock, white shirt, dark coat; dark brown background.

Bibliography: 1864 Catalogue, p. 22; Roll, III, 395; 1900 List; 1926 Catalogue.


Henry Havelock Ellis 1859-1939 F. 1936  Portrait/X259  1924 or 1925

Oils on canvas, 24 by 20 inches

Source of acquisition: Presented in 1940 by Mrs. F. Lafitte-Cyon, one of his executrices, who stated that it was painted in 1924 or 1925.


Administrative history:
Havelock Ellis, the son of a Merchant Navy captain, was born and brought up in Croydon. He early decided that his life's main study should be sex and with this in view he became a medical student at the age of twenty. He took eight years to qualify with the L.M.S.S.A. and he never practised. From his student days onwards he produced a stream of works on literary and scientific subjects for the general reader. He showed much skill in getting the best people to work for him and his enterprises were a great contribution to the spread of scientific knowledge. His chief work was Studies in the Psychology of Sex, the seven volumes appearing between 1897 and 1928. Unlike his contemporary, Freud, he was concerned less with theory than with facts which he patiently collected on normal and abnormal sexual behaviour. He himself was passionately attached to two remarkable women at the same time, both writers. Olive Schreiner decided against marriage with him and returned to the Cape. He married Edith Oldham Lees who had been a moving spirit in the founding of the Fabian Society. Their marriage relations were on an unusual footing which is fully described in Ellis's autobiography and which corresponded to the desire of both parties for freedom and experiment in life. Expansive in youth, he became later in life more of a recluse, seeing only a few intimates.

Contents:
By H. Bishop,
Short half length, seated; profuse white hair, moustache and beard; grey suit; dark brown background; signed in black: H. BISHOP.

Bibliography: Annals, 25 January 1940.


Henry Havelock Ellis 1859-1939 F. 1936  Portrait/X232  n.d

Oils on canvas mounted on board, 7 by 5 inches

Source of acquisition: Given through the British Medical Association by Mrs. C. A. Stephens, wife of the artist, 1956.



Related information: A bronze by A. G. Walker was shown at the Royal Academy in 1912, and a drawing by Robin Guthrie in 1938. A drawing by Sir William Rothenstein is in the National Portrait Gallery.

Administrative history:
Havelock Ellis, the son of a Merchant Navy captain, was born and brought up in Croydon. He early decided that his life's main study should be sex and with this in view he became a medical student at the age of twenty. He took eight years to qualify with the L.M.S.S.A. and he never practised. From his student days onwards he produced a stream of works on literary and scientific subjects for the general reader. He showed much skill in getting the best people to work for him and his enterprises were a great contribution to the spread of scientific knowledge. His chief work was Studies in the Psychology of Sex, the seven volumes appearing between 1897 and 1928. Unlike his contemporary, Freud, he was concerned less with theory than with facts which he patiently collected on normal and abnormal sexual behaviour. He himself was passionately attached to two remarkable women at the same time, both writers. Olive Schreiner decided against marriage with him and returned to the Cape. He married Edith Oldham Lees who had been a moving spirit in the founding of the Fabian Society. Their marriage relations were on an unusual footing which is fully described in Ellis's autobiography and which corresponded to the desire of both parties for freedom and experiment in life. Expansive in youth, he became later in life more of a recluse, seeing only a few intimates.

Contents:
By H. Channing Stephens
Head only, to right.

Arthur Farre 1811-1887 F. 1843  Portrait/X23  1862(?)

Oils on canvas, 56 by 44 inches

Source of acquisition: Presented in 1877 by the sitter.


Administrative history:
Farre was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society at the age of 28, and in 1841 he became professor of obstetric medicine at King's College and physician-accoucheur to King's College Hospital, where he remained until 1863. He was a man of wide abilities. He was a founder and president of the Royal Microscopical Society. He wrote a celebrated article on The Uterus and its Appendages for Todd and Bowman's Cyclopaedia of Anatomy and Physiology. He built up a fashionable practice and became physician-extraordinary to Queen Victoria and physician-accoucheur to the Princess of Wales and other members of the Royal Family. He examined for the Royal College of Surgeons for twenty-four years, finally resigning in opposition to proposals to admit to the midwifery examinations women possessing no medical qualifications. He bequeathed to the Royal College of Physicians a valuable collection of more than a thousand rare obstetrical and other works. In private life he was devoted to music and was a keen photographer. He was a believer in punctuality, and his manner was precise and formal.

Contents:
By Saverio Altamura,
In a painted oval; three-quarter length, seated; the crown of his head bald, with thick glossy dark brown hair at the sides; dark eyebrows, large dark brown eyes; white stock with bow tie; black evening coat, scarlet M.D. gown; on the table a brass microscope; plain dark brown background; signed at the bottom of the oval on the right: London Altamura.
The costume suggests a date of c. 1860, presumably 1862, when the painter, a Neapolitan who worked mainly in Florence, visited England.

Bibliography: Annals, 26 July 1877; 1900 List; 1926 Catalogue.


Sir Alexander Fleming 1881-1955 F. 1944  Portrait/X296  n.d

Bronze bust, 16½ inches high

Source of acquisition: Bought in 1956 from the artist; a cast from a plaster model in his possession.



Related information: Similar casts belong to the University of Edinburgh, Chelsea Library, and others. The artist also has a slightly different first design in plaster for the bust, which derives from a series of sittings in Fleming's laboratory, very shortly before his death, in connection with Kovacs' medallion portrait of him, of which the original plaster and a bronze cast are now in the National Portrait Gallery.

Administrative history:
Fleming was the youngest in the family of an Ayrshire farmer. He followed an elder medical brother to London and entered St. Mary's Hospital, where he became a disciple of Sir Almwroth Wright, who had created the first research laboratory to be attached to a teaching hospital. He accompanied his chief to France in the First World War to work on wound sepsis and the effect of antiseptics. He later returned to St. Mary's Hospital and continued to work there after his official retirement.
His two discoveries--of lysozyme and penicillin--were not great intellectual feats, but he perceived the importance of what many others must have seen and brushed aside. Fleming was a man of few words--and ideas did not greatly interest him. His unemotional, "almost basilisk" stare, was mistaken by some for rudeness, although others were fascinated. There was in fact much friendliness and kindness behind that apparently cold exterior.
"Pain in the mind" was not the spur that drove him to do research, as it was with Wright, but rather an urge to do a job better than the next man. Competition was the breath of life to him. Wright and he made a fine team; Wright supplied the ideas which Fleming usually received in silence, and then went away and devised some neat trick for working them out. It was a joy to see him at work at his bench with his slick, apparently casual, but always efficient technique. Wright, chaffing him, used to say that medical research was just a game to him--and there was some truth in it.

Contents:
By Frank Kovacs
Clean-shaven, eyes not incised; showing lapels of coat, and a bow tie. Incised with signature: KOVACS.

Bibliography: Information from the artist, 1962.


Robert Fludd 1574-1637 F. 1609  Portrait/X35  n.d

Panel, 133/8 by 10 inches

Source of acquisition: Provenance unknown: perhaps to be associated with the payment recorded in the College accounts to Oppenheimer, "for old portraits of Fellows", 18 November 1908. It is a modern pastiche, made up from early engravings of Fludd, such as that published in the Philosophia Sacra of 1626, and apparently from the same hand as the pastiche of Chambre (q.v.) also in the College.


Administrative history:
Robert Fludd, born in Bearsted, Kent, was the son of the Treasurer of War to Queen Elizabeth. He began to study medicine in 1598 and spent almost six years travelling through the principal countries of Europe. It was probably then that he acquired a taste for the Rosicrucian philosophy which he afterwards supported very strongly, being almost the only Englishman then to do so. On his return to England he came before the College of Physicians for examination in the early part of 1606. His second examination does not appear to have been altogether satisfactory to the Censors. He had a large share of egotism and assurance, a strong leaning to chemistry, a profound contempt of Galenical medicine, and presumably a sincere belief in the Rosicrucian doctrines, absurd as these are represented to have been. He seems to have startled the Censors by his answers within the College, no less than by his conduct outside it, and for some time he was in constant warfare with the collegiate authorities and an object of suspicion to his seniors in the profession.
Dr. Fludd (says Aikin) was a very voluminous writer in his sect, diving into the furthest profundities and most mysterious obscurities of the Rosie cross and blending in a most extraordinary manner, divinity, chemistry, natural philosophy and metaphysics. He is said to have used a kind of sublime unintelligible cant to his patients which, by inspiring them with greater faith in his skill, might in some cases contribute to their cure. There is no doubt, at least, that it would assist his reputation and he was certainly well known as a medical man. His philosophy, however, either because a more enlightened period had dawned in England, or because his countrymen had no natural taste for such abstruse speculations, was received with far less enthusiasm at home than abroad.

Contents:
Artist unknown
Three-quarter length, standing; his right hand resting on a book on a black-covered table, his right arm gathering in front of him the folds of his red and gold brocaded cloak; holding a glove in his left hand; greyish-brown hair brushed back, moustache and trimmed pointed beard; grey eyes on the spectator; white falling ruff, plain black tight doublet with lace at the wrists; plain dark brown background; inscribed at the top on the left: Robertus Fludd/Oxoniensis, Medicina/Doctor et Armiger.

Jesse Foote 1744-1826  Portrait/X011T  1798

Pencil and sanguine on paper, 10 by 7¾ inches

Source of acquisition: Bought 1940; from the collection of the artist's great-grand-daughter, Miss M. Dance.



Related information: A copy of an original drawing by Dance now lost, made for the purposes of a soft ground etching, either by Dance himself or by William Daniell. (See the other drawings by Dance in this series in the College.) The original drawing, of 1798, was sold with the collection of the artist's grandson, Rev. G. Dance, Christies, 1 July 1898.
A portrait of Foote by Opie is recorded (see A. Earland, John Opie, 1911, p. 275).

Administrative history:
Jesse Foote was born at Charlton in Wiltshire and received his medical education in London, becoming a member of the Surgeons' Company. He then went out to the West Indies and practised for three years on the island of Nevis. After his return in 1769, he went abroad again, to St. Petersburg, where he had a successful practice. Back in England, he became house-surgeon to the Middlesex Hospital and at the end of his term of office he set up in practice in London.
Foote was a contentious man with a high opinion of himself. He apparently hoped to rival John Hunter, the celebrated surgeon and anatomist, and, failing in this, he waged a campaign of abuse against Hunter. Foote consistently denounced Hunter's character and the originality of his work; he published his own observations on Hunter's treatise on venereal disease in 1786-87, and on Hunter's treatment of hydrophobia in 1788. He also wrote a biography of Hunter in which his extreme jealousy is evident. It is a pleasant irony that Foote should now be remembered chiefly for the viciousness of his attacks on John Hunter.
Foote's writings included several other biographies of his contemporaries, including that of the Countess of Strathmore, his patient for thirty-three years. He was known for his prejudice in favour of the West Indian planters and their treatment of the slaves; his Defence of the Planters, which appeared in 1792, ran to three large editions in three weeks. He attacked Wilberforce and the abolitionists on many occasions.

Contents:
By (?) George Dance,
Half length, seated; in profile to left; high turn-down collar to coat and broad lapels, full puffed shirt front and cravat; wearing his own hair, bald on the crown; hooked nose, long upper lip, clean-shaven; inscribed in pencil at the bottom: Jesse Foote.

John Fothergill 1712-1780 L. 1744  Portrait/X85  n.d

Oils on canvas, 21¼ by 17 inches

Source of acquisition: Presented in 1856 by William Cribb



Related information: Another portrait, by Gilbert Stuart, is now in the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts* (engraved in mezzotint by Val Green, published 1781). Several engravings appeared shortly after his death, including a mezzotint, anonymous, published by F. Hedges, and a line engraving by Cook. Engravings after a bust by Mrs. Wright (then in the collection of Dr. Lettsom) were made by Bartolozzi (frontispiece to the Works of 1783) and by J. Hall (1790). A detailed list of the portraits is given by Hingston Fox. The features of the man in the College portrait bear a reasonable resemblance to those in engraved portraits (all much later) of Fothergill.
* Reproduced by L. Park, Gilbert Stuart, 1926, III, p. 180, and by Hingston Fox, op. cit., fp.

Administrative history:
John Fothergill was born in Yorkshire. He was a member of the Society of Friends and their influence and exertions helped him to enter into medical practice. His progress in London was rapid, and he is said to have had for many successive years a professional income of nearly £7,000. He devoted his hours of relaxation and retirement to chemistry and botany. At great expense and with great enthusiasm he procured from all parts of the world a very large number of rare plants and cultivated them in his garden at Upton, Essex, which was known all over Europe. Foreigners of all ranks asked permission to see it when they visited England. Fothergill also possessed the second best cabinet of shells in England, after that of the Duchess of Portland. He had, too, a small but rare collection of minerals, and his numerous friends supplied him with many curious specimens from the animal world.
His biographer, Dr. Hird, says that his manner resulted from "person, education, and principle, but it was so perfectly accompanied by the most engaging attentions that he was the genuine, polite man, above all forms of breeding. At his meals he was remarkably temperate; in the opinion of some rather too abstemious, eating sparingly, but with a good relish, and rarely exceeding two glasses of wine at dinner or supper; yet by his uniform and steady temperance he preserved his mind vigorous and active, and his constitution equal to all his engagements".

Contents:
By an unknown artist
Whole length, seated; holding a large plan or chart; a table on the left, covered with a dark blue-grey cloth; long light greyish-brown coat, breeches and stockings; black shoes with silver buckles; light brown background.
According to the 1926 Catalogue it is inscribed on the back: Johannes Fothergill M.D., F.R.S., S.A. Hogarth Pinxit, ex dono Guilielmi Cribb 1856. It is however certainly not from Hogarth's hand, but resembles in style the work of E. Alcock. The costume suggests a date in the 1740s. Exhibited, National Portrait Exhibition, 1867 (334); National Exhibition of Art, Leeds, 1868 (318).

Bibliography: Annals, 22 December 1856; Roll, III, 395; 1900 List; 1926 Catalogue (all as by Hogarth); Hingston Fox, John Fothergill etc., 1919, p. 420, and reproduction.


Wilson Fox 1831-1887 F. 1866  Portrait/X51  n.d

Oils on canvas, 50 by 40 inches

Archival history:
Exhibited at the Royal Academy, 1889 (1231)

Source of acquisition: Presented in 1929 by his grandson, George Wilson Fox.


Administrative history:
Wilson Fox, whose father was a Quaker manufacturer at Wellington, Somerset, took the degree of M.D. in 1855. He then made lengthy visits to the medical schools of Edinburgh, Paris, Vienna and Berlin. At Berlin, under Virchow, he concentrated on anatomical studies. In 1859 he obtained the post of physician to the Royal Staffordshire Infirmary and started a successful practice at Newcastle-under-Lyme. After two years he moved to London to become, with Virchow's backing, professor of pathological anatomy at University College and physician to University College Hospital.
As well as conducting a wide consulting practice, Wilson Fox made a name for himself at University College both for his researches and for his teaching. It was for his work on the lungs, and particularly on phthisis, that he was best known. Fox, almost alone among English pathologists of his day, considered that tuberculosis was a distinct process and not an ordinary chronic inflammation. The publication of Koch's researches confirmed this opinion but necessitated a revision of Fox's views on the aetiology of the disease. For this reason he had to postpone the appearance of his own work on the lungs on which he had laboured for many years. It was published after his death, with Coupland as editor, under the title A Treatise on Diseases of the Lungs and Pleura. His Atlas of the Pathological Anatomy of the Lungs was also posthumous. As a teacher he was conspicuous for his enthusiasm and thoroughness, and for a quiet charm which impressed itself on the memory of Sir William Osler among his other pupils. However he had no patience for dull or idle students, on whom he exercised a sarcastic wit.

Contents:
By Val Prinsep
Three-quarter length, seated; brown hair turning to grey, bushy grey side-whiskers, brown eyebrows, deepset dark brown-grey eyes; mouth and chin clean-shaven; white wing collar, flowing black silk cravat with jewelled pin; a microscope and a copy of the Atlas of the Pathological Anatomy of the Lungs on the table to left; brown curtain as background.
Presumably a posthumous portrait.

Bibliography: Annals, April 1929.


Wilson Fox 1831-1887 F. 1866  Portrait/X215  [n.d.]

Oils on canvas, 50 by 40 inches

Source of acquisition: Painted for the subscribers to the Wilson Fox Memorial, and presented by them to the College in 1889.


Administrative history:
Wilson Fox, whose father was a Quaker manufacturer at Wellington, Somerset, took the degree of M.D. in 1855. He then made lengthy visits to the medical schools of Edinburgh, Paris, Vienna and Berlin. At Berlin, under Virchow, he concentrated on anatomical studies. In 1859 he obtained the post of physician to the Royal Staffordshire Infirmary and started a successful practice at Newcastle-under-Lyme. After two years he moved to London to become, with Virchow's backing, professor of pathological anatomy at University College and physician to University College Hospital.
As well as conducting a wide consulting practice, Wilson Fox made a name for himself at University College both for his researches and for his teaching. It was for his work on the lungs, and particularly on phthisis, that he was best known. Fox, almost alone among English pathologists of his day, considered that tuberculosis was a distinct process and not an ordinary chronic inflammation. The publication of Koch's researches confirmed this opinion but necessitated a revision of Fox's views on the aetiology of the disease. For this reason he had to postpone the appearance of his own work on the lungs on which he had laboured for many years. It was published after his death, with Coupland as editor, under the title A Treatise on Diseases of the Lungs and Pleura. His Atlas of the Pathological Anatomy of the Lungs was also posthumous. As a teacher he was conspicuous for his enthusiasm and thoroughness, and for a quiet charm which impressed itself on the memory of Sir William Osler among his other pupils. However he had no patience for dull or idle students, on whom he exercised a sarcastic wit.

Contents:
By Val Prinsep.

Bibliography: Annals, 31 October 1889, 7 November 1889; 1900 List; 1926 Catalogue.


John Freind 1675-1728 F. 1716  Portrait/X73  c.1725 (?)

Oils on canvas, 49 by 39 inches

Archival history:
Exhibited National Portrait Exhibition, 1867 (181); on loan to the National Portrait Gallery, 1902-61.

Source of acquisition: Presented in 1755 by Dr. Matthew Lee.


Administrative history:
John Freind, the third son of the rector of Croughton, Northamptonshire, was educated at Westminster and Christ Church, Oxford. A distinguished classical scholar, he undertook a new edition, with Latin notes and translation, of two Greek orations. In 1701 he wrote a letter in Latin to Dr. Mead giving an account of some extraordinary cases of convulsions which had occurred in Oxfordshire. These caused much comment at the time and would probably have been magnified into something supernatural if Freind had not taken the trouble to set them in their true light. He gave solid proof of his professional and classical attainments by the publication of his Emmenologia, in qua Fluxus Muliebris menstrui Phenomena, Periodi, Vitia, cum medendi Methodo, ad Rationes mechanicas exiguntur. This work, as its title implies, was based on the mechanical doctrines then so much in vogue. Though at first it met with some opposition, and was then and afterwards unfavourably criticised by various writers, it was regarded as a masterly essay. "It is", says one authority, "admirable for the beauty of its style, the elegant disposition of its parts, its wonderful succinctness and perspicuity, and for the happy concurrence of learning and penetration visible through the whole."
In 1704 Freind was appointed reader in chemistry at Oxford. In his lectures he applied with great judgement Newton's then recently established laws of nature to the explanation and elucidation of chemistry.
Freind published in 1717 the First and Third Books of Hippocrates, with nine Commentaries on Fever. This work was attacked by Dr. Woodward, the Gresham professor of physic, and a dispute began which was carried on with great bitterness on both sides. Parties were formed under these leaders and several pamphlets were written. Freind supported his opinion "concerning the advantage of purging in the second fever of the confluent smallpox"--for it was on this single point that the dispute chiefly turned--in a Latin letter addressed to Dr. Mead in 1719 and printed among his works.
In 1722 Freind was elected a Member of Parliament for Launceston and he distinguished himself by some able speeches in the House of Commons. In 1725 the College of Physicians petitioned the House of Commons against the pernicious and growing consumption of spirits among persons of all ranks and of both sexes, and Freind was asked to present the petition.
Freind was suspected of participating in the so-called "Bishops' plot" and there was so much resentment against him that he was committed to the Tower as a close prisoner. He was only released because Dr. Mead firmly refused to prescribe for Sir Robert Walpole, the Prime Minister of the day, until Freind was liberated. During this period Freind wrote a celebrated and elegant letter to Dr. Mead, De quibusdam Variolarum Generibus Epistola, published in 1723. Soon after Freind obtained his liberty he was appointed physician to the Prince of Wales, and when the Prince became King, Freind was made physician to Queen Caroline.

Contents:
From the studio of Michael Dahl, (not reproduced)
Three-quarter length, seated; pale brown-grey wig, very dark grey eyes; white neckcloth and shirt; rich golden brown velvet coat; on the table to the right a sheet of paper, also a silver inkstand with a quill standing in it, and two books; behind, the table on which stands a bust of Hippocrates; very dark brown background.

Bibliography: Malcolm, Londinium Redivivum, 1802/07, III, p. 384; 1864 Catalogue, p. 21; Roll, II, 55/6, III, 395; 1900 List; 1926 Catalogue; D. Piper, Catalogue of 17th Century Portraits in the National Portrait Gallery, 1963, p.131.


John Freind 1675-1728 F. 1716  Portrait/X012T  n.d

Medallion in boxwood, not located in 1963

Administrative history:
John Freind, the third son of the rector of Croughton, Northamptonshire, was educated at Westminster and Christ Church, Oxford. A distinguished classical scholar, he undertook a new edition, with Latin notes and translation, of two Greek orations. In 1701 he wrote a letter in Latin to Dr. Mead giving an account of some extraordinary cases of convulsions which had occurred in Oxfordshire. These caused much comment at the time and would probably have been magnified into something supernatural if Freind had not taken the trouble to set them in their true light. He gave solid proof of his professional and classical attainments by the publication of his Emmenologia, in qua Fluxus Muliebris menstrui Phenomena, Periodi, Vitia, cum medendi Methodo, ad Rationes mechanicas exiguntur. This work, as its title implies, was based on the mechanical doctrines then so much in vogue. Though at first it met with some opposition, and was then and afterwards unfavourably criticised by various writers, it was regarded as a masterly essay. "It is", says one authority, "admirable for the beauty of its style, the elegant disposition of its parts, its wonderful succinctness and perspicuity, and for the happy concurrence of learning and penetration visible through the whole."
In 1704 Freind was appointed reader in chemistry at Oxford. In his lectures he applied with great judgement Newton's then recently established laws of nature to the explanation and elucidation of chemistry.
Freind published in 1717 the First and Third Books of Hippocrates, with nine Commentaries on Fever. This work was attacked by Dr. Woodward, the Gresham professor of physic, and a dispute began which was carried on with great bitterness on both sides. Parties were formed under these leaders and several pamphlets were written. Freind supported his opinion "concerning the advantage of purging in the second fever of the confluent smallpox"--for it was on this single point that the dispute chiefly turned--in a Latin letter addressed to Dr. Mead in 1719 and printed among his works.
In 1722 Freind was elected a Member of Parliament for Launceston and he distinguished himself by some able speeches in the House of Commons. In 1725 the College of Physicians petitioned the House of Commons against the pernicious and growing consumption of spirits among persons of all ranks and of both sexes, and Freind was asked to present the petition.
Freind was suspected of participating in the so-called "Bishops' plot" and there was so much resentment against him that he was committed to the Tower as a close prisoner. He was only released because Dr. Mead firmly refused to prescribe for Sir Robert Walpole, the Prime Minister of the day, until Freind was liberated. During this period Freind wrote a celebrated and elegant letter to Dr. Mead, De quibusdam Variolarum Generibus Epistola, published in 1723. Soon after Freind obtained his liberty he was appointed physician to the Prince of Wales, and when the Prince became King, Freind was made physician to Queen Caroline.

Contents:
Artist unknown
Given in 1871 by Dr. Diamond; said to have come from the collection of Sir George Tuthill (1772-1835).

Bibliography: Annals, 3 April 1871; Roll, II, 56; 1900 List; 1926 Catalouge.)


John Freind 1675-1728 F. 1716  Portrait/X165  c. 1725

Oils on canvas, 49 by 39 inches

Archival history:
Its previous history is unknown.

Source of acquisition: Bequeathed to the College in 1887 by Dr. Owen Rees



Related information: Perhaps an early copy rather than studio work. In the 1926 Catalogue there is confusion between the two versions in the College; Portrait/X73 has the National Portrait Exhibition, 1867, label stuck on its stretcher, and must therefore be the version given by Dr. Lee, as Dr. Rees's version did not, in 1867, belong to the College.
Two other versions are known; it is uncertain which is the original; one is at Christ Church College, Oxford (possibly also the gift of Dr. Lee, who was a benefactor of that college); the other is in the Bodleian Library, given in 1787 by John Smyth. The portrait was engraved in line by G. Vertue in 1730 and dates probably from about 1725; the inkpot shown here was apparently Dahl's--it can be seen again in the portrait of Addison by Dahl, of 1719, in the National Portrait Gallery. The verse inscribed (also printed under Vertue's engraving) should read:
Cui suas artes sua dona laetus
Et Lyram, at Venae salientis letum
Scire concessit, celerum et medendi Delius usum.

Administrative history:
John Freind, the third son of the rector of Croughton, Northamptonshire, was educated at Westminster and Christ Church, Oxford. A distinguished classical scholar, he undertook a new edition, with Latin notes and translation, of two Greek orations. In 1701 he wrote a letter in Latin to Dr. Mead giving an account of some extraordinary cases of convulsions which had occurred in Oxfordshire. These caused much comment at the time and would probably have been magnified into something supernatural if Freind had not taken the trouble to set them in their true light. He gave solid proof of his professional and classical attainments by the publication of his Emmenologia, in qua Fluxus Muliebris menstrui Phenomena, Periodi, Vitia, cum medendi Methodo, ad Rationes mechanicas exiguntur. This work, as its title implies, was based on the mechanical doctrines then so much in vogue. Though at first it met with some opposition, and was then and afterwards unfavourably criticised by various writers, it was regarded as a masterly essay. "It is", says one authority, "admirable for the beauty of its style, the elegant disposition of its parts, its wonderful succinctness and perspicuity, and for the happy concurrence of learning and penetration visible through the whole."
In 1704 Freind was appointed reader in chemistry at Oxford. In his lectures he applied with great judgement Newton's then recently established laws of nature to the explanation and elucidation of chemistry.
Freind published in 1717 the First and Third Books of Hippocrates, with nine Commentaries on Fever. This work was attacked by Dr. Woodward, the Gresham professor of physic, and a dispute began which was carried on with great bitterness on both sides. Parties were formed under these leaders and several pamphlets were written. Freind supported his opinion "concerning the advantage of purging in the second fever of the confluent smallpox"--for it was on this single point that the dispute chiefly turned--in a Latin letter addressed to Dr. Mead in 1719 and printed among his works.
In 1722 Freind was elected a Member of Parliament for Launceston and he distinguished himself by some able speeches in the House of Commons. In 1725 the College of Physicians petitioned the House of Commons against the pernicious and growing consumption of spirits among persons of all ranks and of both sexes, and Freind was asked to present the petition.
Freind was suspected of participating in the so-called "Bishops' plot" and there was so much resentment against him that he was committed to the Tower as a close prisoner. He was only released because Dr. Mead firmly refused to prescribe for Sir Robert Walpole, the Prime Minister of the day, until Freind was liberated. During this period Freind wrote a celebrated and elegant letter to Dr. Mead, De quibusdam Variolarum Generibus Epistola, published in 1723. Soon after Freind obtained his liberty he was appointed physician to the Prince of Wales, and when the Prince became King, Freind was made physician to Queen Caroline.

Contents:
After Michael Dahl,
With Freind's coat of arms and an inscription added: JOHANNES FREIND M.D./Serenissimae Reginac CAROLINAE/Archiatrus/suas Artes, sua dona lactus/El Luram, et Venae salientis ictum/e concessit, celerum et Medendi/Delius; (sic). The coat of arms: Gules a chevron ermine between three bucks heads cabossed argent; and motto: Celer atque fidelis.

Bibliography: als. from the donor (n.d.); Roll, II, 56; 1900 List; 1926 Catalogue; W. Nisser, Michael Dahl, Upsala, 1927, pp. 80, 121/2, and "Catalogue of Pictures Seen", no. 19.


John Freind 1675-1728 F. 1716  Portrait/X013T  n.d

Not located in 1963, but likely to be a strike of the bronze medallion

Source of acquisition: Presented in 1879 by the Reverend C. B. Norcliffe of York.


Administrative history:
John Freind, the third son of the rector of Croughton, Northamptonshire, was educated at Westminster and Christ Church, Oxford. A distinguished classical scholar, he undertook a new edition, with Latin notes and translation, of two Greek orations. In 1701 he wrote a letter in Latin to Dr. Mead giving an account of some extraordinary cases of convulsions which had occurred in Oxfordshire. These caused much comment at the time and would probably have been magnified into something supernatural if Freind had not taken the trouble to set them in their true light. He gave solid proof of his professional and classical attainments by the publication of his Emmenologia, in qua Fluxus Muliebris menstrui Phenomena, Periodi, Vitia, cum medendi Methodo, ad Rationes mechanicas exiguntur. This work, as its title implies, was based on the mechanical doctrines then so much in vogue. Though at first it met with some opposition, and was then and afterwards unfavourably criticised by various writers, it was regarded as a masterly essay. "It is", says one authority, "admirable for the beauty of its style, the elegant disposition of its parts, its wonderful succinctness and perspicuity, and for the happy concurrence of learning and penetration visible through the whole."
In 1704 Freind was appointed reader in chemistry at Oxford. In his lectures he applied with great judgement Newton's then recently established laws of nature to the explanation and elucidation of chemistry.
Freind published in 1717 the First and Third Books of Hippocrates, with nine Commentaries on Fever. This work was attacked by Dr. Woodward, the Gresham professor of physic, and a dispute began which was carried on with great bitterness on both sides. Parties were formed under these leaders and several pamphlets were written. Freind supported his opinion "concerning the advantage of purging in the second fever of the confluent smallpox"--for it was on this single point that the dispute chiefly turned--in a Latin letter addressed to Dr. Mead in 1719 and printed among his works.
In 1722 Freind was elected a Member of Parliament for Launceston and he distinguished himself by some able speeches in the House of Commons. In 1725 the College of Physicians petitioned the House of Commons against the pernicious and growing consumption of spirits among persons of all ranks and of both sexes, and Freind was asked to present the petition.
Freind was suspected of participating in the so-called "Bishops' plot" and there was so much resentment against him that he was committed to the Tower as a close prisoner. He was only released because Dr. Mead firmly refused to prescribe for Sir Robert Walpole, the Prime Minister of the day, until Freind was liberated. During this period Freind wrote a celebrated and elegant letter to Dr. Mead, De quibusdam Variolarum Generibus Epistola, published in 1723. Soon after Freind obtained his liberty he was appointed physician to the Prince of Wales, and when the Prince became King, Freind was made physician to Queen Caroline.

Contents:
By Ferdinand de St. Urbain
Bust inscribed 10 ANNES. FREIND. COLL. MED. LOND. ET. REG. S. S. and, on the truncation, S V (the artist's monogram, for St. Urbain). On the reverse, an ancient and modern physician shake hands: inscribed MEDICINA VET VS ET NOVA, and, VNAM FACIMVS VTRAMQVE, and again the signature S V. (Based on Hawkins' description of St. Urbain's medal.)
The allusion appears to be to Freind's History of Physic, published in 1726, which advocates a synthesis of old and new practice in medicine. The medal may be posthumous.

Bibliography: Annals, 9 May 1879; E. W. Hawkins, Medallic Illustrations of the History of Great Britain and Ireland, 1885, vol II, p. 488; L. Forrer, Biographical Dictionary of Medallists, 1912, vol. V, p. 311 (reproduction).


Called Claudius Galen A.D. 130-200  Portrait/X175  n.d

Marble head, 17 inches high, mounted on a separate circular socle which is inscribed: GALEN

Source of acquisition: Presented in 1835 by Lord Ashburton


Administrative history:
It is apparently a modern copy, perhaps of the late eighteenth century. The original, on which it is rather freely based, is a remarkable and famous head in the Vatican, Roman work probably of the late Republican era. Apart from the modern inscription on the socle of the College version, there seems to be no reason for associating this type of portrait with Galen: the original is unidentified and anyway too early in date for Galen.

Contents:
Turned slightly to his right; the eyes not incised; close-curling hair, clean-shaven face; furrowed forehead, double chin, his throat bare.
Engraved in 1840 by W. Skelton

Bibliography: Annals, 30 September 1835; 1864 Catalogue, p. 24; Roll, III, 403; 1900 List; 1926 Catalogue; the head in the Vatican has been frequently reproduced, e.g. in A. Hekler, Greek and Roman Portraits, 1912, pl. 151; F. Bruckmann, Griechische und Römische Porträts, Munich, 1891 et seq., pp. 427-30, has a list of versions of this bust


Sir Samuel Garth 1661-1719 F. 1693  Portrait/X91  n.d

Oils on canvas, 36 by 27¾ inches

Source of acquisition: Presented in 1763 by Dr. Charles Chauncey.*
* Chauncey was a considerable antiquarian and collector (see Munk, and the D.N.B.); he also presented a portrait of Dr. Mead to the College.



Related information: It is a version of the portrait painted by Kneller about 1710 for the collection of portraits of members of the Kit-cat club. This collection, all painted by Kneller and all on one size of canvas (36 by 28 inches, which came to be known as the Kit-cat size), was originally kept in a special room by the publisher Jacob Tonson the elder, at his house; it now belongs to the National Portrait Gallery. The Kit-cat portrait was engraved in mezzotint by J. Simon, and then (1733) by J. Faber the younger, who engraved the whole collection, and there are several copies by later engravers. The painting in the College was engraved in line by R. Newton (for Effigies Poeticae, 1824).
A second portrait, artist unknown, is in the National Portrait Gallery; a different portrait by Kneller is at Knole, and a head and shoulders attributed to Dahl is in the Royal Collection.

Administrative history:
Samuel Garth was born at Bolam, Co. Durham (info from Sir C Booth 27/3/84), and educated at Cambridge and Leyden.
He became a Fellow at a time when the College had a plan to prescribe for the sick poor without charge and to provide them with medicines at cost price. The laboratory of the new College in Warwick Lane was to be fitted up to prepare the medicines and the adjoining room used as a store. This plan offended many apothecaries, who managed to rouse opposition to it in the College and block its progress. Garth, who warmly approved of the new charity, detested the action of the apothecaries and of some of his own colleagues, and exposed them in his lively satire, The Dispensary. The sketches of some of the physicians are severe and biting, and an interesting insight is provided into the history and manners of these men; the work was an immediate and popular success.
In 1700, Garth was responsible for having the neglected body of Dryden brought to the College in Warwick Lane, where it lay in state for ten days. He raised a subscription for the funeral expenses, pronounced a Latin eulogy over the poet's remains and followed the body from the College to Westminster Abbey, where it was buried between Chaucer and Cowley.
Garth was a member of the Kit-cat Club, which included "all the talents" of the Whig party. He contributed the verses inscribed on the club's drinking glasses and these were printed in Dryden's Miscellanies.

Contents:
From the studio of Sir Godfrey Kneller
Half length; long light brown wig; blue-grey eyes; long very dark puce coat; dark brown background; inscribed in small cursive writing at the bottom right hand corner: Sir Samuel Garth M.D./by Sir Godfrey Kneller.

Bibliography: Annals, 2 September 1763; 1864 List; p. 7; Roll, III, 395; 1900 List; 1926 Catalogue; for the Kit-cat Collection, see D. Piper, Catalogue of Seventeenth Century Portraits in the National Portrait Gallery, 1963, p. 133 (rep. the Kit-cat portrait, pl. 236).


Samuel Jones Gee 1839-1911 F. 1870  Portrait/X200  c. 1900

Oil on canvas, 32 by 26½ inches

Source of acquisition: Given by his daughter, Miss E. T. Gee, 1957.


Administrative history:
Samuel Gee was born in London. He was made assistant physician at Great Ormond Street Hospital for Sick Children in 1866. Two years later he moved to St. Bartholomew's Hospital, where he became full physician in 1878. He was also prominent in the affairs of the Royal College of Physicians.
Gee was not a prolific writer but his Auscultation and Percussion (1870) was recognized as a minor classic in its day, and a collection of his Medical Lectures and Aphorisms (1902) by Horder won almost equal recognition at a later date. He was the first to identify coeliac disease. His works bore evidence of a deep knowledge of the history of medicine. He was considered one of the most brilliant teachers of his time, despite, or perhaps with the help of, certain mannerisms which students delighted to mimic. A shy man with few social graces, he attained his position by sheer hard work and an accurate judgement.

Contents:
By Charles Vigor
To the waist, seated, looking to the left. Sparse grey hair, blue eyes, greyish white moustache and whiskers; wearing blue cravat and dark suit; brown background. Inscribed on the back: Dr. Gee painted by Vigor.
Painted probably about 1900.

George IV 1763-1830  Portrait/X367  n.d

Marble bust, 34 inches high, on a circular socle

Source of acquisition: Presented in 1825 by H.M. King George IV, at the opening of the College in Pall Mall East



Related information: A bust of this type was exhibited by Chantrey at the Royal Academy in 1822 replicas or versions exist: e.g. in the Royal Collection; at Christ Church, Oxford; at the Royal Academy; and at the Royal College of Surgeons; the original marble is perhaps the bust of 1822 at Chatsworth. The plaster model is in the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford, and related drawings are in the National Portrait Gallery.

Administrative history:
George IV was not a Fellow of the College. However, his physician, Sir Henry Halford, was elected President in 1820. At this time, the College was still in Warwick Lane, in a neighbourhood which had gone down considerably, and the buildings had become increasingly dilapidated. A move towards the West End of London and to better buildings was therefore urgently needed, and it was largely due to Halford's influence as royal physician that a grant of land in Pall Mall East was obtained from the Crown. (The original lease was extended by Queen Victoria in 1864.) The new college was ceremonially opened in June, 1825, with a Latin oration delivered by Halford to a distinguished company which included many royal dukes. George IV was not present, but he gave the bust to mark the occasion.

Contents:
From the studio of Sir Francis Chantrey
The head turned to the right; plump face, thick curly hair, clean-shaven; the eyes not incised; round the shoulders a drapery, gathered at his right shoulder with a lion-head clasp.

Bibliography: Annals, 25 June 1825; 1864 Catalogue, p. 25; Roll, III, 403; 1900 List; 1926 Catalogue


Sir George Smith Gibbes 1771-1851 F. 1804  Portrait/X42  1798

Oils on canvas, 29¾ by 24½ inches

Source of acquisition: Presented in 1879, by his grandson, Heneage Gibbes.


Administrative history:
George Smith Gibbes was born in Wiltshire and graduated in medicine at Oxford. He practised successfully in Bath, where he had a distinguished reputation for many years. He was a Fellow of the Royal Society. His papers included one on the Component parts of Animal Matters, and on their Conversion into a substance resembling Spermaceti. In 1819 he was appointed physician-extraordinary to Queen Charlotte, and in 1820 he received the honour of knighthood.

Contents:
By John Keenan,
Short half length; greyish-white hair, brown eyes; white stock, black coat, a dark gown over his shoulders; dark brown background. Signed at the bottom on the right: J. Keenan 1798.

Bibliography: Annals, 22 December 1879; 1900 List; 1926 Catalogue; al. from the donor (n.d.).


Francis Glisson 1597-1677 F. 1635  Portrait/X379  c. 1670

Oils on canvas, 29½ by 24¾ inches

Source of acquisition: The date and source of acquisition are at present unknown; it has however been in the College since the first quarter of the eighteenth century (though it is not noted in Vertue's list of 1733), as the inscription is of a type common to several portraits in the collection and used about that date.*
* It seems to be first recorded in a list of portraits in the College compiled about 1797 (British Museum, Add. Ms. 6391, fo. III, v).



Related information: It has been attributed to William Faithorne on the strength of the rather similar engraving, inscribed: Del. et Fecit W. Faithorne, which was used as frontispiece for Glisson's Tractatus de Natura Substantiae Energetica, of 1672 (this engraving gives the sitter's age as 75; in a later state--for the 1677 edition--it is altered to 80). The engraving faces the reverse way from the College picture, as might be expected in an engraving made from a painting, but the set of expression is markedly different: note the treatment of chin and nose, and also the variations in dress and wig. It is not certain that Faithorne ever worked in oils. Possibly the engraving and the painting are both derived from a lost archetype.
Exhibited, National Portrait Exhibition, 1866 (990). A copy, probably by J.. Wollaston, is in the Bodleian Library.

Administrative history:
Francis Glisson was born in Dorset. He graduated M.D. at Cambridge in 1634 and was appointed Regius professor of physic there in 1636, an office which he held until he died. He remained in Cambridge for some years, but during the civil wars he practised in Colchester with great reputation. Shortly after this he seems to have moved to London; he was certainly resident there in 1650 and thereafter he took an active part in the affairs of the College.
Glisson was one of the illustrious few who instituted weekly meetings in London to promote inquiries into natural and experimental philosophy, from which, after the Restoration, the Royal Society came into being, Glisson of course being a member. He was one of the early English anatomists who were inspired by the great example of Harvey.
Glisson's first work was De Rachitide, seu Morbo Puerili, published in 1650. His next work, De Hepate, was published in 1654 and this account of the cellular envelope of the vena porta was so much more accurate than any which had previously been published that his name became inseparably connected with it, under the designation "Glisson's capsule". Glisson's third work, Tractatus de Natura Sub-stantiae Energetica, seu de Vita Naturae, was published in 1672. Though it is in a system and manner now obsolete, it deserves admiration as an extraordinary effort of understanding by a man of advanced age. His last work, De Ventriculo et Intestinis, appeared in the year of his death.

Contents:
By an unknown artist (? William Faithorne),
Head and shoulders; thick brown wig, white bands; grizzled eyebrows, dark grey eyes; black doublet; black gown; plain dark brown background; inscribed in yellow letters: Franciscus. Glisson. M.D.

Bibliography: Roll, I, 395; 1900 List; 1926 Catalogue.


Robert Gooch 1784-1830 L.1812  Portrait/X89  1823

Oils on canvas, 29¾ by 24¾ inches

Source of acquisition: Presented by the sitter's daughter, Miss Gooch, in 1866.



Related information: A painting by Linnell (exhibited, Royal Academy, 1827) was engraved by the artist and published in 1831; it now belongs to St. Bartholomew's Hospital. Dr. Gooch was "rather below the ordinary height, and always thin; his countenance was elegantly marked; the full dark eyes remarkably fine; the habitual expression made up of sagacity and melancholy, though no features could exhibit occasionally a more happy play of humour" (Dr. Southey, quoted by Munk).

Administrative history:
Robert Gooch was born at Yarmouth. His parents could not afford to send him to a good classical school, and after an indifferent education, an accidental acquaintance with a Mr. Harley had a great and lasting influence on Gooch's character and career. Mr. Harley was nearly blind and was dependent upon others for his literary enjoyments. His studies were miscellaneous: history, chemistry, sometimes medicine and very often metaphysics, and Gooch used to read aloud to him. Inspite of the limited circumstances of Gooch's family, aggravated by the detention of his father in a French prison, his mother and an aged aunt determined to send him to Edinburgh, but they had to make great sacrifices to do so. He arrived there with scanty means but was very fortunate in the friendships he then formed.
He began his professional career as a general practitioner in London. Early in 1816 he moved from the city to the West End, where he was warmly patronised by a friend, Sir William Knighton. His professional success was only limited by a constant state of ill-health, which frequently forced him to leave London for weeks, and even months, at a time. He was appointed librarian to the King, an office which delighted him because of his fondness for general literature.
In the last few years of his life the contrast between his mental vigour and his bodily weakness was striking. He died at the age of forty-five after six weeks of a rapidly progressive illness.
Gooch was regarded by the poet Southey as one of the most remarkable men of his time; and this was also the opinion of Sir Walter Scott and of Lockhart. Naturally endowed with great talents and remarkable acuteness of understanding, he added to them a highly cultivated taste and many scientific and literary attainments.

Contents:
By R. J. Lane,
Short half length, seated to left, head turned three-quarters to right; black short hair and side-whiskers; dark eyes; igh stock; black coat; background of red drapery.

Bibliography: Annals, 22 December 1866; Roll, III, 105, 395; 1900 List; 1926 Catalogue; al. from P. M. Latham, 2 January (c. 1870)


Charles Goodall 1642-1712 F.1680 P.1708-1712  Portrait/X138  c.1690-1700

Oils on canvas, 50 by 40 inches

Source of acquisition: Said to have been presented by his widow, Mrs. Goodall, 1713; noted by Vertue in the College about 1733



Related information: A small watercolour copy (? by G. P. Harding) is in the Print Room of the British Museum.

Administrative history:
Charles Goodall was born in Suffolk, and graduated M.D. in Leyden and Cambridge. President from 1708 until his death, he was a most ardent and untiring supporter of the College and his whole life was devoted to its service. The College is indebted to him for the portraits of Henry VIII and Cardinal Wolsey.

Contents:
Perhaps by Thomas Murray,
Three-quarter length standing; long glossy brown wig; very dark blue-eyes; white bands; scarlet M.D. gown over dark dress; very dark brown background.
Apparently painted c. 1690/1700, the style very close to that of Thomas Murray.

Bibliography: Vertue; 1864 Catalogue, p. 12; Roll, III, 396; 1900 List; 1926 Catalogue.


Richard Hale 1670-1728 F.1716  Portrait/X74  n.d

Oils on canvas, 49¾ by 39¾ inches

Administrative history:
Richard Hale was educated at Trinity College, Oxford. He held several offices in the College of Physicians and left it £450 in his will.

Contents:
By Jonathan Richardson
Three-quarter length, seated to left in a high-backed chair; his left hand in a white kidglove rests on his knee; wearing a round puffed black velvet hat, light brown wig falling to his shoulders; very dark brown eyes; white bands, scarlet Doctor's gown over dark clothes; brown background, with a curtain left. Inscribed at the top on the right, in yellow letters: Richard Hale M.D. and in small letters at the extreme bottom right: Richardson. Pinxit.

Richard Hale 1670-1728 F.1716  Portrait/X177  n.d

Oils on canvas, 37½ by 29¾ inches

Archival history:
On 30 September 1729, "it was desired by the College that a copy of Dr. Hale's picture might be drawn for the College library" (to which Hale was particularly generous). On this entry from the Annals follows one in the Cash Book, 11 October 1733: "Pd Mr. Richardson the Lymner for painting Dr. Hales' picture by Dr. Tysons Order twenty guineas". Munk's interpretation of these entries is that a copy of a portrait already then in the College was ordered in 1729, and paid for in 1733. This may well be right, Portrait/X74 being the original, and Portrait/X77 the copy: the curious dimensions of the latter being perhaps made necessary by a particular niche in the library which it was designed to fill. It is not explained, however, why Richardson was only paid four years after the order; nor is the relationship of a version of no. i above, in the Bodleian Library, yet clear. Munk is the first to record both versions in the College.

Administrative history:
Richard Hale was educated at Trinity College, Oxford. He held several offices in the College of Physicians and left it £450 in his will.

Contents:
By Jonathan Richardson (not reproduced)
A half length version of the above, cut off just above his left hand; the curtain and the back of the chair are not shown, and there are differences in the colour of the gown.

Bibliography: Annals, 30 September 1729; Ms. Cash Book 1726-1773, 11 October 1733; 1864 Catalogue, p. 10 (only one portrait); Roll, II, 48; III, 396; 1900 List; 1926 Catalogue.


Sir Henry Halford, Bt. 1766-1844 F.1794 P. 1820-1844  Portrait/X124  c. 1825-30

Oils on canvas, 56 by 44 inches

Archival history:
Exhibited, National Portrait Exhibition, 1868 (218)

Source of acquisition: Bequeathed by his grandson, Sir Henry St. John Halford, Bart., 1897



Related information: Engraved in mezzotint by Charles Turner, 1830

Administrative history:
Henry Halford, son of Dr. James Vaughan, was born in Leicester. Educated at Rugby and Christ Church, Oxford, he settled about 1792 in London, where his elegance, manners, and his Oxford connexions gave him immediate entry into high society, and he married into the aristocracy. Within a year he was appointed physician-extraordinary to the King, and by 1800 his private engagements had become so numerous that he was compelled to resign his hospital appointments. After the death of Lady Denbigh, widow of Sir Charles Halford, his mother's cousin, Vaughan came into a large fortune and changed his name to Halford. He was physician-in-ordinary to four successive sovereigns and had the melancholy privilege of being present at the deaths of three of them.
He was as highly regarded by his professional colleagues as by the public and the Royal Family. His qualities as a practising physician were of the very highest order. Although he was said to be inferior to Dr. Baillie in accuracy of diagnosis, he was his superior in the cure and alleviation of disease. With consummate skill, allied to quick perception, a sound judgement and an almost intuitive knowledge of pharmacology, he exercised the art of medicine with a confidence, precision and success unapproached by any of his contemporaries. For many years he shared with Baillie the highest professional honours, confidence and financial rewards which London could offer, and on Baillie's death in 1823 he was left without a rival.
Halford had a long and distinguished connexion with the Royal College of Physicians, and the move in 1825 from Warwick Lane to Pall Mall East was largely due to the energy and effort which he brought to the office of President.

Contents:
By Sir Thomas Lawrence, P.R.A.,
Almost whole length; seated in a red plush armchair; holding the blue ribbon of the fob at his waist, a ring on his little finger; dark grey eyes, short whitish grey hair; white stock, black coat with high collar, knee breeches; the star of a Knight Commander of the Hanoverian Order* on his left breast; the President's gown, black embroidered with gold, hanging over the back of his chair on the left; a grey wall behind, with apertures on each side through which a cloudy grey and blue sky is seen.
* Conferred on him by George IV on the morning of the opening of the College's new building in Pall Mall, 25 June 1825.

Bibliography: Annals, 12 April 1897; 1900 List; 1926 Catalogue; W. Munk, Life of Sir Henry Halford, 1895, pp. 258/9, with reproduction; Sir W. Armstrong, Lawrence, 1913, p. 36; K. Garlick, Sir Thomas Lawrence, 1954, p. 40.


Sir Henry Halford, Bt. 1766-1844 F.1794 P. 1820-1844  Portrait/X90  1826

Marble bust on a circular socle, 28 inches high

Source of acquisition: Commissioned by the Fellows in 1824 on the occasion of the opening of the new building and presented by them in 1826. Chantrey received 150 guineas



Related information: His plaster model for the bust is in the Ashmolean Museum.
Other portraits include a painting by Beechey, shown at the Royal Academy, 1811; a bust by P. Turnerelli (Royal Academy, 1833) and a painting by Shee (Royal Academy, 1834). Beechey's portrait is now in the National Portrait Gallery. A portrait by H. Room is known by the engraving by J. Cochran.

Administrative history:
Henry Halford, son of Dr. James Vaughan, was born in Leicester. Educated at Rugby and Christ Church, Oxford, he settled about 1792 in London, where his elegance, manners, and his Oxford connexions gave him immediate entry into high society, and he married into the aristocracy. Within a year he was appointed physician-extraordinary to the King, and by 1800 his private engagements had become so numerous that he was compelled to resign his hospital appointments. After the death of Lady Denbigh, widow of Sir Charles Halford, his mother's cousin, Vaughan came into a large fortune and changed his name to Halford. He was physician-in-ordinary to four successive sovereigns and had the melancholy privilege of being present at the deaths of three of them.
He was as highly regarded by his professional colleagues as by the public and the Royal Family. His qualities as a practising physician were of the very highest order. Although he was said to be inferior to Dr. Baillie in accuracy of diagnosis, he was his superior in the cure and alleviation of disease. With consummate skill, allied to quick perception, a sound judgement and an almost intuitive knowledge of pharmacology, he exercised the art of medicine with a confidence, precision and success unapproached by any of his contemporaries. For many years he shared with Baillie the highest professional honours, confidence and financial rewards which London could offer, and on Baillie's death in 1823 he was left without a rival.
Halford had a long and distinguished connexion with the Royal College of Physicians, and the move in 1825 from Warwick Lane to Pall Mall East was largely due to the energy and effort which he brought to the office of President.

Contents:
By Sir Francis Chantrey,
Shoulders loosely draped, the eyes incised; inscribed at the back: SIR H. HALFORD. M.D./ CHANTREY S. C. / 1826.

Bibliography: Annals, 4 June 1825; 1864 Catalogue, p. 25; Roll, III, 403; 1900 List; 1926 Catalogue.


Baldwin Hamey, Junior 1600-1676 F. 1634  Portrait/X78  1674

Oils on canvas, 49¼ by 39¾ inches

Source of acquisition: Presented in 1700 by the sitter's nephew, Ralph Palmer, who describes the picture in his manuscript life of Hamey, 1733 (in the College Library): "an half length of Him, with ye Statuary heads of Hippocrates and Aristophanes before him... done by Snelling when he was seventy-four years old" (p. 13).



Related information: Snelling is an obscure painter who seems also to have worked in miniature. Another portrait of Hamey, possibly by the same painter, and of about the same period, but of a different pattern, belongs to the Ellicombe family of Chudleigh. An engraving after William Stukeley and the pen and ink sketch in the College (signed and dated by Ditchfield, 1858) are probably derived from the College picture. Exhibited at the National Portrait Exhibition, 1866 (956).

Administrative history:
Baldwin Hamey was educated at Leyden and Oxford, and married Anna Patin, the daughter of a wealthy merchant of Rotterdam.
As a faithful member of the Church of England and a devoted royalist he was dismayed by the political events which marked the early years of his practice. At one time, though he was then entering full professional employment, he had serious thoughts of leaving London. A severe illness intervened and, when he recovered, the arrival of an influential patient, who rewarded him well for his advice and who was followed by others, encouraged him to stay.
Hamey's sympathies, though he was practising among the leading men of the Commonwealth and basking in their favour, were wholly with the exiled Royal Family. He inherited plenty of money and for many years had a large and lucrative practice; as he had no family, few personal wants, and was careful in his domestic expenditure, he could give full rein to his benevolent and charitable disposition. He sent Charles II several sums of money during the hardships of his exile, he was a liberal benefactor to many poor scholars, and he assisted greatly in the repair of many churches.
In 1651, when the spoliation of church property began, the College was situated in Amen Corner on ground belonging to St. Paul's. It was thus liable to be confiscated at any moment. Dr. Hamey, with a generosity for which he will always be held in honour, redeemed the property out of his own pocket and made it over in perpetuity to his colleagues.
Dr. Hamey contributed liberally to the fund for rebuilding the College after the fire of 1666, and in addition he paid for the Coenaculum to be wainscoted with fine Spanish oak, at a cost of some hundreds of pounds. Part of this wainscoting was moved from Warwick Lane to Pall Mall East, and again is being moved, as one of the glories of the Censors' room, to Regent's Park. The last of his great gifts to the College was to purchase the estate and manor of Ashlins, in Essex, which he settled on the College of Physicians in trust and by his will confirmed it to the College for ever.

Contents:
By Matthew (?) Snelling,
Three-quarter length, seated in a red armchair at a table; a bust of Hippocrates on the table; puffed black velvet cap; long grey-white hair; dark brown eyes; black gown; a reddish curtain behind; on the right, shelves filled with yellow-brown folios, on the table also a bust of Aristophanes; inscribed; Baldvinus, Hamey. M.D.

Bibliography: Ralph Palmer, Life of the most eminent Dr. Baldwin Hamey, ms. 1733; Hatton, 1708; Vertue; 1864 Catalogue, p. 6; Roll, I, 215/6; III, 396; 1900 List; 1926 Catalogue; C. H. Collins Baker, Lely and the Stuart Portrait Painters, 1912, II, p. 218; J. J. Keevil, The Stranger's Son, 1953, pp. 183, 213, and reproduction as frontispiece.


Baldwin Hamey, Junior 1600-1676 F. 1634  Portrait/X122  n.d

Marble bust, 28 inches high

Archival history:
Formerly attributed to John Bushnell, it may be identified with some confidence with the head described by Hooke in his Diary; on 19 February 1674/5 he records that he was ordered by Ent, Scarborough and others "to bespeak Dr. Hamey's head of Pierce"; on 4 September 1675, he notes "saw Dr. Hamey's head embossed at Mr. Pierces", and five years later it was still there; "saw Dr. Hameys head at Pierces. ..." (19 July 1680).*
In the ms. Cash Book, 1684, is the entry: "payd April: 12 for Dr. Hamey's head of marble 50£; Palmer himself, in his life of his uncle, states that the bust stood more than seven years on the (unnamed) sculptor's hands. In the nineteenth century the bust was mistaken by Munk and others (including the D.N.B.) for an image of the Marquis of Dorchester (q.v.). Exhibited, Royal Academy (The Age of Charles II) 1960-1, no. 84.
* But according to a statement in the Annals, 8 October 1680 (cited by Keevil), Hamey's bust had been set up in June 1680. Conceivably the "head embossed" referred to by Hooke, was Pierce's clay or terracotta model preliminary to the marble.

Administrative history:
Baldwin Hamey was educated at Leyden and Oxford, and married Anna Patin, the daughter of a wealthy merchant of Rotterdam.
As a faithful member of the Church of England and a devoted royalist he was dismayed by the political events which marked the early years of his practice. At one time, though he was then entering full professional employment, he had serious thoughts of leaving London. A severe illness intervened and, when he recovered, the arrival of an influential patient, who rewarded him well for his advice and who was followed by others, encouraged him to stay.
Hamey's sympathies, though he was practising among the leading men of the Commonwealth and basking in their favour, were wholly with the exiled Royal Family. He inherited plenty of money and for many years had a large and lucrative practice; as he had no family, few personal wants, and was careful in his domestic expenditure, he could give full rein to his benevolent and charitable disposition. He sent Charles II several sums of money during the hardships of his exile, he was a liberal benefactor to many poor scholars, and he assisted greatly in the repair of many churches.
In 1651, when the spoliation of church property began, the College was situated in Amen Corner on ground belonging to St. Paul's. It was thus liable to be confiscated at any moment. Dr. Hamey, with a generosity for which he will always be held in honour, redeemed the property out of his own pocket and made it over in perpetuity to his colleagues.
Dr. Hamey contributed liberally to the fund for rebuilding the College after the fire of 1666, and in addition he paid for the Coenaculum to be wainscoted with fine Spanish oak, at a cost of some hundreds of pounds. Part of this wainscoting was moved from Warwick Lane to Pall Mall East, and again is being moved, as one of the glories of the Censors' room, to Regent's Park. The last of his great gifts to the College was to purchase the estate and manor of Ashlins, in Essex, which he settled on the College of Physicians in trust and by his will confirmed it to the College for ever.

Contents:
By Edward Pierce
Circular hat, long hair to shoulders; plain bands tied with tassels, a gown draped loosely round the shoulders; incised eyes; at present coated with white paint and lacking its socle.

William Harvey 1578-1657 F. 1607  Portrait/X183  c.1650

Oils on canvas, 52¾ by 42¾ inches; The painting has been considerably damaged and restored; the right hand appears to be entirely the restorer's work, perhaps of Mr. Walter Bolt who received fifteen shillings, 5 June 1691, for "mending Dr. Harvies picture", or more probably of Mr. Cellivoe (?) who was paid £3-10-0 for repairs on the same picture, 3 January 1766.

Archival history:
It was in the College before the Great Fire of 1666, and was one of the two portraits saved from the fire (the other being Dr. Simeon Foxe, a portrait otherwise unrecorded and now lost.


Related information: The earliest engraving taken directly from it seems to be that by J. Hall, published as a frontispiece to the Opera Omnia, 1766; this engraving was commissioned by the College for £52-10-0 in 1765. Later engravings and reproductions are numerous. There are also various copies and derivations from the painting, of which a comprehensive account is given by Keynes. They include the line engraving by William Faithorne the elder, which is found in some copies of the Anatomical Exercitations, 1653; the whole-length figure that appears in Gaywood's engraved frontispiece to John Decker's Eighteen Books of the Secrets of Art and Nature, 1660; a head and shoulders painted derivation in the Bodleian Library, and another in the Royal College of Surgeons. Modern copies are at St. Bartholomew's Hospital College, at Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge and in the possession of Dr. Weir Mitchell, U.S.A.
There are perhaps only five basic portraits, believed to be taken from the life. These are: the head and shoulders painting by an unknown artist, aged about 45, from the Harvey family collection at Rolls Park*; the College portrait (no. -x183); the portrait with a view of Rome attributed to Wilhelm von Bemmel, now in the Hunterian Museum at Glasgow; the etching ascribed to R. Gaywood (for the sitting for this, see Sir G. Keynes, in British Medical Journal, 1950, II, p. 43); and finally the marble bust by Edward Marshall in Hempstead Church, formerly believed to be posthumous, but probably taken before Harvey's death.
A statue by Henry Weekes was commissioned by the Fellow in 1875/6 for the portico of the former College building in Pall Mall (Annals, 20 April 1875).
* At the date of going to press, this portrait is in an American private collection; it was held by the College on loan between 1949 and 1959

Administrative history:
William Harvey, distinguished physician, great physiologist, and inspirer of medical science throughout the world, was the eldest son of Thomas Harvey, a "yeoman in substantial circumstances", of Folkestone, Kent.
From the Grammar school of Canterbury, he entered Caius College, Cambridge, as a pensioner, at the age of 16, taking his arts degree in 1598. Having chosen medicine as a profession, he then left Cambridge for Padua, where he graduated and won the highest esteem of the world's greatest teachers of the time, including Fabricius. Returning to England and taking his Cambridge degree, Harvey settled in London, marrying in 1604 a daughter of Dr. Launcelot Browne, who had been physician to Queen Elizabeth.
Elected physician in 1609 to St. Bartholomew's hospital, and in 1615 Lumleian lecturer, Harvey began the exposition of his views on the circulation of the blood which were published in 1628 in his famous work Exercitatio Anatomica de Motu Cordis et Sanguinis.
Harvey was physician to James I and Charles I, being present at the battle of Edgehill, where the Prince and the Duke of York were placed in his care. With the surrender of Oxford he lost the wardenship of Merton College, but a far worse blow in the Civil War was the pillaging of his house in London and the loss of many anatomical studies. In his later years he was happy in the care of his successful merchant brothers, and devoted himself with great generosity to the welfare of the College of Physicians, notably in the provision of its library. He was elected President in 1654 but declined the office on account of age and infirmity.
"The private character of this great man," says Aikin*, "appears to have been in every respect worthy of his public reputation. Cheerful, candid, and upright, he was not the prey of any mean or ungentle passion. He was as little disposed by nature to detract from the merits of others, or make an ostentatious display of his own, as necessitated to use such methods for advancing his fame. The many antagonists whom his renown and the novelty of his opinions excited were in general treated by him with modest and temperate language, frequently very different from their own; and while he refuted their arguments, he decorated them with all due praises. He lived on terms of perfect harmony and friendship with his brethren of the College, and seems to have been very little ambitious of engrossing a disproportionate share of medical practice. In extreme old age, pain and sickness were said to have rendered him somewhat irritable in his temper; and as an instance of want of command over himself at that season, it is related ?hat in the paroxysms of the gout he could not be prevented from plunging the affected joint in cold water: but who can think it strange that when his body was almost worn down, the mind should also be debilitated?
"In familiar conversation, Harvey was easy and unassuming, and singularly clear in expressing his ideas. His mind was furnished with an ample store of knowledge, not only in matters connected with his profession, but in most of the objects of liberal inquiry, especially in ancient and modern history, and the science of politics. He took great delight in reading the ancient poets, Virgil in particular, with whose divine productions he is said to have been sometimes so transported as to throw the book from him with exclamations of rapture. To complete his character, he did not want that polish and courtly address which are necessary to the scholar who would also appear as a gentleman.
"Harvey, in his own family circle, must have been affectionate and kind--characteristics of all his brothers--who appear to have lived together through their lives in perfect amity and peace. For twenty years before he died he took no care of his wordly concerns; but his brother Eliab, who was a very wise and prudent manager, ordered all, not only faithfully but better than he could have done for himself.
"In Harvey the religious sentiments appear to have been active; the exordium to his will is unusually solemn and grand. He also evinces true and elevated piety throughout the whole course of his work on Generation, and seizes every opportunity of giving utterance to his sense of the immediate agency and omnipotence of Deity. He appears, with the ancient philosophers, to have regarded the universe and its parts as actuated by a Supreme and all-pervading Intelligence."
* Aikin, Biographical Memoirs of Medicine in Great Britain, 1780.
Manufacture of posthumous images of Harvey began early: the demand came not only from medical men and from institutions, but from more general connoisseurs of famous men such as Bishop Ken, who acquired a portrait for his library at Longleat, c. 1700. The resulting images are numerous and confusing. The first attempt on any scale to classify them was made by Sir D'Arcy Power in 1913, who however was not sufficiently sceptical. There followed various scattered articles on problems raised by individual portraits (all mentioned by Keynes), and then Sir Geoffrey Keynes's short preliminary summary of the subject in the British Medical Journal, 1944, before his detailed and elaborate exposition in the Thomas Vicary Lecture of 1948, which will remain the standard work.
Supplementary to these, but vivifying them, is Aubrey's description: "He-was not tall, but of the lowest stature, round faced, olivaster complexion; little eie, round, very black, full of spirit; his hair was black as a raven, but quite white 20 years before he died... very cholerique and in his young days wore a dagger; but the Dr. would be too apt to draw out his dagger upon every slight occasion." For the full discussion of all known portraits, the student is referred to Keynes's monograph, where all the portraits, the main types and the derivative images are fully described and illustrated.

Contents:
Artist unknown
Three-quarter length, seated in a large brown square-backed armchair; his left hand holding his round black Doctor's hat between his thighs; scanty grey hair; dark brown eyes; plum-coloured velvet doublet, under a black gown with half sleeves and braided loops; a plain gold ring on the third finger of his left hand. On the right, a reddish-brown curtain, a stone pillar in the centre with a coat of arms painted on its base (almost indistinguishable but said by Keynes to be probably those of the Harvey family quartered with those of Sir Daniel Harvey: i.e.-Argent two bars, wavy sable on a chief of the last, three crosses patée fitchée or; and, Or, a chief indented sable, three crescents argent); on the left a lightly clouded sky. Inscribed: Gulielmus. Harvey. M.D.
Painted perhaps about 1650 though conceivably just posthumous
It has been attributed to Cornelius Johnson, but is certainly not from his hand.

Bibliography: Hatton, 1708; Vertue; 1864 Catalogue, p. 5; Roll, I, 42; III, 327 and (account of the Great Fire) 396; 1900 List; 1926 Catalogue; Ms. Accounts Book, 5 June 1691 (pp. 120, 130, 138); ibid, 3 January 1706; ibid, 30 May 1765.
Bibliographical note: Sir D'Arcy Power, Portraits of Dr. William Harvey (published by the Oxford University Press for the Historical Section of the Royal College of Medicine) 1913; Sir Geoffrey Keynes in the British Medical Journal, 18 November 1944, II, p. 669; Sir Geoffrey Keynes, The Portraiture of William Harvey (The Thomas Vicary Lecture, 1948, published with a catalogue and 32 plates, by the Royal College of Surgeons, London), 1949.


William Harvey 1578-1657 F. 1607  Portrait/X144  ?c19th

Oils on canvas, 24 by 20 inches

Source of acquisition: Bought by the College in 1905; previous history unknown.



Related information: Made up, probably in the nineteenth century, from the engraving by J. Houbraken, which is taken from one of two portraits about 1739, both of which were then in the collection of Dr. Mead. The original of these, a three-quarter length seated with a view of Rome (possibly a companion portrait to that of Scarburgh now in the College) is now in the Hunterian Museum (Keynes, p1. 13): it was probably taken from life not long before Harvey's death. The other, a half length, probably a copy from the three-quarter length com-missioned by Mead, is now in St. Bartholomew's Hospital, London (Keynes, p1. 14). The bust by Scheemakers (see no. 4 below) is modelled from the same type. Other posthumous images derived from this type are noted by Keynes at Longleat; in the Aberdeen Medico-Chirurgical Society, and the third portrait in the College (no. 3 Portrait/X62)
There are perhaps only five basic portraits, believed to be taken from the life. These are: the head and shoulders painting by an unknown artist, aged about 45, from the Harvey family collection at Rolls Park*; the College portrait (no. -x183); the portrait with a view of Rome attributed to Wilhelm von Bemmel, now in the Hunterian Museum at Glasgow; the etching ascribed to R. Gaywood (for the sitting for this, see Sir G. Keynes, in British Medical Journal, 1950, II, p. 43); and finally the marble bust by Edward Marshall in Hempstead Church, formerly believed to be posthumous, but probably taken before Harvey's death.
A statue by Henry Weekes was commissioned by the Fellow in 1875/6 for the portico of the former College building in Pall Mall (Annals, 20 April 1875).
* At the date of going to press, this portrait is in an American private collection; it was held by the College on loan between 1949 and 1959

Administrative history:
William Harvey, distinguished physician, great physiologist, and inspirer of medical science throughout the world, was the eldest son of Thomas Harvey, a "yeoman in substantial circumstances", of Folkestone, Kent.
From the Grammar school of Canterbury, he entered Caius College, Cambridge, as a pensioner, at the age of 16, taking his arts degree in 1598. Having chosen medicine as a profession, he then left Cambridge for Padua, where he graduated and won the highest esteem of the world's greatest teachers of the time, including Fabricius. Returning to England and taking his Cambridge degree, Harvey settled in London, marrying in 1604 a daughter of Dr. Launcelot Browne, who had been physician to Queen Elizabeth.
Elected physician in 1609 to St. Bartholomew's hospital, and in 1615 Lumleian lecturer, Harvey began the exposition of his views on the circulation of the blood which were published in 1628 in his famous work Exercitatio Anatomica de Motu Cordis et Sanguinis.
Harvey was physician to James I and Charles I, being present at the battle of Edgehill, where the Prince and the Duke of York were placed in his care. With the surrender of Oxford he lost the wardenship of Merton College, but a far worse blow in the Civil War was the pillaging of his house in London and the loss of many anatomical studies. In his later years he was happy in the care of his successful merchant brothers, and devoted himself with great generosity to the welfare of the College of Physicians, notably in the provision of its library. He was elected President in 1654 but declined the office on account of age and infirmity.
"The private character of this great man," says Aikin*, "appears to have been in every respect worthy of his public reputation. Cheerful, candid, and upright, he was not the prey of any mean or ungentle passion. He was as little disposed by nature to detract from the merits of others, or make an ostentatious display of his own, as necessitated to use such methods for advancing his fame. The many antagonists whom his renown and the novelty of his opinions excited were in general treated by him with modest and temperate language, frequently very different from their own; and while he refuted their arguments, he decorated them with all due praises. He lived on terms of perfect harmony and friendship with his brethren of the College, and seems to have been very little ambitious of engrossing a disproportionate share of medical practice. In extreme old age, pain and sickness were said to have rendered him somewhat irritable in his temper; and as an instance of want of command over himself at that season, it is related ?hat in the paroxysms of the gout he could not be prevented from plunging the affected joint in cold water: but who can think it strange that when his body was almost worn down, the mind should also be debilitated?
"In familiar conversation, Harvey was easy and unassuming, and singularly clear in expressing his ideas. His mind was furnished with an ample store of knowledge, not only in matters connected with his profession, but in most of the objects of liberal inquiry, especially in ancient and modern history, and the science of politics. He took great delight in reading the ancient poets, Virgil in particular, with whose divine productions he is said to have been sometimes so transported as to throw the book from him with exclamations of rapture. To complete his character, he did not want that polish and courtly address which are necessary to the scholar who would also appear as a gentleman.
"Harvey, in his own family circle, must have been affectionate and kind--characteristics of all his brothers--who appear to have lived together through their lives in perfect amity and peace. For twenty years before he died he took no care of his wordly concerns; but his brother Eliab, who was a very wise and prudent manager, ordered all, not only faithfully but better than he could have done for himself.
"In Harvey the religious sentiments appear to have been active; the exordium to his will is unusually solemn and grand. He also evinces true and elevated piety throughout the whole course of his work on Generation, and seizes every opportunity of giving utterance to his sense of the immediate agency and omnipotence of Deity. He appears, with the ancient philosophers, to have regarded the universe and its parts as actuated by a Supreme and all-pervading Intelligence."
* Aikin, Biographical Memoirs of Medicine in Great Britain, 1780.
Manufacture of posthumous images of Harvey began early: the demand came not only from medical men and from institutions, but from more general connoisseurs of famous men such as Bishop Ken, who acquired a portrait for his library at Longleat, c. 1700. The resulting images are numerous and confusing. The first attempt on any scale to classify them was made by Sir D'Arcy Power in 1913, who however was not sufficiently sceptical. There followed various scattered articles on problems raised by individual portraits (all mentioned by Keynes), and then Sir Geoffrey Keynes's short preliminary summary of the subject in the British Medical Journal, 1944, before his detailed and elaborate exposition in the Thomas Vicary Lecture of 1948, which will remain the standard work.
Supplementary to these, but vivifying them, is Aubrey's description: "He-was not tall, but of the lowest stature, round faced, olivaster complexion; little eie, round, very black, full of spirit; his hair was black as a raven, but quite white 20 years before he died... very cholerique and in his young days wore a dagger; but the Dr. would be too apt to draw out his dagger upon every slight occasion." For the full discussion of all known portraits, the student is referred to Keynes's monograph, where all the portraits, the main types and the derivative images are fully described and illustrated.

Contents:
Artist unknown
Head and shoulders; grizzled hair, moustache, and pointed beard; dark eyes; plain and dark brown background.

Bibliography: 1926 Catalogue
Bibliographical note: Sir D'Arcy Power, Portraits of Dr. William Harvey (published by the Oxford University Press for the Historical Section of the Royal College of Medicine) 1913; Sir Geoffrey Keynes in the British Medical Journal, 18 November 1944, II, p. 669; Sir Geoffrey Keynes, The Portraiture of William Harvey (The Thomas Vicary Lecture, 1948, published with a catalogue and 32 plates, by the Royal College of Surgeons, London), 1949.


William Harvey 1578-1657 F. 1607  Portrait/X62  n.d

Oils on canvas, 26¾ by 20½ inches

Source of acquisition: Bought by the College in 1909



Related information: There are perhaps only five basic portraits, believed to be taken from the life. These are: the head and shoulders painting by an unknown artist, aged about 45, from the Harvey family collection at Rolls Park*; the College portrait (no. 1--x183); the portrait with a view of Rome attributed to Wilhelm von Bemmel, now in the Hunterian Museum at Glasgow; the etching ascribed to R. Gaywood (for the sitting for this, see Sir G. Keynes, in British Medical Journal, 1950, II, p. 43); and finally the marble bust by Edward Marshall in Hempstead Church, formerly believed to be posthumous, but probably taken before Harvey's death.
A statue by Henry Weekes was commissioned by the Fellow in 1875/6 for the portico of the former College building in Pall Mall (Annals, 20 April 1875).
* At the date of going to press, this portrait is in an American private collection; it was held by the College on loan between 1949 and 1959

Administrative history:
William Harvey, distinguished physician, great physiologist, and inspirer of medical science throughout the world, was the eldest son of Thomas Harvey, a "yeoman in substantial circumstances", of Folkestone, Kent.
From the Grammar school of Canterbury, he entered Caius College, Cambridge, as a pensioner, at the age of 16, taking his arts degree in 1598. Having chosen medicine as a profession, he then left Cambridge for Padua, where he graduated and won the highest esteem of the world's greatest teachers of the time, including Fabricius. Returning to England and taking his Cambridge degree, Harvey settled in London, marrying in 1604 a daughter of Dr. Launcelot Browne, who had been physician to Queen Elizabeth.
Elected physician in 1609 to St. Bartholomew's hospital, and in 1615 Lumleian lecturer, Harvey began the exposition of his views on the circulation of the blood which were published in 1628 in his famous work Exercitatio Anatomica de Motu Cordis et Sanguinis.
Harvey was physician to James I and Charles I, being present at the battle of Edgehill, where the Prince and the Duke of York were placed in his care. With the surrender of Oxford he lost the wardenship of Merton College, but a far worse blow in the Civil War was the pillaging of his house in London and the loss of many anatomical studies. In his later years he was happy in the care of his successful merchant brothers, and devoted himself with great generosity to the welfare of the College of Physicians, notably in the provision of its library. He was elected President in 1654 but declined the office on account of age and infirmity.
"The private character of this great man," says Aikin*, "appears to have been in every respect worthy of his public reputation. Cheerful, candid, and upright, he was not the prey of any mean or ungentle passion. He was as little disposed by nature to detract from the merits of others, or make an ostentatious display of his own, as necessitated to use such methods for advancing his fame. The many antagonists whom his renown and the novelty of his opinions excited were in general treated by him with modest and temperate language, frequently very different from their own; and while he refuted their arguments, he decorated them with all due praises. He lived on terms of perfect harmony and friendship with his brethren of the College, and seems to have been very little ambitious of engrossing a disproportionate share of medical practice. In extreme old age, pain and sickness were said to have rendered him somewhat irritable in his temper; and as an instance of want of command over himself at that season, it is related ?hat in the paroxysms of the gout he could not be prevented from plunging the affected joint in cold water: but who can think it strange that when his body was almost worn down, the mind should also be debilitated?
"In familiar conversation, Harvey was easy and unassuming, and singularly clear in expressing his ideas. His mind was furnished with an ample store of knowledge, not only in matters connected with his profession, but in most of the objects of liberal inquiry, especially in ancient and modern history, and the science of politics. He took great delight in reading the ancient poets, Virgil in particular, with whose divine productions he is said to have been sometimes so transported as to throw the book from him with exclamations of rapture. To complete his character, he did not want that polish and courtly address which are necessary to the scholar who would also appear as a gentleman.
"Harvey, in his own family circle, must have been affectionate and kind--characteristics of all his brothers--who appear to have lived together through their lives in perfect amity and peace. For twenty years before he died he took no care of his wordly concerns; but his brother Eliab, who was a very wise and prudent manager, ordered all, not only faithfully but better than he could have done for himself.
"In Harvey the religious sentiments appear to have been active; the exordium to his will is unusually solemn and grand. He also evinces true and elevated piety throughout the whole course of his work on Generation, and seizes every opportunity of giving utterance to his sense of the immediate agency and omnipotence of Deity. He appears, with the ancient philosophers, to have regarded the universe and its parts as actuated by a Supreme and all-pervading Intelligence."
* Aikin, Biographical Memoirs of Medicine in Great Britain, 1780.
Manufacture of posthumous images of Harvey began early: the demand came not only from medical men and from institutions, but from more general connoisseurs of famous men such as Bishop Ken, who acquired a portrait for his library at Longleat, c. 1700. The resulting images are numerous and confusing. The first attempt on any scale to classify them was made by Sir D'Arcy Power in 1913, who however was not sufficiently sceptical. There followed various scattered articles on problems raised by individual portraits (all mentioned by Keynes), and then Sir Geoffrey Keynes's short preliminary summary of the subject in the British Medical Journal, 1944, before his detailed and elaborate exposition in the Thomas Vicary Lecture of 1948, which will remain the standard work.
Supplementary to these, but vivifying them, is Aubrey's description: "He-was not tall, but of the lowest stature, round faced, olivaster complexion; little eie, round, very black, full of spirit; his hair was black as a raven, but quite white 20 years before he died... very cholerique and in his young days wore a dagger; but the Dr. would be too apt to draw out his dagger upon every slight occasion." For the full discussion of all known portraits, the student is referred to Keynes's monograph, where all the portraits, the main types and the derivative images are fully described and illustrated.

Contents:
Artist unknown
Head and shoulders to left, in a painted oval; long grizzled brown hair, moustache, pointed beard; dark eyes on the spectator; plain white collar with no tassels; close fitting dark doublet, embroidered with gold at the front; in the background on the left, a table with books and a skull; right an anatomical table of the arterial circulation; inscribed round the oval: WILLIAM HARVEY.M.D.CAM.F.C.P.1607 AETATIS SUAE 50 ANO DOM. 1628.
It appears to be a modern forgery, probably largely based on the Houbraken engraving (see no 2 X-1444). An attempt has been made to rejuvenate the features to the age given, but it is ruled out altogether as an authentic portrait on comparison with that of Harvey aged about 45 from the Rolls Park collection, which the forger clearly did not know, as also he did not understand the build-up of contemporary costume.

Bibliography: Cash Book, 19 January 1909; 1926 Catalogue. See also the Iconographical Note below.
Bibliographical note: Sir D'Arcy Power, Portraits of Dr. William Harvey (published by the Oxford University Press for the Historical Section of the Royal College of Medicine) 1913; Sir Geoffrey Keynes in the British Medical Journal, 18 November 1944, II, p. 669; Sir Geoffrey Keynes, The Portraiture of William Harvey (The Thomas Vicary Lecture, 1948, published with a catalogue and 32 plates, by the Royal College of Surgeons, London), 1949.


William Harvey 1578-1657 F. 1607  Portrait/X83  n.d

Marble bust, 28 inches high

Source of acquisition: Presented in 1739 by Dr. Richard Mead, and probably commissioned by him not long before
And based on one of the two paintings of Harvey then in his possession (see no. 2-X144).



Related information: There are perhaps only five basic portraits, believed to be taken from the life. These are: the head and shoulders painting by an unknown artist, aged about 45, from the Harvey family collection at Rolls Park*; the College portrait (no. 1--X183); the portrait with a view of Rome attributed to Wilhelm von Bemmel, now in the Hunterian Museum at Glasgow; the etching ascribed to R. Gaywood (for the sitting for this, see Sir G. Keynes, in British Medical Journal, 1950, II, p. 43); and finally the marble bust by Edward Marshall in Hempstead Church, formerly believed to be posthumous, but probably taken before Harvey's death.
A statue by Henry Weekes was commissioned by the Fellow in 1875/6 for the portico of the former College building in Pall Mall (Annals, 20 April 1875).
* At the date of going to press, this portrait is in an American private collection; it was held by the College on loan between 1949 and 1959

Administrative history:
William Harvey, distinguished physician, great physiologist, and inspirer of medical science throughout the world, was the eldest son of Thomas Harvey, a "yeoman in substantial circumstances", of Folkestone, Kent.
From the Grammar school of Canterbury, he entered Caius College, Cambridge, as a pensioner, at the age of 16, taking his arts degree in 1598. Having chosen medicine as a profession, he then left Cambridge for Padua, where he graduated and won the highest esteem of the world's greatest teachers of the time, including Fabricius. Returning to England and taking his Cambridge degree, Harvey settled in London, marrying in 1604 a daughter of Dr. Launcelot Browne, who had been physician to Queen Elizabeth.
Elected physician in 1609 to St. Bartholomew's hospital, and in 1615 Lumleian lecturer, Harvey began the exposition of his views on the circulation of the blood which were published in 1628 in his famous work Exercitatio Anatomica de Motu Cordis et Sanguinis.
Harvey was physician to James I and Charles I, being present at the battle of Edgehill, where the Prince and the Duke of York were placed in his care. With the surrender of Oxford he lost the wardenship of Merton College, but a far worse blow in the Civil War was the pillaging of his house in London and the loss of many anatomical studies. In his later years he was happy in the care of his successful merchant brothers, and devoted himself with great generosity to the welfare of the College of Physicians, notably in the provision of its library. He was elected President in 1654 but declined the office on account of age and infirmity.
"The private character of this great man," says Aikin*, "appears to have been in every respect worthy of his public reputation. Cheerful, candid, and upright, he was not the prey of any mean or ungentle passion. He was as little disposed by nature to detract from the merits of others, or make an ostentatious display of his own, as necessitated to use such methods for advancing his fame. The many antagonists whom his renown and the novelty of his opinions excited were in general treated by him with modest and temperate language, frequently very different from their own; and while he refuted their arguments, he decorated them with all due praises. He lived on terms of perfect harmony and friendship with his brethren of the College, and seems to have been very little ambitious of engrossing a disproportionate share of medical practice. In extreme old age, pain and sickness were said to have rendered him somewhat irritable in his temper; and as an instance of want of command over himself at that season, it is related ?hat in the paroxysms of the gout he could not be prevented from plunging the affected joint in cold water: but who can think it strange that when his body was almost worn down, the mind should also be debilitated?
"In familiar conversation, Harvey was easy and unassuming, and singularly clear in expressing his ideas. His mind was furnished with an ample store of knowledge, not only in matters connected with his profession, but in most of the objects of liberal inquiry, especially in ancient and modern history, and the science of politics. He took great delight in reading the ancient poets, Virgil in particular, with whose divine productions he is said to have been sometimes so transported as to throw the book from him with exclamations of rapture. To complete his character, he did not want that polish and courtly address which are necessary to the scholar who would also appear as a gentleman.
"Harvey, in his own family circle, must have been affectionate and kind--characteristics of all his brothers--who appear to have lived together through their lives in perfect amity and peace. For twenty years before he died he took no care of his wordly concerns; but his brother Eliab, who was a very wise and prudent manager, ordered all, not only faithfully but better than he could have done for himself.
"In Harvey the religious sentiments appear to have been active; the exordium to his will is unusually solemn and grand. He also evinces true and elevated piety throughout the whole course of his work on Generation, and seizes every opportunity of giving utterance to his sense of the immediate agency and omnipotence of Deity. He appears, with the ancient philosophers, to have regarded the universe and its parts as actuated by a Supreme and all-pervading Intelligence."
* Aikin, Biographical Memoirs of Medicine in Great Britain, 1780.
Manufacture of posthumous images of Harvey began early: the demand came not only from medical men and from institutions, but from more general connoisseurs of famous men such as Bishop Ken, who acquired a portrait for his library at Longleat, c. 1700. The resulting images are numerous and confusing. The first attempt on any scale to classify them was made by Sir D'Arcy Power in 1913, who however was not sufficiently sceptical. There followed various scattered articles on problems raised by individual portraits (all mentioned by Keynes), and then Sir Geoffrey Keynes's short preliminary summary of the subject in the British Medical Journal, 1944, before his detailed and elaborate exposition in the Thomas Vicary Lecture of 1948, which will remain the standard work.
Supplementary to these, but vivifying them, is Aubrey's description: "He-was not tall, but of the lowest stature, round faced, olivaster complexion; little eie, round, very black, full of spirit; his hair was black as a raven, but quite white 20 years before he died... very cholerique and in his young days wore a dagger; but the Dr. would be too apt to draw out his dagger upon every slight occasion." For the full discussion of all known portraits, the student is referred to Keynes's monograph, where all the portraits, the main types and the derivative images are fully described and illustrated.

Contents:
By Peter Scheemakers
Head to left, eyes (incised) looking in the same direction; long hair, moustache and pointed beard; falling collar, gown over tight-buttoned doublet; circular socle. Incised on the back: GUL. HARVEIUS M.D.

Bibliography: Bibliographical note: Sir D'Arcy Power, Portraits of Dr. William Harvey (published by the Oxford University Press for the Historical Section of the Royal College of Medicine) 1913; Sir Geoffrey Keynes in the British Medical Journal, 18 November 1944, II, p. 669; Sir Geoffrey Keynes, The Portraiture of William Harvey (The Thomas Vicary Lecture, 1948, published with a catalogue and 32 plates, by the Royal College of Surgeons, London), 1949.


William Harvey 1578-1657 F. 1607  Portrait/X38  n.d

A plaster cast


Related information: There are perhaps only five basic portraits, believed to be taken from the life. These are: the head and shoulders painting by an unknown artist, aged about 45, from the Harvey family collection at Rolls Park*; the College portrait (no. 1--X183); the portrait with a view of Rome attributed to Wilhelm von Bemmel, now in the Hunterian Museum at Glasgow; the etching ascribed to R. Gaywood (for the sitting for this, see Sir G. Keynes, in British Medical Journal, 1950, II, p. 43); and finally the marble bust by Edward Marshall in Hempstead Church, formerly believed to be posthumous, but probably taken before Harvey's death.
A statue by Henry Weekes was commissioned by the Fellow in 1875/6 for the portico of the former College building in Pall Mall (Annals, 20 April 1875).
* At the date of going to press, this portrait is in an American private collection; it was held by the College on loan between 1949 and 1959

Administrative history:
William Harvey, distinguished physician, great physiologist, and inspirer of medical science throughout the world, was the eldest son of Thomas Harvey, a "yeoman in substantial circumstances", of Folkestone, Kent.
From the Grammar school of Canterbury, he entered Caius College, Cambridge, as a pensioner, at the age of 16, taking his arts degree in 1598. Having chosen medicine as a profession, he then left Cambridge for Padua, where he graduated and won the highest esteem of the world's greatest teachers of the time, including Fabricius. Returning to England and taking his Cambridge degree, Harvey settled in London, marrying in 1604 a daughter of Dr. Launcelot Browne, who had been physician to Queen Elizabeth.
Elected physician in 1609 to St. Bartholomew's hospital, and in 1615 Lumleian lecturer, Harvey began the exposition of his views on the circulation of the blood which were published in 1628 in his famous work Exercitatio Anatomica de Motu Cordis et Sanguinis.
Harvey was physician to James I and Charles I, being present at the battle of Edgehill, where the Prince and the Duke of York were placed in his care. With the surrender of Oxford he lost the wardenship of Merton College, but a far worse blow in the Civil War was the pillaging of his house in London and the loss of many anatomical studies. In his later years he was happy in the care of his successful merchant brothers, and devoted himself with great generosity to the welfare of the College of Physicians, notably in the provision of its library. He was elected President in 1654 but declined the office on account of age and infirmity.
"The private character of this great man," says Aikin*, "appears to have been in every respect worthy of his public reputation. Cheerful, candid, and upright, he was not the prey of any mean or ungentle passion. He was as little disposed by nature to detract from the merits of others, or make an ostentatious display of his own, as necessitated to use such methods for advancing his fame. The many antagonists whom his renown and the novelty of his opinions excited were in general treated by him with modest and temperate language, frequently very different from their own; and while he refuted their arguments, he decorated them with all due praises. He lived on terms of perfect harmony and friendship with his brethren of the College, and seems to have been very little ambitious of engrossing a disproportionate share of medical practice. In extreme old age, pain and sickness were said to have rendered him somewhat irritable in his temper; and as an instance of want of command over himself at that season, it is related ?hat in the paroxysms of the gout he could not be prevented from plunging the affected joint in cold water: but who can think it strange that when his body was almost worn down, the mind should also be debilitated?
"In familiar conversation, Harvey was easy and unassuming, and singularly clear in expressing his ideas. His mind was furnished with an ample store of knowledge, not only in matters connected with his profession, but in most of the objects of liberal inquiry, especially in ancient and modern history, and the science of politics. He took great delight in reading the ancient poets, Virgil in particular, with whose divine productions he is said to have been sometimes so transported as to throw the book from him with exclamations of rapture. To complete his character, he did not want that polish and courtly address which are necessary to the scholar who would also appear as a gentleman.
"Harvey, in his own family circle, must have been affectionate and kind--characteristics of all his brothers--who appear to have lived together through their lives in perfect amity and peace. For twenty years before he died he took no care of his wordly concerns; but his brother Eliab, who was a very wise and prudent manager, ordered all, not only faithfully but better than he could have done for himself.
"In Harvey the religious sentiments appear to have been active; the exordium to his will is unusually solemn and grand. He also evinces true and elevated piety throughout the whole course of his work on Generation, and seizes every opportunity of giving utterance to his sense of the immediate agency and omnipotence of Deity. He appears, with the ancient philosophers, to have regarded the universe and its parts as actuated by a Supreme and all-pervading Intelligence."
* Aikin, Biographical Memoirs of Medicine in Great Britain, 1780.
Manufacture of posthumous images of Harvey began early: the demand came not only from medical men and from institutions, but from more general connoisseurs of famous men such as Bishop Ken, who acquired a portrait for his library at Longleat, c. 1700. The resulting images are numerous and confusing. The first attempt on any scale to classify them was made by Sir D'Arcy Power in 1913, who however was not sufficiently sceptical. There followed various scattered articles on problems raised by individual portraits (all mentioned by Keynes), and then Sir Geoffrey Keynes's short preliminary summary of the subject in the British Medical Journal, 1944, before his detailed and elaborate exposition in the Thomas Vicary Lecture of 1948, which will remain the standard work.
Supplementary to these, but vivifying them, is Aubrey's description: "He-was not tall, but of the lowest stature, round faced, olivaster complexion; little eie, round, very black, full of spirit; his hair was black as a raven, but quite white 20 years before he died... very cholerique and in his young days wore a dagger; but the Dr. would be too apt to draw out his dagger upon every slight occasion." For the full discussion of all known portraits, the student is referred to Keynes's monograph, where all the portraits, the main types and the derivative images are fully described and illustrated.

Contents:
From the Marble bust (ref Portrait/X83) (not reproduced)

Bibliography: Bibliographical note: Sir D'Arcy Power, Portraits of Dr. William Harvey (published by the Oxford University Press for the Historical Section of the Royal College of Medicine) 1913; Sir Geoffrey Keynes in the British Medical Journal, 18 November 1944, II, p. 669; Sir Geoffrey Keynes, The Portraiture of William Harvey (The Thomas Vicary Lecture, 1948, published with a catalogue and 32 plates, by the Royal College of Surgeons, London), 1949.


William Harvey 1578-1657 F. 1607  Portrait/X014T  n.d

A Plaster cast


Related information: There are perhaps only five basic portraits, believed to be taken from the life. These are: the head and shoulders painting by an unknown artist, aged about 45, from the Harvey family collection at Rolls Park*; the College portrait (no. -x183); the portrait with a view of Rome attributed to Wilhelm von Bemmel, now in the Hunterian Museum at Glasgow; the etching ascribed to R. Gaywood (for the sitting for this, see Sir G. Keynes, in British Medical Journal, 1950, II, p. 43); and finally the marble bust by Edward Marshall in Hempstead Church, formerly believed to be posthumous, but probably taken before Harvey's death.
A statue by Henry Weekes was commissioned by the Fellow in 1875/6 for the portico of the former College building in Pall Mall (Annals, 20 April 1875).
* At the date of going to press, this portrait is in an American private collection; it was held by the College on loan between 1949 and 1959

Administrative history:
William Harvey, distinguished physician, great physiologist, and inspirer of medical science throughout the world, was the eldest son of Thomas Harvey, a "yeoman in substantial circumstances", of Folkestone, Kent.
From the Grammar school of Canterbury, he entered Caius College, Cambridge, as a pensioner, at the age of 16, taking his arts degree in 1598. Having chosen medicine as a profession, he then left Cambridge for Padua, where he graduated and won the highest esteem of the world's greatest teachers of the time, including Fabricius. Returning to England and taking his Cambridge degree, Harvey settled in London, marrying in 1604 a daughter of Dr. Launcelot Browne, who had been physician to Queen Elizabeth.
Elected physician in 1609 to St. Bartholomew's hospital, and in 1615 Lumleian lecturer, Harvey began the exposition of his views on the circulation of the blood which were published in 1628 in his famous work Exercitatio Anatomica de Motu Cordis et Sanguinis.
Harvey was physician to James I and Charles I, being present at the battle of Edgehill, where the Prince and the Duke of York were placed in his care. With the surrender of Oxford he lost the wardenship of Merton College, but a far worse blow in the Civil War was the pillaging of his house in London and the loss of many anatomical studies. In his later years he was happy in the care of his successful merchant brothers, and devoted himself with great generosity to the welfare of the College of Physicians, notably in the provision of its library. He was elected President in 1654 but declined the office on account of age and infirmity.
"The private character of this great man," says Aikin*, "appears to have been in every respect worthy of his public reputation. Cheerful, candid, and upright, he was not the prey of any mean or ungentle passion. He was as little disposed by nature to detract from the merits of others, or make an ostentatious display of his own, as necessitated to use such methods for advancing his fame. The many antagonists whom his renown and the novelty of his opinions excited were in general treated by him with modest and temperate language, frequently very different from their own; and while he refuted their arguments, he decorated them with all due praises. He lived on terms of perfect harmony and friendship with his brethren of the College, and seems to have been very little ambitious of engrossing a disproportionate share of medical practice. In extreme old age, pain and sickness were said to have rendered him somewhat irritable in his temper; and as an instance of want of command over himself at that season, it is related ?hat in the paroxysms of the gout he could not be prevented from plunging the affected joint in cold water: but who can think it strange that when his body was almost worn down, the mind should also be debilitated?
"In familiar conversation, Harvey was easy and unassuming, and singularly clear in expressing his ideas. His mind was furnished with an ample store of knowledge, not only in matters connected with his profession, but in most of the objects of liberal inquiry, especially in ancient and modern history, and the science of politics. He took great delight in reading the ancient poets, Virgil in particular, with whose divine productions he is said to have been sometimes so transported as to throw the book from him with exclamations of rapture. To complete his character, he did not want that polish and courtly address which are necessary to the scholar who would also appear as a gentleman.
"Harvey, in his own family circle, must have been affectionate and kind--characteristics of all his brothers--who appear to have lived together through their lives in perfect amity and peace. For twenty years before he died he took no care of his wordly concerns; but his brother Eliab, who was a very wise and prudent manager, ordered all, not only faithfully but better than he could have done for himself.
"In Harvey the religious sentiments appear to have been active; the exordium to his will is unusually solemn and grand. He also evinces true and elevated piety throughout the whole course of his work on Generation, and seizes every opportunity of giving utterance to his sense of the immediate agency and omnipotence of Deity. He appears, with the ancient philosophers, to have regarded the universe and its parts as actuated by a Supreme and all-pervading Intelligence."
* Aikin, Biographical Memoirs of Medicine in Great Britain, 1780.
Manufacture of posthumous images of Harvey began early: the demand came not only from medical men and from institutions, but from more general connoisseurs of famous men such as Bishop Ken, who acquired a portrait for his library at Longleat, c. 1700. The resulting images are numerous and confusing. The first attempt on any scale to classify them was made by Sir D'Arcy Power in 1913, who however was not sufficiently sceptical. There followed various scattered articles on problems raised by individual portraits (all mentioned by Keynes), and then Sir Geoffrey Keynes's short preliminary summary of the subject in the British Medical Journal, 1944, before his detailed and elaborate exposition in the Thomas Vicary Lecture of 1948, which will remain the standard work.
Supplementary to these, but vivifying them, is Aubrey's description: "He-was not tall, but of the lowest stature, round faced, olivaster complexion; little eie, round, very black, full of spirit; his hair was black as a raven, but quite white 20 years before he died... very cholerique and in his young days wore a dagger; but the Dr. would be too apt to draw out his dagger upon every slight occasion." For the full discussion of all known portraits, the student is referred to Keynes's monograph, where all the portraits, the main types and the derivative images are fully described and illustrated.

Contents:
From the Marble bust (ref Portrait/X83) (not reproduced)
A nineteenth-century cast, inscribed on the back: L. BRUGGIOTTI 99 LEATHER LANE.

Bibliography: Annals, I October 1739; 1864 Catalogue, p. 23; Roll, III, 403; 1900 List; 1926 Catalogue. See also ythe Iconographical Note below.
Bibliographical note: Sir D'Arcy Power, Portraits of Dr. William Harvey (published by the Oxford University Press for the Historical Section of the Royal College of Medicine) 1913; Sir Geoffrey Keynes in the British Medical Journal, 18 November 1944, II, p. 669; Sir Geoffrey Keynes, The Portraiture of William Harvey (The Thomas Vicary Lecture, 1948, published with a catalogue and 32 plates, by the Royal College of Surgeons, London), 1949.


William Harvey 1578-1657 F. 1607  Portrait/X141  1848

Oils on canvas, 31¾ by 36 inches

Archival history:
Exhibited at the Royal Academy, 1848; bought by John Gibson and given by him to Hodgson; Hodgson sale, Christies, 25 May 1869. engraved by H. Leman, 1851

Source of acquisition: Bought by the Royal College of Physicians in 1869



Related information: There are perhaps only five basic portraits, believed to be taken from the life. These are: the head and shoulders painting by an unknown artist, aged about 45, from the Harvey family collection at Rolls Park*; the College portrait (no. 1-X183); the portrait with a view of Rome attributed to Wilhelm von Bemmel, now in the Hunterian Museum at Glasgow; the etching ascribed to R. Gaywood (for the sitting for this, see Sir G. Keynes, in British Medical Journal, 1950, II, p. 43); and finally the marble bust by Edward Marshall in Hempstead Church, formerly believed to be posthumous, but probably taken before Harvey's death.
A statue by Henry Weekes was commissioned by the Fellow in 1875/6 for the portico of the former College building in Pall Mall (Annals, 20 April 1875).
* At the date of going to press, this portrait is in an American private collection; it was held by the College on loan between 1949 and 1959

Administrative history:
William Harvey, distinguished physician, great physiologist, and inspirer of medical science throughout the world, was the eldest son of Thomas Harvey, a "yeoman in substantial circumstances", of Folkestone, Kent.
From the Grammar school of Canterbury, he entered Caius College, Cambridge, as a pensioner, at the age of 16, taking his arts degree in 1598. Having chosen medicine as a profession, he then left Cambridge for Padua, where he graduated and won the highest esteem of the world's greatest teachers of the time, including Fabricius. Returning to England and taking his Cambridge degree, Harvey settled in London, marrying in 1604 a daughter of Dr. Launcelot Browne, who had been physician to Queen Elizabeth.
Elected physician in 1609 to St. Bartholomew's hospital, and in 1615 Lumleian lecturer, Harvey began the exposition of his views on the circulation of the blood which were published in 1628 in his famous work Exercitatio Anatomica de Motu Cordis et Sanguinis.
Harvey was physician to James I and Charles I, being present at the battle of Edgehill, where the Prince and the Duke of York were placed in his care. With the surrender of Oxford he lost the wardenship of Merton College, but a far worse blow in the Civil War was the pillaging of his house in London and the loss of many anatomical studies. In his later years he was happy in the care of his successful merchant brothers, and devoted himself with great generosity to the welfare of the College of Physicians, notably in the provision of its library. He was elected President in 1654 but declined the office on account of age and infirmity.
"The private character of this great man," says Aikin*, "appears to have been in every respect worthy of his public reputation. Cheerful, candid, and upright, he was not the prey of any mean or ungentle passion. He was as little disposed by nature to detract from the merits of others, or make an ostentatious display of his own, as necessitated to use such methods for advancing his fame. The many antagonists whom his renown and the novelty of his opinions excited were in general treated by him with modest and temperate language, frequently very different from their own; and while he refuted their arguments, he decorated them with all due praises. He lived on terms of perfect harmony and friendship with his brethren of the College, and seems to have been very little ambitious of engrossing a disproportionate share of medical practice. In extreme old age, pain and sickness were said to have rendered him somewhat irritable in his temper; and as an instance of want of command over himself at that season, it is related ?hat in the paroxysms of the gout he could not be prevented from plunging the affected joint in cold water: but who can think it strange that when his body was almost worn down, the mind should also be debilitated?
"In familiar conversation, Harvey was easy and unassuming, and singularly clear in expressing his ideas. His mind was furnished with an ample store of knowledge, not only in matters connected with his profession, but in most of the objects of liberal inquiry, especially in ancient and modern history, and the science of politics. He took great delight in reading the ancient poets, Virgil in particular, with whose divine productions he is said to have been sometimes so transported as to throw the book from him with exclamations of rapture. To complete his character, he did not want that polish and courtly address which are necessary to the scholar who would also appear as a gentleman.
"Harvey, in his own family circle, must have been affectionate and kind--characteristics of all his brothers--who appear to have lived together through their lives in perfect amity and peace. For twenty years before he died he took no care of his wordly concerns; but his brother Eliab, who was a very wise and prudent manager, ordered all, not only faithfully but better than he could have done for himself.
"In Harvey the religious sentiments appear to have been active; the exordium to his will is unusually solemn and grand. He also evinces true and elevated piety throughout the whole course of his work on Generation, and seizes every opportunity of giving utterance to his sense of the immediate agency and omnipotence of Deity. He appears, with the ancient philosophers, to have regarded the universe and its parts as actuated by a Supreme and all-pervading Intelligence."
* Aikin, Biographical Memoirs of Medicine in Great Britain, 1780.
Manufacture of posthumous images of Harvey began early: the demand came not only from medical men and from institutions, but from more general connoisseurs of famous men such as Bishop Ken, who acquired a portrait for his library at Longleat, c. 1700. The resulting images are numerous and confusing. The first attempt on any scale to classify them was made by Sir D'Arcy Power in 1913, who however was not sufficiently sceptical. There followed various scattered articles on problems raised by individual portraits (all mentioned by Keynes), and then Sir Geoffrey Keynes's short preliminary summary of the subject in the British Medical Journal, 1944, before his detailed and elaborate exposition in the Thomas Vicary Lecture of 1948, which will remain the standard work.
Supplementary to these, but vivifying them, is Aubrey's description: "He-was not tall, but of the lowest stature, round faced, olivaster complexion; little eie, round, very black, full of spirit; his hair was black as a raven, but quite white 20 years before he died... very cholerique and in his young days wore a dagger; but the Dr. would be too apt to draw out his dagger upon every slight occasion." For the full discussion of all known portraits, the student is referred to Keynes's monograph, where all the portraits, the main types and the derivative images are fully described and illustrated.

Contents:
By R. Hannah,
A representation of an imaginary scene, showing Harvey demonstrating to Charles I his theory of the circulation of the blood.
Harvey stands on the right, seen to the waist, behind a brocade-covered table, wearing a yellow satin doublet, and holding a heart in a white handkerchief in his hand, a scalpel in his right hand; the King is seated on the left in profile to the spectator, watching Harvey; dressed in a brown velvet suit, with a rich white falling collar of lace, and similar cuffs; his right hand resting on his stick. Behind Charles, with his hand on the back of his chair, stands a bearded man without a hat, also watching Harvey; on the right, a boy? Abraham Cowley leaning on his elbows on the table, dressed in pale blue satin and holding a volume of Virgil, turns his head to Harvey; on the table is an open box of instruments and the truncated head of a deer. In the background to the right, a man inside the room, with his back towards the spectator, appears to be arguing with two men on the threshold of the open door; lit from the left.
Painted in 1848;
An almost entirely imaginary, but very popular, representation of Harvey through nineteenth-century eyes.

Bibliography: Annals, 7 June 1869; als. from W.Cox, 26 May 1869; from E. Maryon, 18 May 1869, 29 May 1869; Roll, III, 396; 1900 List; 1926 Catalogue.
Bibliographical note: Sir D'Arcy Power, Portraits of Dr. William Harvey (published by the Oxford University Press for the Historical Section of the Royal College of Medicine) 1913; Sir Geoffrey Keynes in the British Medical Journal, 18 November 1944, II, p. 669; Sir Geoffrey Keynes, The Portraiture of William Harvey (The Thomas Vicary Lecture, 1948, published with a catalogue and 32 plates, by the Royal College of Surgeons, London), 1949.


William Harvey 1578-1657 F. 1607  Portrait/X228  1886

Terracotta (?) statuette, 24½ inches high

Source of acquisition: Provenance unknown.



Related information: Possibly several versions exist; one is in the Anthropological Museum, Aberdeen University.
There are perhaps only five basic portraits, believed to be taken from the life. These are: the head and shoulders painting by an unknown artist, aged about 45, from the Harvey family collection at Rolls Park*; the College portrait (no.1--X183); the portrait with a view of Rome attributed to Wilhelm von Bemmel, now in the Hunterian Museum at Glasgow; the etching ascribed to R. Gaywood (for the sitting for this, see Sir G. Keynes, in British Medical Journal, 1950, II, p. 43); and finally the marble bust by Edward Marshall in Hempstead Church, formerly believed to be posthumous, but probably taken before Harvey's death.
A statue by Henry Weekes was commissioned by the Fellow in 1875/6 for the portico of the former College building in Pall Mall (Annals, 20 April 1875).
* At the date of going to press, this portrait is in an American private collection; it was held by the College on loan between 1949 and 1959

Administrative history:
William Harvey, distinguished physician, great physiologist, and inspirer of medical science throughout the world, was the eldest son of Thomas Harvey, a "yeoman in substantial circumstances", of Folkestone, Kent.
From the Grammar school of Canterbury, he entered Caius College, Cambridge, as a pensioner, at the age of 16, taking his arts degree in 1598. Having chosen medicine as a profession, he then left Cambridge for Padua, where he graduated and won the highest esteem of the world's greatest teachers of the time, including Fabricius. Returning to England and taking his Cambridge degree, Harvey settled in London, marrying in 1604 a daughter of Dr. Launcelot Browne, who had been physician to Queen Elizabeth.
Elected physician in 1609 to St. Bartholomew's hospital, and in 1615 Lumleian lecturer, Harvey began the exposition of his views on the circulation of the blood which were published in 1628 in his famous work Exercitatio Anatomica de Motu Cordis et Sanguinis.
Harvey was physician to James I and Charles I, being present at the battle of Edgehill, where the Prince and the Duke of York were placed in his care. With the surrender of Oxford he lost the wardenship of Merton College, but a far worse blow in the Civil War was the pillaging of his house in London and the loss of many anatomical studies. In his later years he was happy in the care of his successful merchant brothers, and devoted himself with great generosity to the welfare of the College of Physicians, notably in the provision of its library. He was elected President in 1654 but declined the office on account of age and infirmity.
"The private character of this great man," says Aikin*, "appears to have been in every respect worthy of his public reputation. Cheerful, candid, and upright, he was not the prey of any mean or ungentle passion. He was as little disposed by nature to detract from the merits of others, or make an ostentatious display of his own, as necessitated to use such methods for advancing his fame. The many antagonists whom his renown and the novelty of his opinions excited were in general treated by him with modest and temperate language, frequently very different from their own; and while he refuted their arguments, he decorated them with all due praises. He lived on terms of perfect harmony and friendship with his brethren of the College, and seems to have been very little ambitious of engrossing a disproportionate share of medical practice. In extreme old age, pain and sickness were said to have rendered him somewhat irritable in his temper; and as an instance of want of command over himself at that season, it is related ?hat in the paroxysms of the gout he could not be prevented from plunging the affected joint in cold water: but who can think it strange that when his body was almost worn down, the mind should also be debilitated?
"In familiar conversation, Harvey was easy and unassuming, and singularly clear in expressing his ideas. His mind was furnished with an ample store of knowledge, not only in matters connected with his profession, but in most of the objects of liberal inquiry, especially in ancient and modern history, and the science of politics. He took great delight in reading the ancient poets, Virgil in particular, with whose divine productions he is said to have been sometimes so transported as to throw the book from him with exclamations of rapture. To complete his character, he did not want that polish and courtly address which are necessary to the scholar who would also appear as a gentleman.
"Harvey, in his own family circle, must have been affectionate and kind--characteristics of all his brothers--who appear to have lived together through their lives in perfect amity and peace. For twenty years before he died he took no care of his wordly concerns; but his brother Eliab, who was a very wise and prudent manager, ordered all, not only faithfully but better than he could have done for himself.
"In Harvey the religious sentiments appear to have been active; the exordium to his will is unusually solemn and grand. He also evinces true and elevated piety throughout the whole course of his work on Generation, and seizes every opportunity of giving utterance to his sense of the immediate agency and omnipotence of Deity. He appears, with the ancient philosophers, to have regarded the universe and its parts as actuated by a Supreme and all-pervading Intelligence."
* Aikin, Biographical Memoirs of Medicine in Great Britain, 1780.
Manufacture of posthumous images of Harvey began early: the demand came not only from medical men and from institutions, but from more general connoisseurs of famous men such as Bishop Ken, who acquired a portrait for his library at Longleat, c. 1700. The resulting images are numerous and confusing. The first attempt on any scale to classify them was made by Sir D'Arcy Power in 1913, who however was not sufficiently sceptical. There followed various scattered articles on problems raised by individual portraits (all mentioned by Keynes), and then Sir Geoffrey Keynes's short preliminary summary of the subject in the British Medical Journal, 1944, before his detailed and elaborate exposition in the Thomas Vicary Lecture of 1948, which will remain the standard work.
Supplementary to these, but vivifying them, is Aubrey's description: "He-was not tall, but of the lowest stature, round faced, olivaster complexion; little eie, round, very black, full of spirit; his hair was black as a raven, but quite white 20 years before he died... very cholerique and in his young days wore a dagger; but the Dr. would be too apt to draw out his dagger upon every slight occasion." For the full discussion of all known portraits, the student is referred to Keynes's monograph, where all the portraits, the main types and the derivative images are fully described and illustrated.

Contents:
By Charles Bell Birch,
Standing, holding a heart in his left hand; a fawn (?) between his legs, by an urn; inscribed C. B. BIRCH. ARA/1886, and WILLIAM HARVEY.

Bibliography: Bibliographical note: Sir D'Arcy Power, Portraits of Dr. William Harvey (published by the Oxford University Press for the Historical Section of the Royal College of Medicine) 1913; Sir Geoffrey Keynes in the British Medical Journal, 18 November 1944, II, p. 669; Sir Geoffrey Keynes, The Portraiture of William Harvey (The Thomas Vicary Lecture, 1948, published with a catalogue and 32 plates, by the Royal College of Surgeons, London), 1949.


John Heaviside 1748-1828  Portrait/X015T  1794

Pencil and sanguine on paper, 10 by 72/5 inches

Source of acquisition: Bought by the College in 1940; from the collection of the artist's great-grand-daughter.



Related information: A soft-ground etching of this drawing exists, unsigned but probably by William Daniell; the drawing is probably a copy, either by Dance himself or by Daniell, made for the engraving, from an original drawing by Dance from the life, 1794 (the original was sold from the collection of the Rev. G. Dance, Christies, 1 July 1898).
A portrait by Zoffany is known by Earlom's engraving of it; a portrait by Beechey was engraved by Say, 1803, and by Cochran, 1831. Three other portraits were exhibited at the Royal Academy--by M. W. Sharp (1801); by H. Burch (1802); and a bust by Garrard (1804).

Administrative history:
John Heaviside was born at Hatfield, the son of a physician. He was educated at Barnet and was apprenticed to an apothecary there by his father, who hoped that he would follow him in his own successful practice. But his son evidently had greater ambitions and at the age of eighteen abandoned his apprenticeship and ran away to London. He became the pupil of the surgeon Percival Potts at St. Bartholomew's Hospital, and, in about 1770, was made house-surgeon at that hospital. In 1784 and 1787 he unsuccessfully contested elections for the post of assistant-surgeon there.
Heaviside set up in practice in London, where one of his most famous patients was Lady Hamilton. He was known for his assiduous attention to his work; he was rarely absent from London, took little or no holiday, and was almost always to be found in an emergency. He frequently attended those wounded in duels and in a famous, fatal duel in 1803 was actually arrested and committed for trial, charged with aiding in the murder of a Colonel Montgomery. However, although the charge of manslaughter was self-evident, a verdict of "Not Guilty" was returned on the opponent and on Heaviside, who had suffered considerable anxiety and financial loss over the trial.
In 1787 he inherited a fortune and with it bought a house in Hanover Square in which he built up a museum of anatomy and natural history. Weekly meetings of medical men were held there, and the museum attracted considerable public and professional interest.
Heaviside became one of the surgeons-extraordinary to George III in 1790, and was elected to the Royal Society in 1797. He succeeded John Hunter at the College of Surgeons on the Court of Assistants.
Heaviside lived up to his name. He was practical, matter-of-fact, and not highly imaginative. He loved the pleasures of life and was widely known and liked.

Contents:
By (?) George Dance,
Half length, seated in profile to left. Inscribed in pencil below: John Heaviside Esq Surgeon.

William Heberden 1710-1801 F.1746  Portrait/X30  n.d

Oils on canvas, 29½ by 24¾ inches

Archival history:
Exhibited, National Portrait Exhibition, 1867. (702)

Source of acquisition: Presented in 1825 his son, Dr,.William Heberden



Related information: Another version (? the original) belongs to St. John's College, Cambridge, and copies of this are said to be in the possession of the family. Engraved in mezzotint by Ward, as by. J. Thomson, 1839.

Administrative history:
William Heberden was born in London. He graduated and practised for several years at Cambridge and settled in London at the end of 1748. His worth was not discovered until he was on the point of returning to end his days at Cambridge. Happily for the world and for his own fame he persevered and ultimately rose very high in professional and general reputation.
He had an unaffected manner, his own observations were cautious and profound, and he had a happy knack of getting other men to give of their best. Though his skill as a physician made him famous, it was his private character which ennobled his profession. From early youth he had been deeply religious, dedicated to the welfare and happiness of others. With his sweetness of manners, he obtained the love and respect of all good men to a degree which perhaps very few have experienced. The serenity of his old age was testimony to his own good conscience and the affection he inspired. When he was nearly 90 he remarked that he doubted if he had passed any year more comfortably than the last.
A pleasant anecdote concerns a widow who sought publication of her husband's last paper, on the inefficacy of prayer. Heberden advised her that it could be harmful to his memory, but finding out that a publisher was willing to offer £150 for it, gave the widow £200, and burned the MS.
Heberden's Commentarii de Morborum Historia et Curatione, a posthumous work, appeared in both Latin and English in 1802. It was received with at least as much applause on the Continent as in England.

Contents:
From the studio of (?) Sir William Beechey
Short half length, seated in a red, square-backed armchair; grey wig; bright grey eyes; white stock, plain black coat; on a table a book, lettered Medical Trans.*; brown background.
The College painting has previously been catalogued as from Beechey's hand, but it seems more likely to be a repetition ordered by Heberden's son for presentation of the College, perhaps from Beechey but it so, painted in his studio rather than by himself; the original was painted about 1796, according to the inscription on Ward's engraving.
* The second word is scarcely legible but is confirmed by Ward's engraving. Heberden was responsible for the first design of the College's Medical Transactions, and a contributor to them.

Bibliography: Annals, 23 June 1825; 1864 Catalogue, p. 18; Roll, III, 396; 1900 List; 1926 Catalogue; W. Roberts, Sir William Beechey, 1907, p. 204.


Henry VIII 1491-1547  Portrait/X99  n.d

Oak Panel, 24 by 19¼ inches.

Source of acquisition: Presented in 1706 by Dr. Goodall


Administrative history:
The Roll of the Royal College of Physicians describes the founding of the College by Henry VIII in the following terms:
"Henry the Eighth, with a view to the improvement and more orderly exercise of the art of physic, and the repression of irregular, unlearned, and incompetent practitioners of that faculty, in the tenth year of his reign founded the Royal College of Physicians of London. To the establishment of this incorporation the King was moved by the example of similar institutions in Italy and elsewhere, by the solicitations of at least one of his own physicians, Thomas Linacre, and by the advice and recommendation of his chancellor, Cardinal Wolsey.
"By the terms of the Letters Patent constituting the College, dated 23rd September (1518), John Chambre, Thomas Linacre, and Ferdinand de Victoria, the King's physicians, Nicholas Halsewell, John Francis, and Robert Yaxley, physicians, and all men of the same faculty, of and in London and within seven miles thereof, are incorporated as one body and perpetual Community or College. To this was added the power of annually electing a President, that of perpetual succession, and the use of a common seal, with the liberty of holding lands whose annual value did not exceed twelve pounds. They were permitted to hold assemblies and to make statutes and ordinances for the government and correction of the College, and of all who exercised the same faculty in London and within seven miles thereof, with an interdiction from practice to any individual, unless previously licensed by the President and College. Four persons were to be chosen yearly (Censors), to whom was consigned the correction and government of physic and its professors, together with the examination of all medicines and the power of punishing offenders by fine and imprisonment, or by other reasonable ways. And lastly, the members of the College were granted an exemption from summons on all assizes, inquests, and juries in the city and its suburbs."

Contents:
By an unknown artist
Short half length, facing the spectator; brown coat embroidered with gold at the neck and down the front. The paint has been considerably restored and renewed, probably on several occasions.
Originally the product of an English painter's workshop, perhaps of the late sixteenth century, made up to a pattern derived from Holbein the pose of the hands is unusual.

Bibliography: Annals, 12 July 1706; 1864 List, p. 6; Roll, III, 396; 1990 List; 1926 Catalogue.


Henry VIII 1491-1547  Portrait/X134  c.16th-c17th

Oak Panel, 22¾ by 17½ inches.

Source of acquisition: Presented by Dr. A. Rawlinson in 1747


Administrative history:
The Roll of the Royal College of Physicians describes the founding of the College by Henry VIII in the following terms:
"Henry the Eighth, with a view to the improvement and more orderly exercise of the art of physic, and the repression of irregular, unlearned, and incompetent practitioners of that faculty, in the tenth year of his reign founded the Royal College of Physicians of London. To the establishment of this incorporation the King was moved by the example of similar institutions in Italy and elsewhere, by the solicitations of at least one of his own physicians, Thomas Linacre, and by the advice and recommendation of his chancellor, Cardinal Wolsey.
"By the terms of the Letters Patent constituting the College, dated 23rd September (1518), John Chambre, Thomas Linacre, and Ferdinand de Victoria, the King's physicians, Nicholas Halsewell, John Francis, and Robert Yaxley, physicians, and all men of the same faculty, of and in London and within seven miles thereof, are incorporated as one body and perpetual Community or College. To this was added the power of annually electing a President, that of perpetual succession, and the use of a common seal, with the liberty of holding lands whose annual value did not exceed twelve pounds. They were permitted to hold assemblies and to make statutes and ordinances for the government and correction of the College, and of all who exercised the same faculty in London and within seven miles thereof, with an interdiction from practice to any individual, unless previously licensed by the President and College. Four persons were to be chosen yearly (Censors), to whom was consigned the correction and government of physic and its professors, together with the examination of all medicines and the power of punishing offenders by fine and imprisonment, or by other reasonable ways. And lastly, the members of the College were granted an exemption from summons on all assizes, inquests, and juries in the city and its suburbs."

Contents:
By an unknown artist
Head and shoulders, square to the spectator; flat brownish-red hat set with jewels and a white plume; small dark blueish-grey eyes, close grizzled beard; fur gown over a richly jewelled yellow-brown coat; background plain dark brown; inscribed at the top in yellow: HENRICUS, VIII.
Probably a late sixteenth- or early seventeenth-century painting from an English workshop. The design is probably related to one of Holbein's, best represented by a three-quarter length of Henry now in the Corsini Palace at Rome. There seems to have been a steady demand for portraits of Henry VIII; workshops of English painters probably held stock patterns for them, from which they were made up according to demand, while the pattern gradually fell further away from the original.

Bibliography: Annals, 4 December 1747: Roll, III, 396; 1900 List; 1926 Catalogue.


Robert Hooper 1773-1835 L. 1805  Portrait/X191  (?), 1813

Oils on canvas, 45 by 54 inches

Source of acquisition: Presented in 1934 by an anonymous relative



Related information: Four portraits of Hooper were exhibited at the Royal Academy: by Mather Brown, 1805; by J. Rising, 1808; by Philip Reinagle, 1813, and by T. Heaphy, 1821 (the last probably a water-colour).

Administrative history:
Robert Hooper was born in London. After graduating B.M. at Oxford, for some reason he took his M.D. at St. Andrews. He settled in Savile Row, began to lecture on the practice of medicine, and for many years attracted a large class. He devoted much time to pathological anatomy and built up a very valuable collection of morbid specimens. A man of immense industry, a sound practical physician and a good writer, he won the respect of his professional colleagues. His Physician's Vade Mecum and his Medical Dictionary remained long in use.

Contents:
By Philip Reinagle,
Almost whole length, seated in a red armchair; holding a paper inscribed (upside down to the spectator) Dr. Hooper; cropped white hair, brown eyebrows, grey eyes; dark coat, black breeches and stockings; on the crimson-covered table some papers, an inkpot with a quill, a glass dome covering a pathological specimen, and a book leaning against it; a red curtain draped across the top left hand corner, and two square pilasters on the right.
This portrait can scarcely be from the hand of Brown or Rising: Reinagle is possible, but he painted few portraits in the later stages of his career, and it is hard to get a clear idea of his portrait style.

Bibliography: Finance Committee Minutes, 11 October 1934.


James Hope 1801-1841 F. 1840  Portrait/X104  1841

Oils on canvas, 29¾ by 25 inches

Source of acquisition: Bequeathed by his son, Sir Theodore C. Hope, 1927.



Related information: Hope sat to Phillips early in 1841 (Phillips' Sitters Book, copy in the National Portrait Gallery Library) and the portrait was exhibited at the Royal Academy the same year. Engraved by H. S. Ball (published by J. Mitchell, 1842).

Administrative history:
James Hope was the son of a wealthy Stockport manufacturer. He studied medicine at Edinburgh, where he was a brilliant student and became president of the Royal Medical Society. He spent a few months in London at St. Bartholomew's Hospital followed by a year in Paris under Chomel, the famous anatomy and pathology teacher, who was greatly impressed by Hope's talent in specimen drawing.
Hope returned to England after travelling widely in Europe. In 1828 he entered St. George's Hospital as a student. Here he played a large part in establishing the value of auscultation, and made original observations on the physical signs of cardiac disease. He also carried out experiments on the production of the heart sounds. His book A Treatise on the Diseases of the Heart and Great Vessels appeared in 1831 and had a great success; its originality was immediately recognized. It reached its fourth edition in 1849. Hope's Principles and Illustrations of Morbid Anatomy appeared in 1834 and contained his own drawings.
He built up a very successful practice in London. In 1831 he became physician at the Marylebone Infirmary and he also lectured at the Aldersgate Street Medical School and at St. George's Hospital, where he was appointed assistant physician in 1834.
Hope died of tuberculosis in 1841, only one year after he had become full physician at St. George's. His wife, who had helped him with some of his writing, published a memoir of him in 1843.

Contents:
By Thomas Phillips,
Half length, nearly full face; black hair and side-whiskers, bald on the crown of the head; elaborate black silk cravat with jewelled pin, black coat; grey eyes; on a paper on a ledge, Dr. Hope.

Bibliography: Annals, 28 July 1927.


Thomas Jeeves Horder, 1st Baron Horder 1871-1955 F. 1906  Portrait/X41  1954-55

Bronze, 13½ inches high

Source of acquisition: Bought in 1956 from the artist; modelled about 1954-55.



Related information: Other recorded portraits of Lord Horder are a painting by Bernard Adams (exhibited at the Royal Society of Portrait Painters, 1942, no. 75), and a bust by Donald Gilbert (Royal Academy, 1941, no. 1079).

Administrative history:
Thomas Jeeves Horder was born at Shaftesbury and spent his childhood at Swindon. After a brilliant student career at the University of London and St. Bartholomew's Hospital, he devoted himself to applying clinical pathology to medicine. He was over forty when he joined the staff of St. Bartholomew's and he at once acquired a reputation as an outstanding clinician and teacher of medicine. He was an unhurried and systematic observer who relied primarily on his own senses, and he possessed the rapidity of mental association which enables a present situation to evoke the relevant facts of past experience. Horder brought to his teaching irony, wit and sometimes sarcasm. A shrewd diagnostic success established him as physician to King Edward VII and he was a medical member of the Household of the succeeding monarchs. He rose to be senior consultant at St. Bartholomew's and held appointments as consultant to many other hospitals.
Horder retired from the staff of St. Bartholomew's in 1936, at the age of sixty-five, but he was to have twenty further years of full activity in a wide variety of spheres. Retirement and unimpaired powers allowed him to expand his work in fields where preventive medicine and social amenities overlap; he saw public health as a unified problem which should take in all questions affecting human health and happiness. He held broad humane views on the ethics of such problems as birth control and noise abatement.
He was particularly active in public life in the Second World War. He was honorary consulting physician to the Ministry of Pensions; in 1940 became chairman of the Committee on the use of public air raid shelters; and Lord Woolton, then Minister of Food, appointed him to be his personal adviser on the medical aspects of food rationing. After the war, Horder became a Trustee and the first Chairman of the Executive Council of the Ciba Foundation, to which he gave invaluable service in its formative years.
Lord Horder was a public figure for nearly fifty years. From the Victorian era he acquired his great individualism and love of freedom and the peculiarly Victorian blend of rationalist faith and evangelical fervour, which showed itself in his optimistic belief in reform. Horder richly enjoyed congenial companionship, and he had an impish and tolerant sense of humour. His wide interests included literature and above all his beautiful garden, which he delighted to show to people.

Contents:
By Olaff de Wet
Head only; eyes incised.

John Howard 1726-1790  Portrait/X016T  c.1882

Plaster medallion, round, 33 inches in diameter

Source of acquisition: Said to have been presented by Dr. T. Guy, 1882; made not long before that date.
It is not known on what original it is based.


Administrative history:
John Howard, the prison reformer, was a man of deeply religious feelings with an observant mind and methodical habits. Though he was not gifted with any brilliant talents, he possessed a powerful will, great perseverance and remarkable powers of endurance. He was both a teetotaller and a vegetarian, and was simple in his tastes, plain and neat in his dress, and retiring in his habits. Constituting himself the inspector of prisons at home and abroad, he travelled upwards of fifty thousand miles, notebook in hand, visiting prisons, hospitals, lazarettos, schools, and workhouses. Though his evangelical opinions were intense, Howard was singularly free from religious bigotry. His behaviour was at times eccentric, and his stern views of duty sometimes prevented him from being a very sociable companion.

Contents:
By T. Butler
Head, in profile to left, the hair (or wig) tied in a queue at the back; his stock and coat collar visible; clean-shaven; inscribed round the top: JOHN HOWARD; and at the bottom: BORN 1726 DIED 1790.
Painted in monochrome.

Bibliography: 1900 List; 1926 Catalogue.


Thomas Hoy 1659-1718 (Candidate 1693)  Portrait/X241  1696

Miniature drawing, plumbago on vellum, 37/8 inches by 31/8 inches

Archival history:
the Francis Wellesley collection; exhibited at the South Kensington Museum, 1865; Victoria and Albert Museum, 1914/17. The identification is traditional; the signature is puzzling as the artist generally signed: Forster.

Source of acquisition: Presumably bought by the College at the Wellesley sale at Sotheby's June/July 1920 (354): from the Meyrick collection


Administrative history:
Thomas Hoy was born in London. He was educated at Merchant Taylors' School and St. John's College, Oxford. For a time he practised at Warwick, and in 1698 he was made Regius professor of physic at Oxford. He translated several Greek and Latin works into English. Hoy died in Jamaica.

Contents:
By Thomas Forster,
Short half length, turned to the right; very long high-crowned wig, white neck-tie, loose drapery round the shoulders; full mouth and broad nostrils; clean-shaven; signed on the right: T. Foster/96 (the TF in monogram).

Bibliography: 1926 Catalogue; Catalogue of the Miniatures and Portraits in Plumbago and Pencil belonging to Francis and Miriam Wellesley (n.d.), p. 48, (as Dr. Hay); J. J. Foster, Samuel Cooper, 1914/16, (II, List of English Miniature Painters, p. 114); C. F. Bell, 'English 17th Century Portrait Drawings' (Walpole Society Publications, vol. XIV, 1926, p. 75.)


William Hunter 1718-1783 L. 1756  Portrait/X360  n.d

Oils on canvas, 37¾ by 29 inches

Source of acquisition: Presented by Bransby Cooper in 1829.



Related information: Formerly attributed to Zoffany but certainly an Allan Ramsay design. Ramsay's chalk drawing preparatory for the painting is in the Scottish National Gallery (no. 2017); his original painting is in the Hunterian Museum, Glasgow (rep. Smart, op. cit. infra, pl. xivb). This was done about 1760, and the College version seems to be a rather later copy, not by Ramsay himself.

Administrative history:
William Hunter was born at Kilbride, in Lanarkshire. He was sent to the University of Glasgow at the age of fourteen. He spent five years there, and won the reputation of being a first-class scholar. When he was nineteen, he turned to medicine, studying in Edinburgh and eventually in London, where he arrived in 1741. Hunter began to give lectures himself in surgery in 1746 and later lectured in anatomy, which had become his chief interest.
In the early part of his career, Hunter practised both surgery and midwifery, but he never liked surgery and he gradually concentrated on midwifery, rapidly building up a busy practice and obtaining appointments at the Middlesex Hospital and the British Lying-In Hospital. He was consulted by Queen Charlotte in 1762 and was later appointed physician-extraordinary to the Queen. Hunter acquired sufficient wealth through his success in practice to be able to found an anatomy school in London. He built a spacious house in Great Windmill Street in 1770, where he established lecture theatres, dissecting rooms and a museum. The latter came to hold an outstanding anatomical and pathological collection, to be surpassed only in those times by the collections and specimens accumulated by his famous brother and protégé, John Hunter. William gradually added a superb library, a collection of medals bought for over £20,000 and a great variety of natural history specimens, all eventually left to Glasgow University with a sum of £8,000 for maintenance.
Dr. Matthew Baillie said of William Hunter that "he was perhaps the best teacher of anatomy that ever lived." He lived simply, worked extremely hard, and as a man was unassuming, with a pleasant manner and sincere concern for his patients.

Contents:
After Allan Ramsay
Three-quarter length, seated at a brown carved table; holding a sheet of paper in his hand; full white tight-curled wig; dark-blue velvet coat with gold frogging; a glimpse of a rose-coloured curtain; the background plain brown.

Bibliography: Annals, 13 April 1829; 1864 Catalogue, p. 21; Roll, II, 211; III, 397; 1900 List; 1926 Catalogue; A. Smart, The Life and Art of Allan Ramsay, 1952, p. 117; R. Hingston Fox, William Hunter, 1901, p. 65 (no.7).


William Hunter 1718-1783 L. 1756  Portrait/X142  1775

Oils on canvas, oval shaped, 40¾ by 30½ inches; It has been overcleaned at some time.

Archival history:
Exhibited at the National Portrait Exhibition, 1867; the International Exhibition, London, 1862; Royal Academy (Winter Exhibition), 1871; Whitechapel, 1906.

Source of acquisition: Presented in 1825 by Mrs. Baillie, wife of the sitter's nephew and heir, Matthew Baillie; said to have come from Hunter's own collection


Administrative history:
William Hunter was born at Kilbride, in Lanarkshire. He was sent to the University of Glasgow at the age of fourteen. He spent five years there, and won the reputation of being a first-class scholar. When he was nineteen, he turned to medicine, studying in Edinburgh and eventually in London, where he arrived in 1741. Hunter began to give lectures himself in surgery in 1746 and later lectured in anatomy, which had become his chief interest.
In the early part of his career, Hunter practised both surgery and midwifery, but he never liked surgery and he gradually concentrated on midwifery, rapidly building up a busy practice and obtaining appointments at the Middlesex Hospital and the British Lying-In Hospital. He was consulted by Queen Charlotte in 1762 and was later appointed physician-extraordinary to the Queen. Hunter acquired sufficient wealth through his success in practice to be able to found an anatomy school in London. He built a spacious house in Great Windmill Street in 1770, where he established lecture theatres, dissecting rooms and a museum. The latter came to hold an outstanding anatomical and pathological collection, to be surpassed only in those times by the collections and specimens accumulated by his famous brother and protégé, John Hunter. William gradually added a superb library, a collection of medals bought for over £20,000 and a great variety of natural history specimens, all eventually left to Glasgow University with a sum of £8,000 for maintenance.
Dr. Matthew Baillie said of William Hunter that "he was perhaps the best teacher of anatomy that ever lived." He lived simply, worked extremely hard, and as a man was unassuming, with a pleasant manner and sincere concern for his patients.

Contents:
By John Zoffany
Represents Hunter standing on a platform in the Royal Academy, lecturing as professor of anatomy; wearing a long grey skirted coat and breeches, with white stockings; white wig; his right hand resting on the back of a male model, stripped to the waist, who stands with his right arm stretched up, wearing pale buff breeches and white stockings; his arm supported by a man standing behind him; at the extreme right, a skeleton hanging; on the left of the platform, on a pedestal, a cast of a naked man with arm upraised and back towards the spectator; on the left of the picture, sitting in chairs or standing, are Hunter's audience: most of the figures are difficult to identify, but Sir Joshua Reynolds is clearly discernible with his ear-trumpet; the room is lit by a lamp hung from the ceiling, with a circular shade above and a reflector between the light and the spectator.
Painted about 1775, it recalls, but with less finish and attention to detail, the painting called the Life School at the Royal Academy in the Royal Collection, in which Hunter also figures, as also the same écorché statue.

Bibliography: Annals, 22 December 1823; 1864 Catalogue, p. 12; Roll, III, 397; 1900 List; 1926 Catalogue; R. Hingston Fox, William Hunter, 1901, p. 64, no. 5; V. Manners and G. C. Williamson, John Zoffany, 1920, p. 226.


William Hunter 1718-1783 L. 1756  Portrait/X249  c. 1770-75 (?)

Miniature, on ivory, oval, 3½ by 2¾ inches

Source of acquisition: Provenance unknown; apparently acquired between 1900 and 1926



Related information: A useful list of the portraits is given by Hingston Fox (William Hunter, 1901, pp. 63/65). They include a painting by M. Chamberlin (1769)* in the Royal Academy (engraved by J. Collyer, 1783, and by B. Smith); a painting by R. E. Pine is in the Royal College of Surgeons, and there is also a contemporary engraving (1780) by J. Thornthwaite, and Hingston Fox mentions three miniatures in the possession of a descendant of the sitter.
A miniature by Henry Bone is in the Hunterian Society collection at the Ciba Foundation. In 1950 the Hunterian Society bought a portrait by Reynolds+ which had been in the possession of the Dalrymple family, of Scotland, for over 100 years; recorded on the back is the date 1782, one year before Hunter's death, and the style conforms with that of Reynolds after his return from Holland in 1782. The portrait is at the Ciba Foundation. A drawing by C. Grignion the Younger, from the Fitzroy Newdegate collection, has recently been acquired by the Hunterian Museum, Glasgow, which owns also, besides the Ramsay, a posthumous portrait of Hunter by Reynolds.
* The best likeness, according to his contemporary biographer, Simmons.
+ See British Medical Journal, 14 October 1950, p. 886.

Administrative history:
William Hunter was born at Kilbride, in Lanarkshire. He was sent to the University of Glasgow at the age of fourteen. He spent five years there, and won the reputation of being a first-class scholar. When he was nineteen, he turned to medicine, studying in Edinburgh and eventually in London, where he arrived in 1741. Hunter began to give lectures himself in surgery in 1746 and later lectured in anatomy, which had become his chief interest.
In the early part of his career, Hunter practised both surgery and midwifery, but he never liked surgery and he gradually concentrated on midwifery, rapidly building up a busy practice and obtaining appointments at the Middlesex Hospital and the British Lying-In Hospital. He was consulted by Queen Charlotte in 1762 and was later appointed physician-extraordinary to the Queen. Hunter acquired sufficient wealth through his success in practice to be able to found an anatomy school in London. He built a spacious house in Great Windmill Street in 1770, where he established lecture theatres, dissecting rooms and a museum. The latter came to hold an outstanding anatomical and pathological collection, to be surpassed only in those times by the collections and specimens accumulated by his famous brother and protégé, John Hunter. William gradually added a superb library, a collection of medals bought for over £20,000 and a great variety of natural history specimens, all eventually left to Glasgow University with a sum of £8,000 for maintenance.
Dr. Matthew Baillie said of William Hunter that "he was perhaps the best teacher of anatomy that ever lived." He lived simply, worked extremely hard, and as a man was unassuming, with a pleasant manner and sincere concern for his patients.

Contents:
Attributed to Richard Crosse,
Half length, turned to the right, his left hand tucked in his coat, his right hand not seen; bushy white wig tied at the back in a bow, plum-coloured velvet coat, white stock and frilled shirt; bright blue eyes looking at the spectator; clean-shaven aged face; lit from the left.
It may be identical with the miniature, said to be by Cosway, mentioned by Hingston Fox as (1901) in the collection of Dr. Henry Gervis. This miniature was previously attributed to Cosway but is quite unlike his style; the suggestion of Richard Crosse is due to Mr. Graham Reynolds.

Bibliography: 1926 Catalogue; R. Hingston Fox, William Hunter, 1901, p. 65.


Sir Robert Hutchison, Bt. 1871-1960 F. 1903 P. 1938-1941  Portrait/X150  1938

Oils on canvas, 44 by 36 inches

Archival history:
exhibited at the Royal Academy, 1940 (422).

Source of acquisition: Given by his widow, Lady Hutchison, 1960. Painted in 1938


Administrative history:
Robert Hutchison was born in 1871 at Kirkliston, West Lothian, the youngest of seven children of a wine merchant. He won many bursaries and scholarships which paid for his medical education at Edinburgh University, where he graduated with first-class honours in 1893. In 1894 he studied for a while in Strasbourg under Hoppe-Seyler. After a further few weeks in Paris visiting different hospitals he returned to work in the physiology department at Edinburgh University. He moved to London in 1896, his first appointment being as house physician at Great Ormond Street Hospital. Here he and Rainy wrote their Clinical Methods, which reached its thirteenth edition in 1956. From 1897 to 1900 he worked at the London Hospital Medical College under Leonard Hill and did research on the thyroid and on diet. His book Food and Dietetics (eleventh edition in 1956) was first published in 1900 and in the same year he was appointed assistant physician to the London Hospital and to Great Ormond Street Hospital. In 1902 he began private practice as a general physician, but his main interests were in digestive disorders and the diseases of children. As medical adviser to the Ministry of Food during the first world war his special concern was with the rations allowed for invalids. In 1920 he became full physician at the London Hospital and was made consulting physician when he retired in 1934, when he also gave up his post at Great Ormond Street.
Amongst many other writings Hutchison produced some fourteen books, two of which have already been mentioned. Another important work, Lectures on Diseases of Children, went to a ninth edition in 1944, and he edited the Index of Treatment in 1907 (thirteenth edition in 1948). He was one of the group who, under Osler, founded the Association of Physicians and the Quarterly Journal of Medicine, of which he was an editor for many years. His writing, like his speaking, was concise but elegant, witty but restrained and practical. He wrote many letters to medical journals and continued to do so long after he retired from practice.
Hutchison was for 65 years an active member of the British Medical Association, in which he held many offices and served on many committees. From 1938 to 1941 he was President of the Royal College of Physicians and was responsible for the change in the by-laws which ensured that election to the council was more open and that there was a greater representation on it of Fellows from the provinces. He was made a baronet in 1939. In 1940 he retired to Streatley, Berkshire, after his home in London had been bombed, and he lived there until his death.
His contributions to medicine were considerable; he was a gifted clinician who dealt most sensitively with his patients and a natural teacher whose aphorisms were frequently and affectionately recalled by many former pupils and colleagues both during his life and after his death.

Contents:
By Sir James Gunn,
Almost whole length seated slightly to right, wearing the President's gown over a dark grey suit, his hands clasped. Thin ginger hair, grey eyes looking at the spectator: a wart on his brow and another on his right cheek. Signed: James Gunn.

John Hughlings Jackson 1835-1911 F. 1868  Portrait/X377  c. 1894

Oils on canvas, 33 by 27 inches

Archival history:
presented to the sitter upon his retirement from the London Hospital.

Source of acquisition: Bequeathed by the sitter, 1912; painted about 1894,


Administrative history:
John Hughlings Jackson was born near Knaresborough, Yorkshire. After going to school at Tadcaster and at Nailsworth, Gloucestershire, he was apprenticed to a doctor in York. He qualified at St. Bartholomew's Hospital in 1856. He held a number of hospital posts and then significantly became assistant physician to the National Hospital for the Paralysed and Epileptic in 1862 and assistant physician and lecturer on physiology at the London Hospital in 1863. Later he became physician to both these hospitals, and by his work during the next thirty years Hughlings Jackson "out of a chaos of isolated and sometimes wild speculations and unrelated experiments, organized and laid the foundations of modern neurology and became himself, beyond challenge, the greatest living neurologist."*
He was among the first to recognize the possibilities of the ophthalmoscope and to recommend its use by all physicians. His theories were based on accurate and imaginative observations of living patients and post-mortem examinations, and long before there was any experimental proof, he had concluded that some forms of epilepsy were due to localized cortical disorders in the cerebrum. He also differentiated in general terms the various functional levels in the nervous system, pointing the way to a much simpler classification of nervous diseases, so that new lines of research were opened up for other workers.
Hughlings Jackson became famous all over the world as the "father of English neurology", but he remained a modest, truthful man who never sought popularity in his writing or teaching.
* Munk's Roll, (1955), IV, 161.

Contents:
By Lance Calkin,
Half length seated to left; grey hair, thick whitish-grey beard and moustache; brown eyes; black tie, white shirt; dark coat, black gown; dark brown background.

Bibliography: Annals, 25 January 1912; 1926 Catalogue.


Sir Richard Jebb 1729-1787 F. 1771  Portrait/X113  1770s

Oils on canvas, 30 by 25 inches

Archival history:
Exhibited at the National Portrait Exhibition, 1867 (618).

Source of acquisition: Presented to the College in 1827 by the Reverend R. F. Hallifax (1768?-1837) of Bletch-cott, near Ludlow.



Related information: Jebb was also painted by Romney some time after 1776; he was Romney's physician and claimed to have saved his life by prescribing a bottle of madeira for a chill: the portrait was apparently unfinished, and may be identified with that exhibited at the Dublin Society of Artists, 1810, as by T. Robinson "the face painted by Romney" (Strickland, Dictionary of Irish Artists, 1913, see under T. Robinson; also H. Ward and W. Roberts, Romney, 1904, p. 84; A. B. Chamberlain, Romney, 1910, pp. 94/5 and Romney's Life by his son, 1830, p. 138). There is also an engraving of Jebb, head in profile.

Administrative history:
Born in Stratford, Essex, Richard Jebb went to Oxford and Aberdeen, where he graduated in 1751, subsequently being appointed to Westminster and St. George's Hospitals. He was a fellow of the Royal and Antiquarian Societies, and physician extraordinary to George III and in ordinary to the Prince of Wales. He was buried in Westminster Abbey.
This is an ordinary-sounding eminent career but Richard Jebb was an eccentric who became a legend in the profession. Dr. Lettsom, who knew him well, wrote: "I loved that man with all his eccentricity. He had the bluntness, but not the rudeness, of Radcliffe. He had the medical perception, but not the perseverance and temporizing politeness, of Warren. In every respect, but fortune, superior to Turton; or to Baker, but in classical learning; and yet he was the unhappy slave of unhappy passions. His own sister is, and has long been, in a madhouse; the same fate attends his cousin, and a little adversity would have placed poor Sir Richard there also. There was an impetuosity in his manner, a wildness in his look, and sometimes a strange confusion in his head, which often made me tremble for his sensorium. He had a noble, generous heart, and a pleasing frankness among his friends; communicative of experience among the faculty, and earnest for the recovery of his patients, which he sometimes manifested by the most impetuous solicitude. Those who did not well know him, he alarmed; those who did, saw the unguarded and rude ebullition of earnestness for success."

Contents:
By John Zoffany
Head and shoulders to left, in a painted oval, short grey wig, tied at the back in a queue with a black bow; brown eyes; black gown over a lavender-grey coat with gilt buttons; brown background.
An engraving of it is recorded in the 1926 Catalogue. The identification is traditional; the attribution to Zoffany goes back to the donor, and seems valid; painted probably in the 1770's. Zoffany's life-scale portraits (as distinct from his better-known conversation pieces) are rare, but usually, like this one, of considerable distinction.

Bibliography: Annals, 9 April 1827; 1864 Catalogue, p. 20; Roll, II, 293; III, 397; 1900 List; 1926 Catalogue; V. Manners and G. C. Williamson, John Zoffany, 1920, p. 226.


Edward Jenner 1749-1823  Portrait/X219  1809

Oils on canvas, 29¾ by 24¾ inches

Source of acquisition: Presented to the College by W. H. Baïllie in 1895. Jenner sat to Lawrence probably in 1809; on the 8/10 February 1810, he wrote to James Moore: "... you spoke of a print for your intended work. There are several about the town. The best, I think, is from the painting of Northcote's, done some years since for the Medical Society at Plymouth. I believe this is rather scarce, but you are acquainted with Northcote and I daresay he has one in his possession. When I was last in town, my friends urged me to sit to Lawrence and I complied. If you approved of it, and he had no objection, that might suit you. He talked of getting a print from the painting for himself. It will never do for me to go to the pencil now; for if my countenance represents my mind, it must be beyond anything dismal ...." (Baron, Life of Edward Jenner, 1838, II, pp. 364/6). Captain Baillie in his letter to make his offer, 26 November 1894, stated: "I beg to present... a picture of Matthew Baillie by Hoppner, also one of Dr. Jenner by Sir Thomas Lawrence, and the scissors used by Dr. Jenner, left to my family by Dr. Baron his friend who wrote his autobiography (sic)". The College painting, though its condition is puzzling (perhaps overcleaned: note the "halo" round the head), and doubts have been raised about it, is nevertheless probably the original. Engraved in stipple by W. H. Mote, c. 1838, when in the collection of Miss Baron.



Related information: The earliest certain portrait seems to be that by J. R. Smith, exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1800; various versions exist--one was engraved in mezzotint by C. Turner*. The portrait by Northcote mentioned above, in the possession of the Plymouth Medical Society, was exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1803 (painted in 1802; engraved in mezzotint, 1803, by W. Say); another portrait by Northcote of 1803 is now in the National Portrait Gallery, and a third by the same artist was exhibited posthumously at the Royal Academy, 1823. Miniatures by J. Robinson, by J. Hazlitt and by F. Hervé were shown in 1808, 1809 and 1814 respectively. A portrait by W.Hobday (shown in 1822 is engraved by W. Ridley and by W. Skelton. C. Manning made at least three busts of Jenner, shown in 1805, 1809 and 1823 (one is engraved by Dadley), and there is an engraving by R. J. Lane of a bust by H. Corbould. Whole length statues are at Gloucester Cathedral (by R. W. Sievier, 1825), in Kensington Gardens (by E. H. Baillie, c. 1825--formerly in Trafalgar Square); another is, or was, at Boulogne. For an account of Jenner's portraiture, see W. R. LeFanu, A Bio-Bibliography of Edward Jenner, 1951, pp. 156/60.
* See the Lancet, 22 April 1939.

Administrative history:
The discoverer of vaccination was the son of the vicar of Berkeley, in Gloucestershire. At thirteen he was apprenticed to a surgeon. He received the most significant part of his education when, from 1770 to 1773, he was a resident pupil of John Hunter. Jenner absorbed the experimental attitude to science and medicine from his famous teacher. Their natural tastes, too, were similar and they became life-long friends, corresponding frequently. When Jenner returned to Berkeley to practise, Hunter encouraged his interest in natural history and under this stimulus, Jenner carried out investigations of hibernation and other subjects. His original observations on the cuckoo, sceptically received at the time but now confirmed, were published in the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society in 1788 and helped him to gain his election as a Fellow. Meanwhile, his practice enlarged and he was consulted by other practitioners.
It has usually been claimed that Jenner, interested in the fairly common eighteenth-century belief that people who had had cow-pox could not catch smallpox, thought about this problem for twenty years before applying Hunter's advice to experiment rather than think. In fact the evidence that Jenner was deeply concerned with this question for so long is slight. His first experimental vaccination was performed in May 1796, when he inoculated a small boy with lymph from a human cow-pox vesicle, testing the effect a few weeks later by a smallpox inoculation; smallpox did not develop. Jenner's findings were published in 1798. His achievement was not only to put vaccination to a successful experimental test, but also to show that cow-pox could be transmitted from man to man, so making possible the large-scale schemes of vaccination which within a few years were being carried out all over Europe and in Russia and the United States. In Britain, vaccination clinics were opened and in 1803 the Royal Jennerian Society was formed, with Jenner as president. This body collapsed in 1808 and the government set up the National Vaccination Establishment under Jenner's direction.
Although Jenner did not attempt to exploit his discovery financially, he did successfully petition the House of Commons in 1802 (supported by Matthew Baillie) and in 1806 (endorsed by the College) for some recognition of his discovery. He was extensively honoured, in England (he received his first degree, that of doctor of medicine, at Oxford in 1813, but could not be elected to the College because he refused to sit an examination in classics) and even more rapidly abroad. On one occasion, when Napoleon was about to reject a petition for the release of English prisoners, Josephine murmured the name of Jenner and the Emperor paused and said: "Ah, we can refuse nothing to that name."
Jenner was a simple, kind and warm-hearted man, a fair musician and something of a poet. He had been content to resume his country practice in 1803 and died there in 1823, submitting to the Royal Society just before the end his last paper On the migration of birds.

Contents:
By Sir Thomas Lawrence, P.R.A.,
Head and shoulders; short grey hair, dark bushy eyebrows; blue eyes; white stock, grey-green coat with high turn-down collar; the back of his crimson chair seen on the right; brown background.

Bibliography: Annals, 31 January 1895; 1900 List; 1926 Catalogue; Sir W. Armstrong, Lawrence, 1913; K. Garlick, Sir Thomas Lawrence, 1954, p. 43 (lists the college portrait as a "repetition").


Sir William Jenner, Bt. 1815-1898 F. 1852 P. 1881-1888  Portrait/X48  n.d

Oils on canvas, 50 by 40 inches

Source of acquisition: Presented by a committee of subscribers in 1889



Related information: it is a copy of the original by Frank Holl (exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1888) which was subsequently bequeathed by his son, Sir Albert Jenner, to University College Hospital Medical School.

Administrative history:
William Jenner, son of an innkeeper, was born at Chatham. He studied medicine at University College, London, and was apprenticed for a time to a surgeon in Marylebone. He took his M.D. degree in 1844 and decided to give up general practice in favour of becoming a consultant. In 1854 he published the results of his work on typhus and typhoid which established that these were two different fevers. In 1849 he had been made professor of pathological anatomy at University College and assistant physician to University College Hospital; later he became professor of medicine and full physician. He was physician to the Hospital for Sick Children from its foundation in 1852 until 1862, to the London Fever Hospital, the German Hospital and the Hospital for Diseases of the Throat.
In 1861 he was appointed physician-extraordinary to Queen Victoria and began a long and close association with the Royal Household. He attended the Prince Consort during his fatal attack of typhoid, and ten years later cared for the Prince of Wales with the same illness. He was made a baronet in 1868.
Jenner became a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1864 and was at various times president of the Epidemiological Society, the Pathological Society and the Clinical Society.
Both as a practising consultant and as a clinical teacher Jenner was undisputed master a his time. His forceful and dogmatic language helped to drive lessons home to many generations of students, and much of his teaching has been published in Lectures and Essays (1893) and Clinical Lectures (1895). He had a great capacity for hard work, little time or desire for amusements, a growing intolerance for the opinions of others, he was a non-smoker and practically a teetotaller, and his only weakness seems to have been a fondness for frequent cups of tea.

Contents:
By Val Prinsep after Frank Holl
Three-quarter length, seated, holding a scroll of paper; thin white hair; twisting black eye-brows, dark eyes; heavy grey drooping moustache, sallow complexion; white shirt and stiff collar, thin black bow tie; black suit under the President's gown, black heavily braided with gold; a bust (? of Sydenham) standing on the table; background dark brownish-red.

Bibliography: Annals, 7 February 1889; 1900 List; 1926 Catalogue; A. M. Reynolds, The life and work of Frank Holl, 1912, pp. 269/70.


Sir William Jenner, Bt. 1815-1898 F. 1852 P. 1881-1888  Portrait/X192  n.d

Oils on canvas, 50 by 40 inches,

Source of acquisition: Painted originally for University College, and given by that institution to the College in 1955.



Related information: A bust by E. Davis was exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1868; a caricature by Spy is reproduced in Further Indiscretions (by "A Woman of No Importance") 1913, p. 30.

Administrative history:
William Jenner, son of an innkeeper, was born at Chatham. He studied medicine at University College, London, and was apprenticed for a time to a surgeon in Marylebone. He took his M.D. degree in 1844 and decided to give up general practice in favour of becoming a consultant. In 1854 he published the results of his work on typhus and typhoid which established that these were two different fevers. In 1849 he had been made professor of pathological anatomy at University College and assistant physician to University College Hospital; later he became professor of medicine and full physician. He was physician to the Hospital for Sick Children from its foundation in 1852 until 1862, to the London Fever Hospital, the German Hospital and the Hospital for Diseases of the Throat.
In 1861 he was appointed physician-extraordinary to Queen Victoria and began a long and close association with the Royal Household. He attended the Prince Consort during his fatal attack of typhoid, and ten years later cared for the Prince of Wales with the same illness. He was made a baronet in 1868.
Jenner became a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1864 and was at various times president of the Epidemiological Society, the Pathological Society and the Clinical Society.
Both as a practising consultant and as a clinical teacher Jenner was undisputed master a his time. His forceful and dogmatic language helped to drive lessons home to many generations of students, and much of his teaching has been published in Lectures and Essays (1893) and Clinical Lectures (1895). He had a great capacity for hard work, little time or desire for amusements, a growing intolerance for the opinions of others, he was a non-smoker and practically a teetotaller, and his only weakness seems to have been a fondness for frequent cups of tea.

Contents:
By Val Prinsep after Frank Holl, not reproduced
Similar to no. 1-X48

Sir George Johnson 1818-1896 F. 1850  Portrait/X26  1888

Oil on canvas, 38 by 31 inches

Archival history:
The painting was presented to the sitter at King's College, according to the plaque on the frame, "by his Colleagues, Pupils and other Friends as a Mark of their Esteem and Regard for his Character and in Appreciation of his Scientific Work, June 14th 1888".

Source of acquisition: Bequeathed by Mr. Edward Middleton Johnson, and received by the College July 1948.



Related information: An engraving by F. Short of Johnson after Holl was exhibited at the Royal Academy, 1899.

Administrative history:
Born at Goudhurst, Kent, George Johnson was educated at the local grammar school and then apprenticed to an uncle practising at Cranbrook. He studied medicine at King's College, London and graduated with high honours in 1843. He was the first resident medical tutor at King's College Hospital and went on to hold many appointments there.
He held a number of offices at the College of Physicians. The Queen appointed him a physician-extraordinary in 1889 and he received a knighthood in 1892.
Johnson was an authority on kidney diseases and cholera, on which he wrote several works, and his commonest nicknames were "Kidney Johnson", and "Castor Oil Johnson"--referring to his treatment for cholera cases. He was one of the first to make regular use of the ophthalmoscope and the laryngoscope. He was outspoken and somewhat intolerant, and his quarrel with Gull on a matter of medical etiquette had to be settled by the Royal College of Physicians (in Johnson's favour). However, his lectures to students were not controversial, and in hospital affairs his judgement was calm and conciliatory.

Contents:
By Frank Holl,
Three-quarter length, in a black suit, seated to the left, his hands resting on his knee; grey hair and side-whiskers, grey-blue eyes looking to the left: dark brown background. Signed: Frank Holl.

James Johnson 1777-1845 L. 1821  Portrait/X123  c. 1833

Oils on canvas, 50 by 40 inches,

Archival history:
Presumably the portrait exhibited by Wood at the Royal Academy in 1833 (no. 227). Engraved by G. H. Phillips, 1835, and (in part) by W. Holl for Cooke-Taylor's National Portrait Gallery, 1846-48, vol. IV.

Source of acquisition: Bought by the College in 1950, from N. M. Allen of Brighton.


Administrative history:
James Johnson, the son of an Irish farmer, was born in County Derry. He came to London without either money or friends and became assistant to an apothecary. By hard study and regular attendance at lectures on anatomy and surgery he qualified at Surgeons' Hall. In 1798 he was appointed surgeon's mate in the Navy and was engaged on active service until 1814, when he settled in London.
Johnson was a simple and unaffected person who had no wish to be taken for anything else than he was. He had great goodness of heart, partly hidden by testiness, and a rough word was sure to be succeeded by some substantial kindness; indeed, this was so well known that people took advantage of it. Most of his practice was concerned with chronic cases, with which he was remarkably successful. It was often objected that his prescriptions were complicated and unchemical; he laughed at the criticism, saying that he found his prescriptions worked and that that was the main consideration.

Contents:
By John Wood,
Almost length, seated, wearing black dress; a pen in his right hand; his left hand resting on a table strewn with papers, books, and an inkstand; dark brown hair, brown eyes; a crimson curtain on the right.

Sir Edmund King 1629-1709 F. 1687  Portrait/X79  c. 1678-80

Oils on canvas, 49¾ by 39¾ inches

Archival history:
Exhibited at the National Portrait Exhibition, 1866; Royal Academy (The Age of Charles II) 1960-61, no. 233.

Source of acquisition: King's promise to bequeath this portrait to the College is recorded in the Annals, 1706; on 1 July 1709, is noted that his portrait "don by Sir Peter Lely" has been placed in the Censors' Room.



Related information: A portrait by Kneller was engraved in line by Robert White; a drawing by Faithorne is in the British Museum.

Administrative history:
Edmund King trained as a surgeon and applied himself with some success to the study of chemistry, which recommended him to the favour of King Charles II. He had the reputation of being at the same time an excellent anatomist, a good surgeon, and an accomplished physician.
Among his writings are Some Observations on Ants, The Animalculae in Pepper, and Transfusion of Blood. He is chiefly remembered for his decision and promptitude in bleeding King Charles II on his own responsibility when the King had an attack of apoplexy. This bold act was approved by the other physicians on their arrival and the Privy Council awarded him £1,000. He was never paid.

Contents:
By Sir Peter Lely
Three-quarter length, seated; his left hand resting on a book that stands on a table to right; lace cravat; loose brown robe; full white shirt sleeves; long brown wig; in the background to left, a dark drapery; on the right, a bust of Hippocrates standing at a window through which a cloudy sky is seen; inscribed at the top in yellow letters: Edmundus. King. Eques. Auratus. Painted on a very coarse cross-woven canvas; the paint has suffered in the ironing of the lining process.
Painted probably not long before Lely's death in 1680, characteristic of his late style, very similar to Kneller's early work. (Vertue, noting it in 1733, thought it was by Kneller). Engraved in mezzotint (reversed) by R. Williams with the inscription: Edm. King Eq. Aur:..... Qui praesenti animo (Ope Divina) eundem Sereniss: Regem Car: Il a morte Subitania Dexterime cripuit, Feb 20 Anno Domini 1684 P Lely Eques pinxit......

Bibliography: Annals, 5 July 1706, 1 July 1709; Vertue; 1864 Catalogue, p. 20; Roll, I, 448; III, 397; 1900 List; 1926 Catalogue.


John Latham 1761-1843 F. 1789 P. 1813-1819  Portrait/X017T  1798

Chalks on paper, 10 by 7½ inches,

Source of acquisition: Date of acquisition uncertain, but presumably the drawing of Latham sold, together with the main series of Dance's profile drawings of contemporary celebrities, by the artist's grandson at Christies, 1 July 1989 (lot 85).



Related information: Engraved by William Daniell and published in 1812.
A painting of Latham by John Jackson, 1816 (engraved by R. W. Sievier), is represented by a version at Brasenose College, Oxford, and shows him as President with the mace and caduceus, with a view of the old College. A bust by Sievier, 1824, is at St. Bartholomew's Hospital.

Administrative history:
John Latham, son of the minister of Siddington in Cheshire, was elected physician successively to the Manchester Infirmary, the Radcliffe Infirmary, and the Middlesex and St. Bartholomew's Hospitals. He became a very influential Fellow of the College and undertook to reorganize the library, which had fallen into great disorder; he did this so well that he was unanimously voted £100. By extremely hard work when he first settled in London he obtained a large and lucrative practice, but at the age of forty-six he was worn out. Under the influence of country air and complete relaxation from professional business he eventually recovered and returned to London, settling this time in Harley Street. There, for twenty years, he had better health, with a more moderate practice.
Latham was remarkably temperate, when temperance was hardly thought to be a virtue; he was clean in life and conversation, and he was not ashamed to be religious when that was no recommendation in the world.

Contents:
By George Dance,
To the waist, seated in profile to the left. Signed: Geo: Dance/Aug: 21st: 1798.

Arthur Leared 1822-1879 F. 1871  Portrait/X182  n.d

Marble, 31 inches high

Archival history:
exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1881 (1560), and presumably posthumous.

Source of acquisition: Presented by his widow, Mrs. Leared, in 1881


Administrative history:
Arthur Leared, the son of a merchant, was born at Wexford and graduated at Trinity College, Dublin. He travelled to India, but bad health forced him to return and in 1852 he started practice in London. During the Crimean War he went overseas again to serve as physician to the British Civil Hospital at Smyrna, and he visited the Holy Land before resuming practice. In 1860 he published a notable work, The Causes and Treatment of Imperfect Digestion, which reached an eighth edition twenty-two years later. In the next decade he wrote several papers on the blood, phthisis, the stomach, and sounds of the heart. Other publications were the result of his frequent travels overseas. He paid four visits to Iceland and became so proficient in Icelandic that he was able to write a book in that language. He travelled to America, and to Morocco where he explored unfrequented areas, identified the site of the Roman town Volubilis, and collected local materia medica. Leared's wide culture and congenial personality brought him a large circle of friends, scientific, literary and artistic, as well as the membership of many learned societies at home and abroad.

Contents:
By George Simonds
Head turned slightly to left, eyes incised; head bald at the crown, bushy hair at the sides, very full side-whiskers and moustache; academic gown over suit, bow tie almost hidden by his whiskers; signed at the back: GEORGE SIMONDS. FEC: OPUS CXXXV--

Bibliography: Annals, 11 April 1881; 1900 List; 1926 Catalogue.


Thomas Linacre 1460?-1524 P. 1518 until death  Portrait/X58  n.d

Panel, 19 by 14½ inches; it is in poor condition


Related information: A somewhat similar portrait, but reversed, is at All Souls College, Oxford (presented between 1815-1840).
A commemorative statue, by Henry Weekes, was commissioned by the Fellows for the portico of the Pall Mall building in 1875 (Annals, 29 April 1875; 27 April 1876).

Administrative history:
Thomas Linacre, the distinguished scholar and physician who was the founder and first President of the College of Physicians, was born at Canterbury. He was educated at the school of the monastery of Christchurch, Canterbury, and at Oxford, where he was elected a Fellow of All Souls and became a keen student of Greek.
Linacre then travelled extensively in Italy, sharing the studies of Piero and Giovanni di Medici in Florence, visiting Bologna, Rome and Venice and graduating in medicine at Padua. On his return to England he renewed his studies in Oxford and enjoyed the privileges of his Fellowship, becoming apparently M.D. at both Oxford and Cambridge.
About 1501 Linacre was summoned from Oxford to the Court to become preceptor and physician to Prince Arthur. The death of the Prince allowed Linacre to devote himself to medicine so ardently that his friends complained that he never had time for them or anything else.
Linacre had now reached the highest point of professional fame, and the health of the leading men of the country, including Henry VIII and Cardinal Wolsey, was committed to his care, but when he was past middle age he turned to the study of theology and the duties of priesthood. The practice of medicine (though not of surgery) was admitted by the Church to be compatible with being a priest. It seems that Linacre decided to become a priest not so much because he expected dignity and preferment as because he wished to retire and become acquainted with those writings which might bring him consolation in old age.
The most magnificent of Linacre's labours was the design of the Royal College of Physicians of London. In 1518, when his scheme was carried into effect, the practice of medicine had a standing scarcely higher than that of the mechanical arts. With the diffusion of learning through the republics and states of Italy, establishments solely for the advancement of science had been formed there with success; but no society devoted to the interests of learning existed in England without being fettered by union with the hierarchy, or enduring the rigours and seclusion imposed on members of a monastic and religious life. Linacre's aim was to create understanding and emulation among all physicians, to increase their inquiries into the nature of disease and secure more uniformity in treatment. Of the new College Linacre was the first President, until his death, and early meetings were held at his house in Knightrider Street.
Linacre's character has been drawn in extravagant but not undeserved terms by those best qualified to give an opinion. For his accurate skill in Greek and Latin, in other sciences, and in his own profession, he was considered to be the ornament of his age. In private life he utterly detested everything dishonourable; he was a faithful friend, and was valued and beloved by all ranks in life. He showed great kindness to young students in his profession, many of whom he assisted with his advice and his purse.

Contents:
Copied by William Miller, 1810, from a painting at Windsor Castle
Short half length to right, his right hand resting on a ledge and holding a folded paper inscribed ANNO 1521, wearing a flat black cap, his hair cut just below the ears; face three-quarters to right, pale grey eyes looking in the same direction; a slight shadowing of moustache on his upper lip; white shirt with small plain collar; dark gown trimmed at the edge with fur; dark brown background; lit from the left.
Copied at the order of the Fellows; a resolution to pay Mr. William Miller (the College beadle and evidently an amateur painter of considerable competence) 20 guineas for the copy was passed 22 December 1810. Engraved by H. Cook in stipple. This is the usually accepted image of Linacre; the identification has however been challenged, and the original at Windsor is at present catalogued as An Elderly Man (School of Massys)
The date on the scroll is generally read as 1527 or 1537, though when Vertue saw it in 1734 it was evidently known as a portrait of Linacre, and he read the date as 1521, as did Miller in 1810. The earliest record of it, however, (in James II's catalogue), describes it as An Old Man, a letter in his hand

Bibliography: Annals, June 1810, 22 December 1810; 1864 Catalogue, p. 7; Roll, III, 397; 1900 List; 1926 Catalogue; C. H. Collins Baker, Catalogue of Pictures at Windsor Castle, 1937, p. 235.


? Edward Lister 1556-1620 F. 1594  Portrait/X203  n.d

Panel, 35¾ by 27 inches

Source of acquisition: Provenance unknown; according to a slip inserted in the office copy of the 1926 Catalogue, the portrait is of a Martin Lister (c. 1618-1712) and was purchased by the College, presumably after 1926. No payment has however been traced, and the man cannot be Martin Lister, as the costume is of the late sixteenth century (1580/90?). Though not reproduced in H. L. L. Denny's Memorials of an ancient house: a history of the family of Lister or Lyster, 1913, this could be a portrait of Edward Lister (1556-1620). According to Denny, Edward Lister was granted the following arms on 20 April 1602: "Ermine on a fesse cotised sable, 3 Mullets or. Crest: A stag's head proper attired or and erased gules." (P. 264.)


Administrative history:
Born at Wakefield, Yorkshire, and educated at Eton and King's College, Cambridge, Edward Lister became one of the physicians-in-ordinary to Elizabeth and James I. He held many offices in the College, including that of Treasurer from 1612 to 1618.

Contents:
Artist unknown
Three-quarter length, standing; wearing round puffed hat, deep piped white ruff, black gown; holding his leather fringed gloves; dark brown hair, brown whiskers and beard, blue-grey eyes; very dark brown background; in the top left corner, a coat of arms and crest: ermine, on a fesse sable cotise three mullets or (Lister).

Edward Liveing 1832-1919 F. 1874  Portrait/X178  1910

Oils on canvas, 30 by 25 inches,

Source of acquisition: Presented by the Fellows of the College in 1910; exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1910 (106).



Related information: Another portrait, by Sarah E. Rands, was shown at the Academy in 1896.

Administrative history:
Edward Liveing, son of a medical practitioner, was born at Nayland, Suffolk. He studied medicine at King's College, London, and qualified as M.R.C.S. In 1854 he went to Caius College, Cambridge, where he graduated in mathematics in 1858 and in medicine in 1859, also that year obtaining the newly instituted membership of the Royal College of Physicians. He became an assistant physician at King's College Hospital in 1860 and was later consulting physician to the Marylebone General Dispensary. He was a Fellow of both Caius and King's College, London.
Liveing was Assistant Registrar of the Royal College of Physicians for three years and then succeeded Sir Henry Pitman as Registrar in 1889. When he retired in 1909 the honorary title of Emeritus Registrar was conferred on him.

Contents:
By Walter William Ouless,
Half length, seated; sparse white hair, fluffy side-whiskers; brilliant blue eyes; white winged collar with black bow tie; black gown and scarlet hood (M.D. Cambridge); signed by his shoulder on the right: Walter W. Ouless/1910.

Bibliography: Annals, 13 May 1909; Royal Academy Pictures 1910, (London, 1910), p. 61, reproduction; 1926 Catalogue.


Sir Morell Mackenzie 1837-1892  Portrait/X212  n.d

Oils on canvas, 36 by 27 inches,

Source of acquisition: Bought by the College, 1962.


Administrative history:
Morell Mackenzie was born at Leytonstone in Essex. He studied in Vienna under Czermak and was one of the first in Britain to explore the field of laryngology. He opened a free dispensary for the treatment of throat diseases in 1863. The dispensary flourished, and in 1865 became the Hospital for Diseases of the Throat. By the eighties he was the leading London specialist and a well-known figure in the social world.
Mackenzie's career was clouded by misunderstandings over his attendance on Crown Prince Frederick of Germany. He was summoned to Berlin in 1887 to give an opinion on a growth in the Crown Prince's throat, on which his own doctors were proposing to operate. Mackenzie believed it to be non-malignant (basing his view in part on Virchow's negative pathological findings) but a few months later further growths occurred, which he now suspected to be cancerous. Frederick chose not to undergo operation, and Mackenzie supported this choice, knowing the high operative mortality of the time. The Crown Prince lived some months longer, surviving to succeed to the throne. After his death, hostility to Mackenzie in German medical circles, already high, grew more intense and he was attacked in the press and by Frederick's physicians and surgeons, who accused him of ineptness and deliberate concealment of the true facts. In self defence, Mackenzie published an ill-judged reply, The Fatal Illness of Frederick the Noble, which earned him notoriety in England and the censure of the Royal College of Surgeons. Mackenzie, who suffered from asthma, died a few years afterwards.

Contents:
By an unknown artist
To the waist, turned to the right; wearing a dark suit and white wing collar.
Wrongly ascribed, by a later inscription painted on the back, to G. F. Watts.

James Ormiston MacWilliam 1807-1862 F. 1859  Portrait/X195  1864

Plaster medallion, 33 inches in diameter

Source of acquisition: Presented by the Committee of the MacWilliam Fund, 1865; posthumous, made in 1864.


Administrative history:
James MacWilliam was born and educated at Dalkeith, and qualified at Edinburgh. He entered the Navy as an assistant surgeon and served abroad for ten years. In 1841 he was chosen to be senior surgeon on board the Albert, one of the three ships on the ill-fated Niger expedition. When all the officers and many of the crew were struck down by yellow fever he took command and navigated the ship safely down the river with the assistance of Dr. Stanger, the expedition's geologist, who worked the engines. In 1847 he was appointed medical officer to the Custom House.
MacWilliam was made a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1848, and in 1850 was active in the formation of the Epidemiological Society, of which he became secretary. When he died, a fund was raised to assist his widow and children.

Contents:
By T. Butler,
Head in profile to left; thick curly hair, the crown of his head bald; side whiskers; inscribed round the bottom: BORN SEPTEMBER 1807 DIED 4 MAY 1862; painted in monochrome. The medallion is reproduced, despite its present poor condition, for purposes of identification.

Bibliography: Annals, 14 December 1863 (offer to present a portrait accepted); Roll, III, 404; 1900 List; 1926 Catalogue; ms. letter from Gavin Milray, 11 August 1875.


Edward Martin 1810-1874  Portrait/X246  c.1850

Miniature on rectangular card, 3½ by 2½ inches.

Archival history:
according to the donor it was painted originally for a pupil of the sitter's. Dr. Hill, before the latter left for Australia. The donor was Dr. Hill's legatee. Painted perhaps c. 1850.

Source of acquisition: Presented by C. H. Simson of San José, California, in 1924


Administrative history:
Martin was the son of Benjamin Martin, one of the founders of a London firm of blacking manufacturers. He qualified in medicine in London and became a Licentiate of the Society of Apothecaries in 1832 and a Member of the Royal College of Surgeons in 1834. Meanwhile he had moved to Sheffield in 1833, having been elected House Apothecary at the Public Dispensary there. Martin resigned this appointment in 1836; this seems to have been connected with an alteration of the rule defining the House Apothecary's duties. He had begun to practise in Sheffield and was Secretary to the Board of the Public Dispensary. In 1841, Martin became surgeon at the Dispensary and held this appointment for thirteen years; he was then elected honorary surgeon for life, in recognition of his "able, efficient and valuable services". He also taught in the Sheffield Medical Institution for several years. In 1866, he retired from his practice and from his appointment as honorary surgeon and moved away from Sheffield; he died at Rempstone Hall, near Loughborough.
The miniature was painted for a pupil of Martin's, a Dr. Hill, who practised in London. Martin himself was never connected with the College.

Contents:
By Benedetto Pistrucci
To the waist, turned slightly to the left; black coat and waistcoat, black stock with gold pin; fair brown hair and whiskers, blue eyes; deep blue background.

Bibliography: Copy of a letter from C. H. Simson, 10 June 1924; 1926 Catalogue (but according to the latter, given by a Miss F. R. Shellenberger, for which there seem to be no grounds).


William George Maton 1774-1835 F. 1802  Portrait/X47  c.1820(?)

Oils on canvas, 29½ by 24½ inches

Source of acquisition: Presented in 1884 by his niece, Mrs. Wray; painted perhaps c. 1820.


Administrative history:
William George Maton, the son of a wine merchant, was born in Salisbury. He was intended for the Church, but instead studied medicine at the Westminster Hospital.
Maton's first few years in practice were not very successful and he adopted the system, not unusual with young physicians from London at that time, of living at some popular watering place during the season. He chose Weymouth, where he found time to pursue botanical researches of which he was fond.
It happened that the King and Queen came to stay at Gloucester Lodge and one of the Princesses amused herself with botany. A plant not uncommon in the district, Arundo epigejos, but unknown to the royal student, was shown to Her Royal Highness, and Dr. Maton was mentioned as a person likely to know its identity. This chance introduction to the Royal Family proved much to his advantage; it secured for him the confidence of many invalids at court and led in 1816 to his appointment as physician-extraordinary to the Queen and later also as physician to the Duchess of Kent and her daughter, Victoria. He succeeded to most of the practice of Matthew Baillie when he died in 1823, and from then until his own death in 1835 Dr. Maton shared with Sir Henry Halford the distinction of having the best practice in London.
Maton held many offices in the College, including that of Treasurer from 1814-1820. He was also a Fellow of the Royal Society, and was one of those who proposed Sir Humphrey Davy for Fellowship. For many years he was Vice-President of the Linnean Society and a frequent contributor to its Transactions. He was a Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries, and was repeatedly elected to the council. Life richly rewarded a man who had honourably taken on the burden of discharging fully, over many of his younger years, huge and unexplained debts left by his father.

Contents:
By Margaret Sarah (Geddes) Carpenter,
Half length; short light brown hair, grey eyes; white stock, dark coat; dark brown back-ground.

Bibliography: Annals, 31 January 1884; 1900 List; 1926 Catalogue.


William George Maton 1774-1835 F. 1802  Portrait/X380  n.d

Oils on canvas, 29¾ by 24¾ inches

Source of acquisition: Bought by the College in 1870, from George Lewis (dealer); its previous history is not known. Painted apparently in the last years of his life.



Related information: A portrait drawing (signed "R.W.P.") is in the British Museum, and another in the Library of the Botanic Gardens at Oxford. A bust by Behnes is recorded in the possession of the Linnean Society.

Administrative history:
William George Maton, the son of a wine merchant, was born in Salisbury. He was intended for the Church, but instead studied medicine at the Westminster Hospital.
Maton's first few years in practice were not very successful and he adopted the system, not unusual with young physicians from London at that time, of living at some popular watering place during the season. He chose Weymouth, where he found time to pursue botanical researches of which he was fond.
It happened that the King and Queen came to stay at Gloucester Lodge and one of the Princesses amused herself with botany. A plant not uncommon in the district, Arundo epigejos, but unknown to the royal student, was shown to Her Royal Highness, and Dr. Maton was mentioned as a person likely to know its identity. This chance introduction to the Royal Family proved much to his advantage; it secured for him the confidence of many invalids at court and led in 1816 to his appointment as physician-extraordinary to the Queen and later also as physician to the Duchess of Kent and her daughter, Victoria. He succeeded to most of the practice of Matthew Baillie when he died in 1823, and from then until his own death in 1835 Dr. Maton shared with Sir Henry Halford the distinction of having the best practice in London.
Maton held many offices in the College, including that of Treasurer from 1814-1820. He was also a Fellow of the Royal Society, and was one of those who proposed Sir Humphrey Davy for Fellowship. For many years he was Vice-President of the Linnean Society and a frequent contributor to its Transactions. He was a Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries, and was repeatedly elected to the council. Life richly rewarded a man who had honourably taken on the burden of discharging fully, over many of his younger years, huge and unexplained debts left by his father.

Contents:
By an unknown artist
Half length seated; greyish white hair, dark grey eyebrows, grey-brown eyes; looking at the spectator, clean-shaven; high white stock and narrow plain white bands; scarlet D.M. (Oxon.) gown over his black coat; brown background.

Bibliography: Annals, 19 December 1870; Roll, III, 397; 1900 List; 1926 Catalogue; ms. letter from G. Lewis, 30 November 1870; al. from Henry Moody, 16 December 1870.


Sir Theodore de Mayerne 1573-1655 F. 1616  Portrait/X81  n.d

Oils on canvas, 50 by 35½ inches

Source of acquisition: Said to have been presented in 1689/90 by Sir Theodore Colladon (sic a note in the office copy of the 1926 Catalogue which I have not been able to verify; the reference is 'ms. minute book').



Related information: A bust painting of 1734 by Wollaston, in the Bodleian Library, is said to have the head similar to that in the College portrait. The etching of 1636 has been said to derive from the College portrait, but is a quite distinct portrait. In the engraving used for J. Browne's edition of Mayerne's Opera Medica (1700) however, while the body is taken from the etching, the head seems in fact to be based on the College painting.
A skull is a fairly frequent accessory in early portraits, as a memento mori, and in the case of physicians as a professional allusion; the marks on the skull here suggest, however, that there may be a more specific allusion to Mayerne's own developments in the surgery of the skull.
A certain amount has already been written about Mayerne's portraits, but the subject merits a more thorough investigation. The primary portraits, as at present known, are:
1. The rare medal, a profile, by Nicholas Briot, 1625 (a cast is in the British Museum).
2. The watercolour drawing by Rubens in the British Museum, of about 1630. Rubens produced paintings of two distinct patterns, both apparently related to this drawing. In one pattern (North Carolina Museum of Art, U.S.A.; a copy is in the National Portrait Gallery) he is shown with a statue of Aesculapius and a seascape with a symbolic lighthouse in the background. Rubens sent such a portrait to Mayerne, and a transcript of the latter's letter of thanks, dated 28 March 1631, is in the British Museum (printed by Bouvier); this type was engraved by Simon in mezzotint towards the end of the seventeenth century. The second pattern omits the statue and the seascape, and corresponds almost exactly with the Rubens drawing; the sitter holds his gloves in his left hand. One such painting was probably the portrait of Mayerne kept by Rubens and recorded in his inventory after his death (1640): the best example is said to be that which in 1937 belonged to the Lilienfeld Galleries, New York (reproduced by Gibson). Several versions of both patterns exist.
3. The portrait in the College.
4. A portrait at Longleat (Marquis of Bath), his hand resting on a bust (? of Hippocrates): the head very similar to that in no 5.
5. An etching of 1636, aetat. 63, best known by the copy by W. Elder used for the Praxis Mayernianiae.
6. A three-quarter length in the Geneva Public Library, sometimes attributed to Rubens; it has the seascape and statue of Aesculapius, but is probably a variation based on Rubens' design, and perhaps by F. Deodati, by or after whom there is an engraving of it (see Bouvier, and also Klebs).
7. The enamel miniature, formerly in Sloane's collection, and now in the National Portrait Gallery, painted probably before 1650, but surely the latest known portrait; doubtfully ascribed to Petitot (a related miniature is at Ham House).
Probably other portraits exist; the lack of any portrait before 1625 is remarkable. Mayerne had a great interest in pigments and was probably in contact with many artists, notably Van Dyck, by whom no portrait of the physician is yet recognised.

Administrative history:
De Mayerne, the son of a French Protestant, was born in Geneva. He was educated at Geneva, Heidelberg and Montpellier and then moved to Paris, where he lectured on anatomy and pharmacy. He paid particular attention to chemistry, and as in his medical practice he made considerable use of chemical remedies, he was soon regarded as one of the leading advocates of what was then a recent innovation. This brought him into favour with Riverius, by whose recommendation Mayerne was appointed one of King Henry IV's physicians, but it equally attracted the enmity of the faculty of Paris. The favour of the king, however, protected him and he was promised great advantages provided he conformed to the Catholic Church, which he refused to do.
Apparently he came to England about 1606 and was appointed physician to the Queen of James I. It seems certain that he returned to France, and remained there until after the assassination of Henry IV in 1610. Soon after this he was called back to England by James himself. From this period onwards, Mayerne appears to have been considered one of the first physicians in the kingdom. The College of Physicians elected him Fellow at an extraordinary Comitia for the purpose, and called on him to write the dedication to the king of the first Pharmacopoeia.
On the accession of Charles I, he was appointed first physician to the Royal family, and rose still higher in authority and reputation during that reign.
He is remembered for introducing the use of calomel into medical practice, and is said to have invented black wash, the mercurial lotion.

Contents:
Artist unknown
Three-quarter length, standing to left, holding a skull; black skull cap, pale blue-grey eyes, white moustache and beard; ample brown velvet gown, fur trimmed; on a table right, a scroll of paper (blank) unrolled; very dark background. Inscribed in yellow: Theodorus. Mayerne. Eques. Auratus.
The portrait is difficult to date; the sitter appears older than in the medal of him of 1625, but apart from that it could be of any time in the next thirty years. In its coarse and vigorous style, it has affinities with the work of Isaac Fuller or a similar painter, conceivably Robert Streeter; it might even be an unusual and early work by William Dobson, but no attribution has so far been put forward with a very convincing backing.

Bibliography: ms. Minute Book, 1689/90(?); Hatton 1708; Vertue; 1864 Catalogue; Roll, I, 168; III, 398; 1900 List; 1926 Catalogue. See also Bibliographical Note below.
A. Bouvier, Un Portrait de Turquet de Mayerne attribué à Rubens, in Genava, vol. XV (1937), pp. 200/5; T. Gibson, Letters of Theodore Mayerne etc., in Annals of Medical History, New York, N.S., vol. IX (1937), no. 5, pp. 401/21; A. C. Klebs, L'Iconographie de Theodore Turquet de Mayerne in Genava, vol. XVI (1938), pp. 173/6 (the portrait at Knole, there quoted, is not, in my opinion, of Mayerne); I. Scouloudi, Sir T. T. de Mayerne, in Procs. of the Huguenot Soc. of London, vol. XVI (1940), no. 3, p. 21 n. For more doubtful portraits, see Sir St. Clair Thomson, loc. cit., and a note in the Connoisseur, October 1931, p. 265.


Sir Theodore de Mayerne 1573-1655 F. 1616  Portrait/X018T  n.d

miniature, enamel on copper, 1 by 13/16 inches

Source of acquisition: Bequeathed by Sir St. Clair Thomson, 1944; previous history unknown.



Related information: A certain amount has already been written about Mayerne's portraits, but the subject merits a more thorough investigation. The primary portraits, as at present known, are:
1. The rare medal, a profile, by Nicholas Briot, 1625 (a cast is in the British Museum).
2. The watercolour drawing by Rubens in the British Museum, of about 1630. Rubens produced paintings of two distinct patterns, both apparently related to this drawing. In one pattern (North Carolina Museum of Art, U.S.A.; a copy is in the National Portrait Gallery) he is shown with a statue of Aesculapius and a seascape with a symbolic lighthouse in the background. Rubens sent such a portrait to Mayerne, and a transcript of the latter's letter of thanks, dated 28 March 1631, is in the British Museum (printed by Bouvier); this type was engraved by Simon in mezzotint towards the end of the seventeenth century. The second pattern omits the statue and the seascape, and corresponds almost exactly with the Rubens drawing; the sitter holds his gloves in his left hand. One such painting was probably the portrait of Mayerne kept by Rubens and recorded in his inventory after his death (1640): the best example is said to be that which in 1937 belonged to the Lilienfeld Galleries, New York (reproduced by Gibson). Several versions of both patterns exist.
3. The portrait in the College.
4. A portrait at Longleat (Marquis of Bath), his hand resting on a bust (? of Hippocrates): the head very similar to that in no 5.
5. An etching of 1636, aetat. 63, best known by the copy by W. Elder used for the Praxis Mayernianiae.
6. A three-quarter length in the Geneva Public Library, sometimes attributed to Rubens; it has the seascape and statue of Aesculapius, but is probably a variation based on Rubens' design, and perhaps by F. Deodati, by or after whom there is an engraving of it (see Bouvier, and also Klebs).
7. The enamel miniature, formerly in Sloane's collection, and now in the National Portrait Gallery, painted probably before 1650, but surely the latest known portrait; doubtfully ascribed to Petitot (a related miniature is at Ham House).
Probably other portraits exist; the lack of any portrait before 1625 is remarkable. Mayerne had a great interest in pigments and was probably in contact with many artists, notably Van Dyck, by whom no portrait of the physician is yet recognised.

Administrative history:
De Mayerne, the son of a French Protestant, was born in Geneva. He was educated at Geneva, Heidelberg and Montpellier and then moved to Paris, where he lectured on anatomy and pharmacy. He paid particular attention to chemistry, and as in his medical practice he made considerable use of chemical remedies, he was soon regarded as one of the leading advocates of what was then a recent innovation. This brought him into favour with Riverius, by whose recommendation Mayerne was appointed one of King Henry IV's physicians, but it equally attracted the enmity of the faculty of Paris. The favour of the king, however, protected him and he was promised great advantages provided he conformed to the Catholic Church, which he refused to do.
Apparently he came to England about 1606 and was appointed physician to the Queen of James I. It seems certain that he returned to France, and remained there until after the assassination of Henry IV in 1610. Soon after this he was called back to England by James himself. From this period onwards, Mayerne appears to have been considered one of the first physicians in the kingdom. The College of Physicians elected him Fellow at an extraordinary Comitia for the purpose, and called on him to write the dedication to the king of the first Pharmacopoeia.
On the accession of Charles I, he was appointed first physician to the Royal family, and rose still higher in authority and reputation during that reign.
He is remembered for introducing the use of calomel into medical practice, and is said to have invented black wash, the mercurial lotion.

Contents:
Called Sir Theodore Mayerne,
Attributed to Petitot
Head and shoulders to right; black skull cap, black gown with gold embroidered sash; white hair, moustache and beard; large circular ruff; grey background.
It does not agree in the features with other established portraits of Mayerne, and the costume suggests that the sitter is a Dutchman.

Bibliography: St. Clair Thomson, "Two Enamel Miniatures of Medical Men", in the Proceedings of the Royal Society of Medicine, vol. XXXI (1938), pp. 649/54 (reproduction).
A. Bouvier, Un Portrait de Turquet de Mayerne attribué à Rubens, in Genava, vol. XV (1937), pp. 200/5; T. Gibson, Letters of Theodore Mayerne etc., in Annals of Medical History, New York, N.S., vol. IX (1937), no. 5, pp. 401/21; A. C. Klebs, L'Iconographie de Theodore Turquet de Mayerne in Genava, vol. XVI (1938), pp. 173/6 (the portrait at Knole, there quoted, is not, in my opinion, of Mayerne); I. Scouloudi, Sir T. T. de Mayerne, in Procs. of the Huguenot Soc. of London, vol. XVI (1940), no. 3, p. 21 n. For more doubtful portraits, see Sir St. Clair Thomson, loc. cit., and a note in the Connoisseur, October 1931, p. 265.


Thomas Mayo 1790-1871 F. 1819 P. 1857-1862  Portrait/X019T  1862

Black and white chalks on paper, 245/8 by 181/8 inches

Source of acquisition: Presented by the artist in 1880



Related information: A portrait by A. Tidey was shown at the Royal Academy in 1834.

Administrative history:
Thomas Mayo, a son of a Fellow of the College, was born in London. After a brilliant career at Oxford he entered practice at Tunbridge Wells, and on the death of his father in 1818 succeeded to a large and profitable practice there. He moved to London in 1835.
After holding many offices in the College he was President at a most critical period in its history, when it was undergoing the changes in its constitution that were made necessary by the Medical Act of 21 and 22 Victoria. Dr. Mayo took an active part in the lengthy deliberations before the fundamental alterations were finally agreed on, and the Fellows of the College acknowledged their appreciation of his services by retaining him in office for an extra year, when for the first time the election of the President was vested in the Fellows instead of eight "Elects". Mayo wrote many papers on mental disease and its relation to jurisprudence.

Contents:
By George Richmond,
Head only, three-quarters to the right; almost bald on the crown, mutton-chop whiskers, dark eyebrows; signed at the bottom on the left; G. Richmond delt.
Drawn, according to Richmond's diary, in 1862.

Bibliography: Annals, 29 July 1880: 1900 List; 1926 Catalogue; copy of Richmond's Ms. Diary in the National Portrait Gallery.


Richard Mead 1673-1754 F. 1716  Portrait/X75  c. 1740

Oils on canvas, 50 by 39¾ inches

Source of acquisition: Presented in 1759 by Dr. Charles Chauncey



Related information: The iconography of Mead, a large subject, has not yet been fully investigated. Mead had an international reputation not only as a physician, but as a patron and collector of the fine arts. *Portraits at present known include one by Dahl (exhidited at the National Portrait Exhibition, 1867-381; drawings by Richardson (British Mueseum) and a painting by him (National Portrait Gallery); a three-quarter length attributed to Ramsey in the National Portraits Gallery, and a similar portrait in the Bodleian Library; a whole length by the same artist, in the Foundling Hospital, London, was engraved by Baron (not, as previously stated, similar to the College portrait, no. 1). Vertue also mentions portraits by Kneller in the Doctor's own collection.
* See Whitley, Artists and their Friends in England, 1928, I, pp. 28/30.

Administrative history:
Richard Mead, the son of a well-known nonconformist minister, was born in London. He studied classics and philosophy and in 1692 moved to Leyden, where he studied medicine for three years. Boerhaave was also a student there and Mead remained friendly with him all his life. Early in 1695 he travelled in Italy and on his return to England he settled at Stepney in the house where he was born. His father made use of every possible opportunity to advance his son, and some curious anecdotes are recorded of his efforts in this direction, even from the pulpit.
Dr. Mead's Mechanical Account of Poisons was received with great acclaim and at once established his reputation. He was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society and physician to St. Thomas's Hospital.
On the death of Dr. Radcliffe in 1715, Mead moved to his house in Bloomsbury Square. He succeeded to much of Radcliffe's practice and resigned his office at St. Thomas's Hospital. On the accession of George II, Mead became his physician-in-ordinary, and in practice he was without a rival; his average income for several years amounted to between six and seven thousand pounds, an enormous sum in relation to the value of money at that time. People were so eager to obtain his opinion that he went every day to a coffee-house in the City and to another in the West End to receive written or oral statements from the apothecaries, and to deliver his decisions. Nevertheless, "his gratuitous advice was ever open, not merely to the indigent, but also to the clergy, and to all men of learning".*
He was a keen collector of books, statues, medals, and other things, and he allowed anyone who wished to do so to examine and enjoy them in the gallery he built for them in his house in Great Ormond Street. The printed catalogue of his library contains 6,592 separate entries; rare and ancient works were to be found there and included very many Oriental, Greek, and Latin manuscripts. His collection of statues, coins, gems, prints, and drawings could not be rivalled by any private collector. Several scholars and artists worked at his expense for the benefit of the public.
Mead was in correspondence with all the principal literary men of Europe. His charity and his hospitality were unbounded, and at his table he entertained the most eminent men of the age, both natives and foreigners. It was Mead who persuaded the wealthy citizen Thomas Guy to bequeath his fortune to found the hospital which bears his name.
* Dr. Bisset Hawkins, Lives of British Physicians, p. 155.

Contents:
Artist unknown,
Three-quarter length, seated; one finger of his right hand inserted in the leaves of a book on the edge of a table; whitish full wig, falling to the shoulders; grey eyes; rich brown velvet coat with dull gold buttons; on the table three volumes, of Galen, Hippocrates and Celsus, with a paper inscribed to Dr. Mead; in the left background the head and shoulders of a figure of Minerva, with a crested helmet, holding a plaque on which in low relief is the head of Harvey, with the inscription: G. Harveius; remainder of the background dark brown.
Attributed with a query to Allan Ramsay in the 1926 Catalogue, but not from his hand; painted about 1740. The style is very close to that of William Hoare.

Bibliography: Annals, 25 June 1759; 1864 Catalogue, p. 20; Roll, III, 398; 1900 List; 1926 Catalogue


Richard Mead 1673-1754 F. 1716  Portrait/X98  c. 1739

Oils on canvas, 24¼ by 20 inches


Related information: The iconography of Mead, a large subject, has not yet been fully investigated. Mead had an international reputation not only as a physician, but as a patron and collector of the fine arts. *Portraits at present known include one by Dahl (exhidited at the National Portrait Exhibition, 1867-381; drawings by Richardson (British Mueseum) and a painting by him (National Portrait Gallery); a three-quarter length attributed to Ramsey in the National Portraits Gallery, and a similar portrait in the Bodleian Library; a whole length by the same artist, in the Foundling Hospital, London, was engraved by Baron (not, as previously stated, similar to the College portrait, no. 1). Vertue also mentions portraits by Kneller in the Doctor's own collection.
* See Whitley, Artists and their Friends in England, 1928, I, pp. 28/30.

Administrative history:
Richard Mead, the son of a well-known nonconformist minister, was born in London. He studied classics and philosophy and in 1692 moved to Leyden, where he studied medicine for three years. Boerhaave was also a student there and Mead remained friendly with him all his life. Early in 1695 he travelled in Italy and on his return to England he settled at Stepney in the house where he was born. His father made use of every possible opportunity to advance his son, and some curious anecdotes are recorded of his efforts in this direction, even from the pulpit.
Dr. Mead's Mechanical Account of Poisons was received with great acclaim and at once established his reputation. He was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society and physician to St. Thomas's Hospital.
On the death of Dr. Radcliffe in 1715, Mead moved to his house in Bloomsbury Square. He succeeded to much of Radcliffe's practice and resigned his office at St. Thomas's Hospital. On the accession of George II, Mead became his physician-in-ordinary, and in practice he was without a rival; his average income for several years amounted to between six and seven thousand pounds, an enormous sum in relation to the value of money at that time. People were so eager to obtain his opinion that he went every day to a coffee-house in the City and to another in the West End to receive written or oral statements from the apothecaries, and to deliver his decisions. Nevertheless, "his gratuitous advice was ever open, not merely to the indigent, but also to the clergy, and to all men of learning".*
He was a keen collector of books, statues, medals, and other things, and he allowed anyone who wished to do so to examine and enjoy them in the gallery he built for them in his house in Great Ormond Street. The printed catalogue of his library contains 6,592 separate entries; rare and ancient works were to be found there and included very many Oriental, Greek, and Latin manuscripts. His collection of statues, coins, gems, prints, and drawings could not be rivalled by any private collector. Several scholars and artists worked at his expense for the benefit of the public.
Mead was in correspondence with all the principal literary men of Europe. His charity and his hospitality were unbounded, and at his table he entertained the most eminent men of the age, both natives and foreigners. It was Mead who persuaded the wealthy citizen Thomas Guy to bequeath his fortune to found the hospital which bears his name.
* Dr. Bisset Hawkins, Lives of British Physicians, p. 155.

Contents:
By Arthur Pond,
Head and shoulders in profile to left; close-cropped grey hair, grey eyes; dark coat; plain dark brown background.

Richard Mead 1673-1754 F. 1716  Portrait/X112  n.d

Oils on canvas, 25 by 20 inches

Source of acquisition: ?1836 - 37



Related information: The iconography of Mead, a large subject, has not yet been fully investigated. Mead had an international reputation not only as a physician, but as a patron and collector of the fine arts. *Portraits at present known include one by Dahl (exhidited at the National Portrait Exhibition, 1867-381; drawings by Richardson (British Mueseum) and a painting by him (National Portrait Gallery); a three-quarter length attributed to Ramsey in the National Portraits Gallery, and a similar portrait in the Bodleian Library; a whole length by the same artist, in the Foundling Hospital, London, was engraved by Baron (not, as previously stated, similar to the College portrait, no. 1). Vertue also mentions portraits by Kneller in the Doctor's own collection.
* See Whitley, Artists and their Friends in England, 1928, I, pp. 28/30.

Administrative history:
Richard Mead, the son of a well-known nonconformist minister, was born in London. He studied classics and philosophy and in 1692 moved to Leyden, where he studied medicine for three years. Boerhaave was also a student there and Mead remained friendly with him all his life. Early in 1695 he travelled in Italy and on his return to England he settled at Stepney in the house where he was born. His father made use of every possible opportunity to advance his son, and some curious anecdotes are recorded of his efforts in this direction, even from the pulpit.
Dr. Mead's Mechanical Account of Poisons was received with great acclaim and at once established his reputation. He was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society and physician to St. Thomas's Hospital.
On the death of Dr. Radcliffe in 1715, Mead moved to his house in Bloomsbury Square. He succeeded to much of Radcliffe's practice and resigned his office at St. Thomas's Hospital. On the accession of George II, Mead became his physician-in-ordinary, and in practice he was without a rival; his average income for several years amounted to between six and seven thousand pounds, an enormous sum in relation to the value of money at that time. People were so eager to obtain his opinion that he went every day to a coffee-house in the City and to another in the West End to receive written or oral statements from the apothecaries, and to deliver his decisions. Nevertheless, "his gratuitous advice was ever open, not merely to the indigent, but also to the clergy, and to all men of learning".*
He was a keen collector of books, statues, medals, and other things, and he allowed anyone who wished to do so to examine and enjoy them in the gallery he built for them in his house in Great Ormond Street. The printed catalogue of his library contains 6,592 separate entries; rare and ancient works were to be found there and included very many Oriental, Greek, and Latin manuscripts. His collection of statues, coins, gems, prints, and drawings could not be rivalled by any private collector. Several scholars and artists worked at his expense for the benefit of the public.
Mead was in correspondence with all the principal literary men of Europe. His charity and his hospitality were unbounded, and at his table he entertained the most eminent men of the age, both natives and foreigners. It was Mead who persuaded the wealthy citizen Thomas Guy to bequeath his fortune to found the hospital which bears his name.
* Dr. Bisset Hawkins, Lives of British Physicians, p. 155.

Contents:
By (?) Arthur Pond
Extremely similar to no. 2-X98; it is however slightly different in size; it has gold embroidery on the collar, a pronounced lightening of the background round the head, and is inscribed at the top right in small white letters: Dr. Mead. 1743.
The two pictures described above were presented within a year of each other; one, in 1836 by Mrs. Pelham Warren, the other in 1837 by Mr. Bayford; it is no longer clear which is which. No. 2-X98 is probably by Pond, no. 3-X112 possibly a replica painted by him a little later; an etching by Pond, signed Arth. Pond fecit 1739 and inscribed Non sibi sed toti, corresponds closely to no. 2, and the type has also been engraved in mezzotint by T. Hodgetts. The portrait is said to have been the subject of some disagreement: Vertue gives the following account of it: "A print of Dr. Mead. a profil. drawn and etchd by Mr. Pond in the manner of Rinebrandt very like the Doctor but when done, being in short ruff-hair--no wig etc. the Doctor particularly desired Mr. Pond to suppress it, that it might not be sold to anyone, nor seen, nay would have had the plate to destroy it. from whence this proceeded the Dr. would not give any answer nor reason one may easily guess, that it appears like an old mumper, as Rhimebrandts heads usually do. such kind of works give pleasure to Virtuosi but not to the Publick Eye. of the nice part of human nature (& modish people) and it is not the true characteristic of a fine gentleman as Dr. Mead alwayes appears, therefore in pictures it is a false character--and debasses the Idea of a polite person--or any person now, that puts of a fair wig--and wears his own hair. tho' formerly before wigs were wore, did look well now will not be so well lookt on. as several has tryd..." Mead does not appear to have been successful in suppressing Pond's print, and it is a reasonable guess that Richardson's etching of him, also dated 1739 but fully wigged, was issued as a counter-blast.

Bibliography: Annals, 19 April 1836, 20 March 1837; 1864 Catalogue, pp. 15, 19; Roll, III, 398; 1900 List; 1926 Catalogue; Vertue, Notebooks, Walpole Society, vol. XXII (1933/34), pp. 125/26; W. T. Whitley, Artists and their Friends in England, 1928, I, pp. 29/30.


Richard Mead 1673-1754 F. 1716  Portrait/X235  1726

Miniature, 31/8 and 2½ inches (oval)

Source of acquisition: Presented in 1871 by Sir William Fergusson; From the collection of Dr. William George.



Related information: The iconography of Mead, a large subject, has not yet been fully investigated. Mead had an international reputation not only as a physician, but as a patron and collector of the fine arts. *Portraits at present known include one by Dahl (exhidited at the National Portrait Exhibition, 1867-381; drawings by Richardson (British Mueseum) and a painting by him (National Portrait Gallery); a three-quarter length attributed to Ramsey in the National Portraits Gallery, and a similar portrait in the Bodleian Library; a whole length by the same artist, in the Foundling Hospital, London, was engraved by Baron (not, as previously stated, similar to the College portrait, no. 1). Vertue also mentions portraits by Kneller in the Doctor's own collection.
* See Whitley, Artists and their Friends in England, 1928, I, pp. 28/30.

Administrative history:
Richard Mead, the son of a well-known nonconformist minister, was born in London. He studied classics and philosophy and in 1692 moved to Leyden, where he studied medicine for three years. Boerhaave was also a student there and Mead remained friendly with him all his life. Early in 1695 he travelled in Italy and on his return to England he settled at Stepney in the house where he was born. His father made use of every possible opportunity to advance his son, and some curious anecdotes are recorded of his efforts in this direction, even from the pulpit.
Dr. Mead's Mechanical Account of Poisons was received with great acclaim and at once established his reputation. He was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society and physician to St. Thomas's Hospital.
On the death of Dr. Radcliffe in 1715, Mead moved to his house in Bloomsbury Square. He succeeded to much of Radcliffe's practice and resigned his office at St. Thomas's Hospital. On the accession of George II, Mead became his physician-in-ordinary, and in practice he was without a rival; his average income for several years amounted to between six and seven thousand pounds, an enormous sum in relation to the value of money at that time. People were so eager to obtain his opinion that he went every day to a coffee-house in the City and to another in the West End to receive written or oral statements from the apothecaries, and to deliver his decisions. Nevertheless, "his gratuitous advice was ever open, not merely to the indigent, but also to the clergy, and to all men of learning".*
He was a keen collector of books, statues, medals, and other things, and he allowed anyone who wished to do so to examine and enjoy them in the gallery he built for them in his house in Great Ormond Street. The printed catalogue of his library contains 6,592 separate entries; rare and ancient works were to be found there and included very many Oriental, Greek, and Latin manuscripts. His collection of statues, coins, gems, prints, and drawings could not be rivalled by any private collector. Several scholars and artists worked at his expense for the benefit of the public.
Mead was in correspondence with all the principal literary men of Europe. His charity and his hospitality were unbounded, and at his table he entertained the most eminent men of the age, both natives and foreigners. It was Mead who persuaded the wealthy citizen Thomas Guy to bequeath his fortune to found the hospital which bears his name.
* Dr. Bisset Hawkins, Lives of British Physicians, p. 155.

Contents:
By Bernard Lens,
Half length to right; brown wig, mauve velvet coat; brown background; signed with monogram in gold, on the right: BL/1726. The paint is badly rubbed, in the face and the wig.

Bibliography: Annals, 3 April 1871; als. from the donor, January 1871 (2); 12 February 1874; Roll,III, 398; 1900 List; 1926 Catalogue.


Richard Mead 1673-1754 F. 1716  Portrait/X307  1725

Wash drawing, 8¾ by 6 inches

Source of acquisition: Given by Charles Theodore Williams, date of acquisition unknown.



Related information: The iconography of Mead, a large subject, has not yet been fully investigated. Mead had an international reputation not only as a physician, but as a patron and collector of the fine arts. *Portraits at present known include one by Dahl (exhidited at the National Portrait Exhibition, 1867-381; drawings by Richardson (British Mueseum) and a painting by him (National Portrait Gallery); a three-quarter length attributed to Ramsey in the National Portraits Gallery, and a similar portrait in the Bodleian Library; a whole length by the same artist, in the Foundling Hospital, London, was engraved by Baron (not, as previously stated, similar to the College portrait, no. 1). Vertue also mentions portraits by Kneller in the Doctor's own collection.
* See Whitley, Artists and their Friends in England, 1928, I, pp. 28/30.

Administrative history:
Richard Mead, the son of a well-known nonconformist minister, was born in London. He studied classics and philosophy and in 1692 moved to Leyden, where he studied medicine for three years. Boerhaave was also a student there and Mead remained friendly with him all his life. Early in 1695 he travelled in Italy and on his return to England he settled at Stepney in the house where he was born. His father made use of every possible opportunity to advance his son, and some curious anecdotes are recorded of his efforts in this direction, even from the pulpit.
Dr. Mead's Mechanical Account of Poisons was received with great acclaim and at once established his reputation. He was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society and physician to St. Thomas's Hospital.
On the death of Dr. Radcliffe in 1715, Mead moved to his house in Bloomsbury Square. He succeeded to much of Radcliffe's practice and resigned his office at St. Thomas's Hospital. On the accession of George II, Mead became his physician-in-ordinary, and in practice he was without a rival; his average income for several years amounted to between six and seven thousand pounds, an enormous sum in relation to the value of money at that time. People were so eager to obtain his opinion that he went every day to a coffee-house in the City and to another in the West End to receive written or oral statements from the apothecaries, and to deliver his decisions. Nevertheless, "his gratuitous advice was ever open, not merely to the indigent, but also to the clergy, and to all men of learning".*
He was a keen collector of books, statues, medals, and other things, and he allowed anyone who wished to do so to examine and enjoy them in the gallery he built for them in his house in Great Ormond Street. The printed catalogue of his library contains 6,592 separate entries; rare and ancient works were to be found there and included very many Oriental, Greek, and Latin manuscripts. His collection of statues, coins, gems, prints, and drawings could not be rivalled by any private collector. Several scholars and artists worked at his expense for the benefit of the public.
Mead was in correspondence with all the principal literary men of Europe. His charity and his hospitality were unbounded, and at his table he entertained the most eminent men of the age, both natives and foreigners. It was Mead who persuaded the wealthy citizen Thomas Guy to bequeath his fortune to found the hospital which bears his name.
* Dr. Bisset Hawkins, Lives of British Physicians, p. 155.

Contents:
By Dr. William Stukeley,
Head and shoulders to left wearing wig, cravat and loose cloak. The mount inscribed: Dr. Mead. By Wm. Stukeley, M.D. 1725.

Richard Mead 1673-1754 F. 1716  Portrait/X96  n.d

Marble bust, with circular socle, 27½ inches high

Archival history:
Roubiliac is said to have agreed to sculpt the bust for £50; Askew was so pleased with the result that he offered £100 for it, only to receive a bill for £108. 2. 0. George Edwardes commended it for its presentation of Mead's "real features". A terracotta model for the marble is in the British Museum. Exhibited Royal Academy (Old Masters) 1873.

Source of acquisition: Presented in 1756 by Dr. Askew; commissioned by him after Mead's death.



Related information: The iconography of Mead, a large subject, has not yet been fully investigated. Mead had an international reputation not only as a physician, but as a patron and collector of the fine arts. *Portraits at present known include one by Dahl (exhidited at the National Portrait Exhibition, 1867-381; drawings by Richardson (British Mueseum) and a painting by him (National Portrait Gallery); a three-quarter length attributed to Ramsey in the National Portraits Gallery, and a similar portrait in the Bodleian Library; a whole length by the same artist, in the Foundling Hospital, London, was engraved by Baron (not, as previously stated, similar to the College portrait, no. 1). Vertue also mentions portraits by Kneller in the Doctor's own collection.
* See Whitley, Artists and their Friends in England, 1928, I, pp. 28/30.

Administrative history:
Richard Mead, the son of a well-known nonconformist minister, was born in London. He studied classics and philosophy and in 1692 moved to Leyden, where he studied medicine for three years. Boerhaave was also a student there and Mead remained friendly with him all his life. Early in 1695 he travelled in Italy and on his return to England he settled at Stepney in the house where he was born. His father made use of every possible opportunity to advance his son, and some curious anecdotes are recorded of his efforts in this direction, even from the pulpit.
Dr. Mead's Mechanical Account of Poisons was received with great acclaim and at once established his reputation. He was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society and physician to St. Thomas's Hospital.
On the death of Dr. Radcliffe in 1715, Mead moved to his house in Bloomsbury Square. He succeeded to much of Radcliffe's practice and resigned his office at St. Thomas's Hospital. On the accession of George II, Mead became his physician-in-ordinary, and in practice he was without a rival; his average income for several years amounted to between six and seven thousand pounds, an enormous sum in relation to the value of money at that time. People were so eager to obtain his opinion that he went every day to a coffee-house in the City and to another in the West End to receive written or oral statements from the apothecaries, and to deliver his decisions. Nevertheless, "his gratuitous advice was ever open, not merely to the indigent, but also to the clergy, and to all men of learning".*
He was a keen collector of books, statues, medals, and other things, and he allowed anyone who wished to do so to examine and enjoy them in the gallery he built for them in his house in Great Ormond Street. The printed catalogue of his library contains 6,592 separate entries; rare and ancient works were to be found there and included very many Oriental, Greek, and Latin manuscripts. His collection of statues, coins, gems, prints, and drawings could not be rivalled by any private collector. Several scholars and artists worked at his expense for the benefit of the public.
Mead was in correspondence with all the principal literary men of Europe. His charity and his hospitality were unbounded, and at his table he entertained the most eminent men of the age, both natives and foreigners. It was Mead who persuaded the wealthy citizen Thomas Guy to bequeath his fortune to found the hospital which bears his name.
* Dr. Bisset Hawkins, Lives of British Physicians, p. 155.

Contents:
By Louis François Roubiliac
Drapery in the Roman style gathered to his left shoulder; wearing his own hair, cropped short and receding at the temples; inscribed at the back: RICARDUS MEAD/M.D.

Bibliography: Annals, 30 September 1756; 1864 Catalogue, p. 24; Roll, III, 404; 1900 List; 1926 Catalogue; K. A. Esdaile Roubiliac, 1928, pp. 103ff, III/12


Charles Lewis Meryon 1781-1877 F. 1821  Portrait/X378  c.1846

Oils on canvas, 24½ by 20 inches

Archival history:
Exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1846 (18); it belonged formerly to the sitter's daughter, Miss Eugenie Meryon.

Source of acquisition: Presented in 1890 by Lewis Meryon



Related information: A photograph of Dr. Meryon in old age is in the Print Room of the British Museum

Administrative history:
Charles Lewis Meryon was descended from a Huguenot family and was born at Rye, Sussex. He studied medicine at Oxford and in London, chiefly at St. Thomas's Hospital. He became medical attendant to Lady Hester Stanhope on her voyage to Sicily and the East. He set sail with Lady Hester early in 1810, and spent seven years travelling with her. Having seen her finally settled on Mount Lebanon, he returned to England to take his medical degrees at Oxford. At the end of a year or two, at Lady Hester's request Meryon returned to Syria, but at her own suggestion he again left her, for the last time, as he believed. But in 1827 he returned to Mount Lebanon yet again and remained there until 1838. After that he never again saw the extraordinary woman in whose service he had passed the best years of his life, and whose Memoirs he recorded.

Contents:
By Arminius Mayer,
Head and shoulders in a painted oval; very dark brown hair turning to grey; pale grey eyes; black silk cravat with twin jewelled pins linked by a thin gold chain; dark grey coat; dark brown background.

Bibliography: Annals, 30 January 1890; 1900 List; 1926 Catalogue ;al. from the donor,13 January 1890


Sir John Micklethwaite 1612-1682 F. 1643 P. 1676-1681  Portrait/X126  n.d

Oils on canvas, 54 by 42 inches; The paint is now obscured and rather damaged, but it is difficult to believe that it is Kneller

Archival history:
Exhibited at Leeds, 1868

Source of acquisition: Presented in 1682 by Sir Edmund King (ad veritatis imaginem effictam); Vertue, who noted it in the College about 1733, marked against his entry the date 1682 and Kneller's monogram


Administrative history:
John Micklethwaite was the son of the rector of Cherry Burton, Yorkshire. He studied at Leyden and graduated doctor of medicine at Padua in 1638. He was a man of great eminence and reputation in his profession, especially amongst the nobility and higher classes at court and in the city, but his piety and his charity to the poor were exemplary, and when he died he was widely mourned. He filled many offices at the College, including the Presidency between 1676 and 1681, and was one of the physicians to Charles II.

Contents:
By an unknown artist
Three-quarter length, seated in a dark crimson armchair; on the fore-edge of a book on the table: HIPPOCR..; long brown hair, blue grey eyes; broad plain white lawn bands, black gown; a gold ring on the little finger of his right hand; very dark brown background; inscribed at the top: Johannes. Micklethwaite. Eques. Auratus.

Bibliography: Annals, 30 September 1682; Hatton 1708; Vertue; 1864 Catalogue, p. 14; Roll, I, 237; III, 398; 1900 List; 1926 Catalogue.


Sir Thomas Millington 1628-1704 F. 1672 P. 1696-1704  Portrait/X276  c.1690-1700

Oil on canvas, 29½ by 24½ inches

Source of acquisition: Date and source of acquisition unknown; Hatton however records the portrait in the Censors' Room at Warwick Lane about 1708:the picture of Sir Tho. Millington curiously done at full le. in his habit of scarlet


Administrative history:
Thomas Millington was born at Newbury, Berkshire, and was educated at Cambridge and then at Oxford, where he became a Fellow of All Souls. When he was admitted into the College of Physicians he soon became its delight, as he was affable in conversation, firm in his friendships, diligent and happy in his practice, candid and open in consultations, and unusually eloquent in his public speeches. As President from 1696 until his death his behaviour was courteous, and firm without obstinacy; he thought always of the good of the College, which, by persuasion and his own generosity, he redeemed from the greatest part of a very heavy debt. He was made first physician to William and Mary, and afterwards to Queen Anne, a duty he performed with skill, care and affection.

Contents:
By an unknown artist,
Short half length; pale grey wig; blue eyes; plain white bands; dark coat with one button undone, almost hidden by his scarlet gown with white fur fringe; background very dark; inscribed at the top on the left: Thomas. Millington/Eques. Auratus. Cut down from a whole length. Painted c. 1690-1700.
Vertue also noted it, but wave no attribution. It has been wrongly attributed to Kneller; any attempt at attribution, in view of the damaged condition of the paint, must be very uncertain, Engraved in stipple by T. Woolnoth, 1807

Bibliography: Hatton, 1708; Vertue; 1864 Catalogue, p. 13; Roll, I, 363; III, 398; 1900 List; 1926 Catalogue.


Edward Thomas Monro 1790-1856 F. 1816  Portrait/X373  1856/7

Oil on canvas, 29¾ inches

Source of acquisition: Presented in 1857 by the artist, his son, Dr. Henry Monro


Administrative history:
A son of Thomas Monro, grandson of John Monro, and great-grandson of James Monro, all Fellows of the College, Edward devoted his life to the treatment of insanity, as physician to the Bethlem hospital. He was Treasurer of the College from 1845 to 1854.

Contents:
By Dr. Henry Monro and Mrs. Goodman
Short half length, seated; short brown hair flecked with white, very thin on the crown of the head; side-whiskers; blue eyes; white stock, scarlet gown (D.M. Oxon.) over his shoulders, black coat; brown background.
Painted, according to the donor, shortly after his father's death, by himself and Mrs. Goodman, and touched up by Richmond.

Bibliography: 1864 Catalogue, p. 17; Roll, III, 154, 198; 1900 list; 1926 Catalogue; ms, letters from the donor, 12 December 1870, 16 January 1874.


Henry Monro 1817-1891 F. 1848  Portrait/X374  c. 1870

Oils on canvas, 30 by 23½ inches

Source of acquisition: Presented in 1870 by the sitter and artist, Dr. Henry Monro; painted probably not long before that.


Administrative history:
Henry Monro, son of Edward Thomas Monro and grandson of Thomas Monro, was the fifth in succession of his family to become a doctor. All were Fellows of the College, and had a special interest in the treatment of insanity. He was educated at Harrow and at Oriel College, Oxford and then studied medicine at St. Bartholomew's Hospital. For many years he was associated with St. Luke's Hospital, and in 1864 he was elected president of the Medico-Psychological Association. Like his grandfather he was an amateur painter and he gave the College several portraits of his medical ancestors as well as his self-portrait.

Contents:
By himself
Short half length to right; black hair brushed back from the forehead, curly brown side-whiskers; clear brown eyes; white collar, black tie; scarlet robe over black coat; brown background; lit from the left.

Bibliography: Annals, 29 July 1870; 1900 List; 1926 Catalogue.


James Monro 1860-1752 F. 1729  Portrait/X375  1747

Oils on canvas, 29½ inches

Archival history:
Exhibited at the National Portrait Exhibition

Source of acquisition: Presented in 1857* by his great-great-grandson, Dr. Henry Monro
* The date of presentation of four of the Monro portraits is given first only in the 1900 List; this cannot be verified.


Administrative history:
Only son of Alexander Monro, principal of the University of Edinburgh and an ardent Stuart royalist whom William III preferred to keep under his eye in London, James Monro accompanied his father south in 1691 and subsequently entered Balliol College, Oxford, where he graduated B.M. in 1709 and D.M. in 1722.
This esteemed physician inspired his son John to write of him: " He was a man of admirable discernment, and treated this disease (insanity) with an address that will not soon be equalled. He knew very well that the management requisite for it was never to be learned but by observation; he was honest and sincere; and, though no man was more communicative upon points of real use, he never thought of reading lectures upon a subject that can be understood not otherwise than by personal observation: physic he honoured as a profession, but he despised it as a trade. However partial I may be to his memory, his friends acknowledge this to be true, and his enemies will not venture to deny it."

Contents:
By John Michael Williams,
Short half length; greyish white powdered wig; greyish brown eyes; white neckcloth, very dark brown collarless coat; plain very dark background; signed on the left by his shoulder in black: Jno Michl Will ..../ Fecit/ 1747.
Previously catalogued as artist unknown, the very faint signature not having been observed.

Bibliography: 1864 Catalogue, p. 16; Roll, II, 113; III, 399; 1900 List; 1926 Catalogue; al. from Dr. Henry Monro, 12 December 1870.


John Monro 1715-1791 F. 1753  Portrait/X376  1769

Oils on canvas, 29¾ by 25 inches

Archival history:
Exhibited at the National Portrait Exhibition, 1867; (596)

Source of acquisition: Presented in 1857 by his great-grandson, Dr. Henry Monro



Related information: Another portrait is recorded at Bethlem Hospital.

Administrative history:
John Monro was the eldest son of James Monro. He limited his practice exclusively to insanity, and is said to have attained greater eminence and success in its treatment than any of his contemporaries. In 1783, while he was still in full practice, he was attacked with paralysis. His strong constitution, however, enabled him to overcome the first effects of his illness and resume work, but his vigour of both mind and body began to decline from then on. In 1787 his son Dr. Thomas Monro was appointed his assistant in Bethlem Hospital, and he then gradually retired from practice.
Dr. Monro had an elegant taste for the fine arts and he formed a considerable collection of books and engravings. He studied carefully the early history of engraving, and the specimens he found of the works of the earlier engravers were select and curious. From these, as well as from the communications of Dr. Monro, Mr. Strutt derived great assistance in the preparation of his History of Engravers. Horace and Shakespeare were Monro's favourite authors; his great fondness for reading proved a considerable resource to him in his later life.

Contents:
By Nathaniel Dance,
Short half length in a painted oval; grey powdered wig, heavily curled at the sides; broad dark eyebrows, brown eyes; dark brown waistcoat and coat; plain brown background; signed on the left by his shoulder, in black: N. Dance/Pinxit Ano/1769.
Previously catalogued as artist unknown, the signature not having been observed.

Bibliography: 1864 Catalogue, p. 16; Roll, II, 183; III, 399; 1900 List; 1926 Catalogue; al. from Dr. Henry Monro, 12 December 1870.


Thomas Monro 1759-1833 F. 1791  Portrait/X372  c. 1810

Pastel, paper mounted on canvas, 30¼ by 25 inches

Source of acquisition: Presented in 1857 by his grandson, Dr. Henry Monro, to whom the portrait has been ascribed in previous catalogues. The true attribution (confirmed by a letter from the donor) is to Henry Monro, second son of the sitter and uncle of the donor



Related information: Another portrait of his father by the same artist, a pencil drawing, is in the National Portrait Gallery. See also under James Monro.
Thomas Monro, who was a considerable patron of artists including the young Turner, sat to Edridge for a portrait in oils (Royal Academy, 1808); this was copied by his grandson, Dr. Henry Monro. Other portraits of him exist.

Administrative history:
Thomas Monro was the youngest son of John Monro. He was also appointed physician to Bethlem Hospital, and was succeeded by his son Dr. Edward Thomas Monro. Towards the close of his life Dr. Monro became a great patron of the fine arts. He was one of the first to recognize the talents of the celebrated painter Turner, to whom he proved a warm and constant friend. The artist was a frequent visitor to Dr. Monro's house at Bushey, and the doctor possessed a large collection of the early works of his protégé.
* For an account of Monro and his circle, see C. E. Coode, Turner's First Patron, (in the Art Journal 1901, p. 133); A. K. Sabin, Notes on Dr. Monro and his Circle (Connoisseur, vol. XLIX (1917), p. 230).

Contents:
By Henry Monro the elder,
Short half length; his black doctor's hat held in his right hand; short grey hair brushed back; blue eyes; white bands, scarlet D.M. (Oxon.) gown; grey background.
Painted probably not long before the artist's death (1814)

Bibliography: 1864 Catalogue; Roll, III, 399; 1900 List; 1926 Catalogue; al. from Dr. Henry Monro, 12 December 1870.


Messenger Monsey 1693-1788 L. 1723  Portrait/X117  1764

Oils on canvas, 50 by 40 inches.

Archival history:
According to a letter from the donor, preserved by a copy in the Annals, the picture descended to his family from Mary Black, and, stating that the picture was painted in 1764, he quotes from a letter from the sitter to Mary Black, which was then in his possession and which he relates to this portrait "Sure I was bedevilled to let you make your first attempt upon my gracefull person. .. drawn like a Hog in armour, or a poor melancholy poet in a Garrett... as good luck would have it your father has taken it away to mend it or burn it". From the above it would seem that the painting, if not tirely by Thomas Black is likely to be partly by him; it is a remarkably ambitious and by no means unsuccessful attempt. Very little is known of either Thomas or Mary Black, but he seems to have been mainly employed painting draperies for more successful portrait painters; she painted copies mainly from the old masters.

Source of acquisition: Presented in 1877 by S. Frederick Walford.



Related information: A very rare mezzotint engraving exists (previously unrecorded, only one impression before letters is known).
Another portrait is recorded at Hackford Hall, Norfolk (Duleep Singh, Portraits in Norfolk Houses, 1927, I, p. 206), said to have been painted by Dance about 1780; a caricature sketch by Forster was engraved by J. Bromley, and a crayon portrait by Peter Pindar (John Wolcot) is in the Soane Museum, and is reproduced by R. W. Ketton-Cremer in an essay on Monsey (in Norfolk Portraits, 1944).

Administrative history:
Messenger Monsey was a medical oddity, but with considerable mental acuteness and literary endowments. In practice at Bury St. Edmunds, he might have remained an obscure country practitioner, his merits unrecognized beyond the locality, but for an accidental attendance on the Earl of Godolphin, when nature, or Monsey, was successful. The grateful earl procured for him an appointment at Chelsea Hospital, and ultimately left him a handsome legacy. From the rural circle he was suddenly transplanted into high society, with the Earls of Chesterfield and Bath, Sir Robert Walpole, and Garrick, as his companions and friends. Monsey, however, maintained his original plainness of manners, and with an unreserved sincerity sometimes spoke truth in a way that hurt; and as old age approached, he earned a reputation as a cynic and misanthropist. As a physician he despised modern improvements and stuck to the habits acquired in 60 years' experience. He left his body for dissection, contacting the anatomist a few days before death to warm him to be ready to proceed.

Contents:
By Mary and Thomas Black,
Almost whole length, seated in an armchair; his head resting on his right hand, his left hand drooping over the other arm of his chair, holding his steel-rimmed spectacles; an open book, turned face downwards, resting on his left knee; short powdered grey wig; blue-grey eyes; coat, waistcoat and breeches of pale oyster-grey satin; wrinkled white stockings; plain brown background.

Bibliography: Roll, 86; III, 399; Annals, 25 October 1877; 1900 List; 1926 Catalogue; J. P. Castro, in Notes and Queries, 17 July 1943, pp. 5¾ (notes on Mary and Thomas Black; this should be supplemented by a rare pamphlet by F. J. G. Walford, A Short Memoir of Miss Mary Black, Artist, 1876--B. M. Press Mark 10803 b. 1 (6)).


John Moore 1729-1802  Portrait/X020T  1794

Pencil on paper, 97/10 by 7½ inches

Source of acquisition: Bought 1940; from the collection of the artist's great-grand-daughter, Miss M. Dance.



Related information: A copy, either by Dance himself or by William Daniell, from the original drawing, signed and dated July 10 1794, now the National Portrait Gallery.
The best known portrait of Dr. Moore is that by Lawrence engraved in mezzotint by Keating, 1794 (Scottish National Portrait Gallery) painted about 1791. He also appears in a group, painted by Gavin Hamilton, in the collection of the Duke of Hamilton, together with his son, the general Sir John Moore, and the Duke of Hamilton. There are also portraits by Cochrane (engraved by J. Cochran), and by Samuel Drummond. (See Muirhead Little, "Dr. John Moore", British Medical Journal, 21 September 1928.)

Administrative history:
John Moore, physician and man of letters, was born in Stirling. He was educated at Glasgow University and was apprenticed to the Glasgow surgeon John Gordon, who also taught Smollett. Moore served as a surgeon in the war in the Netherlands, reverting to his medical studies after the declaration of peace. He attended William Hunter's lectures and studied in the Paris hospitals. Returning to Glasgow, he set up in practice in partnership with Gordon, and later with Hamilton, the professor of anatomy. A firm friendship grew up with the young eighth Duke of Hamilton, whom Moore was attending, and in 1772 he accompanied the Duke on a tour of the Continent, during which they visited Voltaire at Ferney and met Frederick the Great.
Moore's literary side showed itself in his accounts of his travels; his A View of Society and Manners in France, Switzerland and Germany appeared in 1779 and a second volume on Italy followed two years later. These works established his reputation as a writer and he began to mix with famous literary people, including Dr. Johnson, and to correspond with Burns. Smollett was another of Moore's friends and Moore wrote a study of the man and his works. In 1786 Moore's first novel, Zuleco, appeared, which recounted the career of a villainous Sicilian. It was immensely successful, but his second and third novels, intended to show the admirable side of human nature, were altogether more lifeless and dull. In 1792 he visited France again, where he witnessed the upheavals of the French Revolution. He published an account of these events which was often quoted by Carlyle in his French Revolution.
Moore was a wise and successful physician; he was universally liked, having a zest for good company and good literature and a great delight in observation of life.

Contents:
By (?) George Dance,
Half length, seated to left in profile; inscribed in pencil: Dr. Moore.
The College copy was made for the purposes of a soft-ground etching by Daniell, published in 1808, and in Dance's Collection of Portraits, I, 1814.

Sir Norman Moore, Bt. 1847-1922 F. 1877 P. 1918-1922  Portrait/X101  n.d

Oils on canvas, 43¾ by 29 inches

Source of acquisition: A replica or variant of the portrait exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1913. Presented by Lady Moore, 1930.


Administrative history:
Norman Moore was born at Higher Broughton, near Manchester, and educated at Owens College and St. Catharine's College, Cambridge. He graduated in natural sciences in 1869 and went on to St. Bartholomew's Hospital for his clinical studies. He was closely connected with the Hospital for the rest of his life and in 1918 published his History of St. Bartholomew's Hospital, which had taken him thirty years to write in his spare time.
Moore also held many offices in the Royal College of Physicians. He belonged to the Committee of Management which first planned and directed the Conjoint Board examination, and he represented the College on the General Medical Council from 1901 to 1922. He was President of the College from 1918 until 1922, and was made a baronet in 1919.
An able physician, pathologist and teacher, Moore's learning was very wide and he contributed 468 lives to the Dictionary of National Biography. He was a man of much charm and sympathy who had many friends in all walks of life.

Contents:
By Reginald Grenville Eves
Three-quarter length, seated, a book in his left hand; round black velvet doctor's cap; light blue eyes; grey hair, indication of a stubbly board and moustache; black tie, scarlet silk gown (M.D. Cambridge) with the light blue lining showing at wrists and neck; brown back-ground; signed at the top on the right: R. G. Eves.

Bibliography: Annals, 14 April 1930.


Sir Norman Moore, Bt. 1847-1922 F. 1877 P. 1918-1922  Portrait/X189  1922

Oils on canvas, 50 by 40 inches

Archival history:
Exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1922 (203).

Source of acquisition: Presented in 1922 by Lady Moore


Administrative history:
Norman Moore was born at Higher Broughton, near Manchester, and educated at Owens College and St. Catharine's College, Cambridge. He graduated in natural sciences in 1869 and went on to St. Bartholomew's Hospital for his clinical studies. He was closely connected with the Hospital for the rest of his life and in 1918 published his History of St. Bartholomew's Hospital, which had taken him thirty years to write in his spare time.
Moore also held many offices in the Royal College of Physicians. He belonged to the Committee of Management which first planned and directed the Conjoint Board examination, and he represented the College on the General Medical Council from 1901 to 1922. He was President of the College from 1918 until 1922, and was made a baronet in 1919.
An able physician, pathologist and teacher, Moore's learning was very wide and he contributed 468 lives to the Dictionary of National Biography. He was a man of much charm and sympathy who had many friends in all walks of life.

Contents:
By Sir Walter Russell,
Three-quarter length, seated in a red square-backed armchair; thin greyish-brown hair, short white whiskers and beard, pale blue eyes, florid complexion; black tie, black suit; wearing the President's gown of black heavily braided with gold; a brown curtain in the background; signed at the bottom on the right: W. Russell.

Bibliography: 1926 Catalogue; Royal Academy Illustrated 1922, p. 26 (reproduction).


Richard Morton 1637-1698 F. 1678  Portrait/X278  c. 1692

Oil on canvas, 29½ by 24½ inches

Source of acquisition: Acquired apparently between 1900 and 1926; provenance unknown



Related information: The painter Orchard is of great rarity, though another portrait by him of Dr. Hawkins, 1682, is at St. John's College, Cambridge.

Administrative history:
Richard Morton, son of a clergyman, was born in Suffolk. Although at one time chaplain of New College, Oxford, he became a nonconformist, and after the restoration of Charles II found it advisable to abandon his profession of divinity and adopt that of medicine. Morton was one of four Fellows of the College whose names were omitted by the Charter of James II in 1686, but he was restored to his position in 1689 on the recommendation of a committee of old and new Fellows who had been chosen to resolve the difficulties produced by that Charter.

Contents:
By B. Orchard(?),
Head and shoulders in a painted oval; long light brown wig; brownish-grey eyes; lace cravat, tied; black coat with gold buttons, and gold embroidery on the arms; dark brown background; lit from the left.
The attribution is based on the similar engraving by W. Elder, inscribed as being from the picture by B. Orchard

William Munk 1816-1898 F. 1854  Portrait/X32  1898

Oils on canvas, 35¾ by 28 inches

Source of acquisition: Presented in 1898 by the Fellows of the College.


Administrative history:
William Munk was born at Battle, Sussex, where his father was an ironmonger.
He studied at University College, London and at Leyden University, becoming a doctor of medicine in 1837. He obtained various hospital appointments in London and was physician to the Smallpox Hospital from 1853 to 1893. He was regarded as an authority on smallpox in his day, and his plea for the wider use of narcotics and analgesics for the relief of pain attracted much attention.
Munk is of course chiefly remembered as a historian. He was Harveian Librarian at the Royal College of Physicians from 1857 until his death, and in 1861 the first edition of his Roll of the Royal College of Physicians appeared in two volumes. This gave biographical details of the Fellows and Licentiates of the College from its foundation by Linacre in 1518 to the end of the eighteenth century. The second edition appeared in 1878, in three volumes, and brought the record up to 1825, the year the College moved from Warwick Lane to Pall Mall East. It is mainly from these volumes, and a fourth compiled by G. H. Brown and published in 1955, that the biographical information in this catalogue has been obtained.
Munk edited The Gold-Headed Cane (1884), the "memoirs" of a cane carried by Radcliffe, Mead, Askew, the Pitcairns and Baillie, and now kept in the College; the original book was written in 1827 by William MacMichael, Registrar of the College. Munk also wrote the lives of Sir Henry Halford and J. A. Paris, two former presidents, and a book on Euthanasia (1887).

Contents:
By the Hon. John Collier,
Short three-quarter length, seated, holding a volume of his Roll of the College, with its spine towards the spectator; thin greyish brown hair, grey eyes; white wing-collar, black bow tie, white shirt, black suit; gold rings on the little finger of each hand; on the table the other two volumes of the Roll; background, pale brown; signed at the bottom on the right: John Collier 1898.

Bibliography: Annals, 28 July 1898; 1900 List; 1926 Catalogue; D.N.B.


Sir William Osler, Bt. 1849-1919 F. 1883  Portrait/X140  1960

Oils on canvas, 46 by 36 inches

Source of acquisition: Commissioned by the College in 1960. The sitter described the original as "not quite so mediaeval as Sargent's" (H. Cushing, Life of Sir William Osler, 1925, vol. II, p. 151, q.v. for other portraits of Osler).


Administrative history:
The Rev. Featherston L. Osler emigrated to Canada from Falmouth and his sixth son, William, was born at Bond Head, Ontario. William Osler began to study medicine at Toronto University and graduated from McGill University, Montreal, in 1872. He made a long tour of European medical centres, including fifteen months in the physiological laboratory of University College, London. On his return to Montreal he was made professor of the institutes of medicine at McGill, when he was only twenty-five, and he became physician to the Montreal General Hospital in 1878. In 1884 he was invited to be professor of medicine in the University of Pennsylvania, and five years later he was made the first professor of medicine at Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, and physician to the Johns Hopkins Hospital.
Osler spent fifteen years at Baltimore, where he had the chance to organize the new medical school. In it he combined the bedside instruction of the English method and the co-ordination of wards and laboratories of the German, a revolution in the teaching of medicine in North America. In 1892 he published The Principles and Practice of Medicine, the first textbook to include the changes in classification of disease that had been made possible by advances in bacteriology. Many translations were made and the book reached a sixteenth edition in 1947.
In 1904 he gave up the demands of his work at Johns Hopkins and of a widespread practice to become Regius professor of medicine at Oxford, where he remained until his death. He enjoyed the comparative calm and long traditions of Oxford, but still had the energy to expand the departments of pathology and physiology and increase the facilities for clinical instruction at the Medical School and the Radcliffe Infirmary.
In Oxford a childhood love of books re-emerged with great enthusiasm and he became curator of the Bodleian Library and a delegate to the Clarendon Press. His later books had a wide appeal, such as Aequanimitas (1904). An Alabama Student (1908), Man's Redemption of Man (1910) and A Way of Life (1913).
Osler received many honours from universities and learned societies and was made a baronet in 1911. At his death the Lancet described him as "the greatest personality in the medical world". His colleagues and his pupils loved and respected him for his modesty, humour and humanity, as well as for his inspiring achievements in three countries. He was married to a great-grand-daughter of Paul Revere, of the famous midnight ride.

Contents:
Copy by Joyce Aris (1960) after Stephen Seymour Thomas (1908)
Almost whole length; seated, in a black suit, holding spectacles in his right hand, and a book in his left; books, papers and inkstand on a table to the left; a picture hanging on the wall behind.
A Copy from the painting by Thomas, 1908, belonging to Christ Church, Oxford.

John Ayrton Paris 1785-1856 F. 1814 P. 1844-1856  Portrait/X264  c. 1838

Oils on canvas, 50 by 40 inches

Archival history:
Exhibited at the Royal Academy, 1838 (1228); National Portrait Exhibition, 1868 (415)

Source of acquisition: Presented in 1857 by members of his family



Related information: Engraved in mezzotint by S. Bellin.

Administrative history:
Born and educated in Cambridge, John Paris took his degree as bachelor of medicine in 1808, and coming to London, gained the immediate interest and patronage of Dr. Maton. In 1809, the latter retiring as physician to Westminster Hospital, Paris was appointed in his place at the age of twenty-eight. Later he moved to Penzance where his progress was rapid and he became friendly with the leading families in the county. He returned to London in 1817 and soon became a most popular lecturer to crowded classes on materia medica.
His mind, disciplined by his university education and his deep study of chemistry, was extremely clear. His writings, however, are characterized by diffuseness, which perhaps adds to rather than detracts from the pleasure of reading them. His fantastic memory, conversational powers, quickness of repartee, and fund of anecdotes made him very popular in society.
In spite of the distractions of an increasing practice he devoted much of his time to chemistry and kept up with the rapid advances it was making. His name is not associated with any great discovery in chemistry, but the respect in which he was held by such people as Wollaston, Davy, Young, and others indicates the extent of his own attainments.
Dr. Paris was the inventor of the safety bar, a simple means of preventing the premature explosion of gunpowder in blasting rocks, which formerly caused many deaths in Cornish mines. "By this simple but admirable invention", said a writer in The Times, "Dr. Paris saved more lives than many heroes have destroyed."

Contents:
By Charles Skottowe,
Three-quarter length, seated in an armchair with crimson-figured upholstery; in his left hand a red book propped on his thigh; straight, dark brown hair, broad black eyebrows with grey eyes; white collar and shirt, black tie; black double-breasted coat; on the right a table, with an inkstand, some papers and a lamp; dark brown background.

Bibliography: Annals, 5 January 1857; 1864 Catalogue, p. 18; Roll, III, 120; 1900 List; 1926 Catalogue.


John Ayrton Paris 1785-1856 F. 1814 P. 1844-1856  Portrait/X266  n.d

Plaster cast, 31 inches high

Source of acquisition: Said to have been presented in 1837 (?1857) by members of his family. I have not been able to check the date of acquisition. The 1900 List, followed by the 1926 Catalogue, records a marble bust by Behnes, and a plaster cast from it. I cannot locate the marble. Munk (Roll) mentions only one "modelled in clay".



Related information: There has probably always been only the one plaster bust; previously said to have been by Behnes, it seems to have none of the characteristics of his work, and is more likely to relate to the bust by Jackson which is recorded in the Royal Academy exhibition of 1836 (1087; according to the D.N.B., subsequently with the Royal Cornwall Polytechnic Society, Falmouth.)
A later portrait by Pickersgill was shown at the Royal Academy in 1852; there is also a lithograph by W. Drummond after a drawing by E. H. Eddis (published in Athenaeum Portraits, 1836)

Administrative history:
Born and educated in Cambridge, John Paris took his degree as bachelor of medicine in 1808, and coming to London, gained the immediate interest and patronage of Dr. Maton. In 1809, the latter retiring as physician to Westminster Hospital, Paris was appointed in his place at the age of twenty-eight. Later he moved to Penzance where his progress was rapid and he became friendly with the leading families in the county. He returned to London in 1817 and soon became a most popular lecturer to crowded classes on materia medica.
His mind, disciplined by his university education and his deep study of chemistry, was extremely clear. His writings, however, are characterized by diffuseness, which perhaps adds to rather than detracts from the pleasure of reading them. His fantastic memory, conversational powers, quickness of repartee, and fund of anecdotes made him very popular in society.
In spite of the distractions of an increasing practice he devoted much of his time to chemistry and kept up with the rapid advances it was making. His name is not associated with any great discovery in chemistry, but the respect in which he was held by such people as Wollaston, Davy, Young, and others indicates the extent of his own attainments.
Dr. Paris was the inventor of the safety bar, a simple means of preventing the premature explosion of gunpowder in blasting rocks, which formerly caused many deaths in Cornish mines. "By this simple but admirable invention", said a writer in The Times, "Dr. Paris saved more lives than many heroes have destroyed."

Contents:
From a bust by Isaac Jackson (?)
Head turned towards the left; drapery round the shoulders crossed in front and open at the throat; short hair; clean-shaven; eyes (incised) looking towards the left; the base composed of three books lying flat, with another propped against them.

Bibliography: Roll, III, 104; 1900 List; 1926 Catalogue.


Joseph Frank Payne 1840-1910 F. 1873  Portrait/X308  n.d

Black chalk on millboard, 241/8 by 18¾ inches

Source of acquisition: Presented by the Fellows in 1910.


Administrative history:
Frank Payne was born in Camberwell. His father, Joseph Payne, was the first professor of education at the College of Preceptors, and he was educated under him at Leatherhead. He went to University College, London and then to Magdalen College, Oxford where he graduated with first-class honours, became a Fellow, and later won a scholarship in geology. He studied medicine at St. George's Hospital and in Paris, Berlin and Vienna, graduating as B.M. in 1867. He obtained posts first at St. Mary's Hospital and the Hospital for Sick Children, and then at St. Thomas's.
Payne's professional interests were in pathology, epidemiology, dermatology and the history of medicine. He visited Russia in 1879 to report on plague for the government and wrote articles on the subject in Allbutt's System of Medicine and other publications. He edited Jones and Sieveking's Manual of Pathological Anatomy in 1875 and his own Manual of General Pathology appeared in 1888. He was President of the Dermatological Society in 1892-93 and wrote several papers on skin diseases. Medical history, however, became his main interest; he wrote lives of Linacre and of Sydenham and contributed numerous lives to the Dictionary of National Biography.
He was Harveian Librarian at the Royal College of Physicians from 1899 to 1910, when his expert practical knowledge of incunabula, first editions and bibliography was extremely useful. He made many gifts to the library from his private collection.
Payne edited the Nomenclature of Diseases in 1896, and from 1899 to 1904 he represented Oxford University on the General Medical Council. An erudite and lovable scholar, he was always modest and rarely put forward his opinion unless asked for it.

Contents:
By John Singer Sargent
Head and shoulders, the head slightly to the left; curly hair, full beard and moustache, bushy eyebrows, looking at the spectator; the background shaded in black round the head; lit from the right; signed at the bottom on the right: John S. Sargent.

Bibliography: Cash Book, 1910; Annals, 26 May 1910.


Thomas Pellett 1671?-1744 F. 1716 P. 1735-1739  Portrait/X135  1737

Oils on canvas, 50 by 40 inches

Archival history:
The history of the picture is not known; it was in the College by 1864, and was possibly painted originally for presentation to the College. Engraved in mezzotint by J. Faber the younger, 1739.


Related information: An engraving of 1781, by C. Hall, is said to be after a portrait by Hogarth.

Administrative history:
Thomas Pellett was born in Sussex. He graduated as bachelor of medicine in 1694 as a member of Queens' College, Cambridge, and proceeded to his M.D. Cambridge in 1705. In the interval he visited Italy with Dr. Mead, studied for a time at Padua, and then returned to England. He held many offices in the College between 1717 and 1741, and with Mr. Martin Folkes was joint-editor of Sir Isaac Newton's Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms, which appeared in 1728.

Contents:
By Michael Dahl,
Three-quarter length, seated; holding his round black hat, a large jewelled ring on the little finger of his right hand; crimson armchair; white wig; dark blue-grey eyes; white neck-cloth with long ends which are barred with gold; dark brown background, a pillar on the right; signed: M. Dahl Pinx./1737, above his left hand.

Bibliography: 1864 Catalogue, p. 13; Roll, II, 56, III, 399; 1900 List; 1926 Catalogue; W. Nisser, Michael Dahl (Upsala, 1927), List of Pictures Seen, no. 113 (wrongly as in the possession of the Society of Antiquaries). The signature has not been remarked before.


Henry Pierrepont, 1st Marquis of Dorchester 1606-1680 F. 1658  Portrait/X184  1691

Oils on canvas, oval, 29¾ by 25 inches

Archival history:
Payment of £6-5. to an unnamed copyist is recorded for this picture in 1691; the location of the original is unknown. An anonymous late engraving of the same type has the inscription from a Drawing in the Collection of T. Thompson Esq. Exhibited at the National Portrait Exhibition, 1866 (850).


Related information: No other portraits are recorded; Munk (Roll) and the 1864 Catalogue, followed by the Dictionary of National Biography, record a bust in the College, but evidently identified (wrongly) the bust of Hamey as being of Dorchester.

Administrative history:
The Marquis of Dorchester was a man of wide learning. In addition to medicine and anatomy he studied law in many of its branches, philosophy, mathematics and other subjects. Dr. Harvey and others invited him to be a member of the College of Physicians, to which he was very pleased to agree, and he was made a Fellow in 1658. He had great respect for the College and, being much concerned at the loss of the College's library in the Great Fire, left to it his own valuable collection worth over £4,000.
Dorchester was a little man with a very violent temper. He had to be pardoned for an assault committed within the precincts of Westminster Abbey during divine service. He had a quarrel with Lord Grandison from whom he received a beating. He and his son-in-law, Samuel Butler (who wrote under the name of Lord Roos), exchanged long and abusive letters which they published. He came to blows in public with the Duke of Buckingham in the Painted Chamber and ended with much of the Duke's hair in his hands to recompense him for having his own periwig pulled off when he could not reach high enough to pull off the other's. His pretences to universal knowledge exposed him to the ridicule of his contemporaries.

Contents:
By an unknown artist,
Head and shoulders; dark brown hair; high arched yellow-brown eyebrows and faint shading of moustache on the upper lip; bright dark grey eyes; black coat; inscribed in yellowish letters: Illustissimus [sic]. D.D./Henricus Marchio, (and below) Durnovariae.

Bibliography: Ms Accounts, Cash Book 1664-1726, 13 November 1691; 1864 Catalogue, p. 9; Roll, I, 281; III, 394; 1900 List; 1926 Catalogue; al. from Dr. Charleton, 11 November 1691.


David Pitcairn 1749-1809 F. 1785  Portrait/X115  c.1800

Oils on canvas, 30 by 25 inches

Source of acquisition: Bequeathed by his widow, Mrs. Elizabeth Pitcairn, 1844. Painted probably c. 1800. Engraved in line by T. Bragg.



Related information: A miniature copy in enamel seems to have been made in 1809 for the wife of his great friend Matthew Baillie (q.v.; also painted by Hoppner); Henry Bone's drawing for this copy is in the Library of the National Portrait Gallery.
A miniature by W. J. Thomson was exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1810 (635).

Administrative history:
David Pitcairn was born in Fifeshire, the son of an officer who was killed at the battle of Bunker Hill. David was educated in Edinburgh and Glasgow, and in 1773 was sent by his uncle, William Pitcairn, President of the College of Physicians, to Corpus Christi College, Cambridge, where he qualified in 1779 and proceeded M.D. in 1784. In London he was appointed physician to St. Bartholomew's Hospital and was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society.
David Pitcairn was extremely successful in practice. Other physicians may have commanded higher fees, but none was so frequently called on by his colleagues to give help in difficult cases. He was candid in his opinions and frankly acknowledged the limits of his confidence in the efficacy of medicine. He believed that the last thing a physician learns is to know when to do nothing, but to wait and allow nature and time to check the progress of disease and gradually to restore the strength and health of the patient.
His appearance was handsome, his manner simple, gentle and dignified, and he had a taste for the fine arts. His kindness of heart frequently led him to give more attention to his patients than a physician can normally give, and few men of his eminence can ever have treated so many patients without charge. His last years were marred by illness and he died of an inflammation of the larynx of a kind not previously reported.

Contents:
By John Hoppner
Short half length, seated to left in square-backed chair, his hands not seen; white curly hair; dark green velvet coat with high turn-down collar, gilt buttons; white frilled shirt; dark background.

Bibliography: Annals, 25 June 1844; 1864 Catalogue, p. 48; Roll, II, 353; III, 399; 1900 List; 1926 Catalogue; W. McKay and W. Roberts, John Hoppner, 1909, p. 204; als. from Rev. A. Campbell, 17 June 1844: from Sir John Campbell, 21 June 1844.


William Pitcairn 1711-1791 F. 1750 P.1775-1785  Portrait/X411  1777

Oils on canvas, 30 by 25 inches

Archival history:
Exhibited National Portrait Exhibition, 1868 (863). He sat for this portrait in November 1777.

Source of acquisition: Bequeathed in 1844 by Mrs. Elizabeth Pitcairn, his nephew's wife.



Related information: Engraved in mezzotint by J. Jones (published 1777); by an anonymous engraver (published by Ed. Hedges, 1785), and by R. B. Parkes, 1867. A nineteenth century copy belongs to St. Bartholomew's Hospital. The gown worn by the sitter seems to be an individual variation on the usual form of the President's gown, rather than of a foreign university.

Administrative history:
William Pitcairn was an accomplished botanist. At his house in Islington he had a botanical garden five acres in extent, laid out with great judgement, and so well stocked with rare and valuable plants that it was only second in size and importance to Dr. Fothergill's garden at Upton.
His father was minister in Dysart, Fifeshire, and his mother a relative of the Duke of Hamilton. He is known to have studied under Boerhaave at Leyden and to have graduated in medicine at Rheims. He was tutor to the sixth Duke of Hamilton and accompanied him on a European tour, after which he obtained his Oxford D.M. and settled in London. For thirty years he was physician to St. Bartholomew's Hospital, subsequently becoming its Treasurer. For ten successive years he was elected President of the College, after which he resigned and retired from practice.

Contents:
By Sir Joshua Reynolds, P.R.A.,
Short half length, slightly to the left, the hands not seen; short white powdered wig curled at the sides; grey-black eyebrows; blue eyes; plain white neckcloth, brown coat buttoned close to the neck with gold buttons; wearing a black gown embroidered with gold; clear brown background.

Bibliography: Annals, 25 June 1844; 1864 Catalogue, p. 10; Roll, II, 172, III, 399; 1900 List; 1926 Catalogue; A. Graves and W. G. Cronin, History of the Works of Sir Joshua Reynolds, 1904, p. 753; E. K. Waterhouse, Reynolds, 1941, p. 68; The Connoisseur, August 1929, p. 96 (reproduction); als. from Rev. A. Campbell, 17 May 1844: from Sir John Campbell, 21 June 1844.


Sir Henry Alfred Pitman 1808-1908 F.1845  Portrait/X205  1885

Oils on canvas, 30 by 25 inches

Source of acquisition: Presented by the Fellows of the College, 1886; exhibited at the Royal Academy, 1885 (163).


Administrative history:
Henry Pitman, the son of a solicitor, was born in London. He entered Trinity College, Cambridge, in 1827, graduating in arts in 1832, and then spent a year travelling on the continent. After a short time in a solicitor's office he decided to take up medicine, returned to Cambridge for a year, then studied at St. George's Hospital and King's College, London, graduating as M.B. in 1835. He was private physician to the Duke of Grafton for nine months in 1842, and in 1846 he was elected assistant physician to St. George's Hospital and lecturer in materia medica. In 1857 he became full physician and lecturer in medicine and in 1866 the first consulting physician to the hospital.
Pitman was probably best known for his work for the Royal College of Physicians. He served as Censor and then in 1858 became Registrar, a post he held until he retired in 1889, when he was given the title of Emeritus Registrar. Headministered the provisions of the new Medical Act as they affected the College. In 1869 the first edition of the Nomenclature of Diseases appeared, and he was chiefly responsible for the institution of the Diploma of Public Health at this time. While he held office the Bradshaw and Milroy Lectures were established and the Baly Medal and Murchison Scholarship came into being. He was knighted in 1883 in recognition of his work in bringing about the Conjoint Board examination. He was appointed the College representative on the General Medical Council in 1876 and later became the Council's treasurer. When he died a few months after his hundredth birthday he was the oldest member of the College and had known thirteen successive Presidents. During his life he had seen the stethoscope, the microscope, the clinical thermometer and the routine testing of urine and blood introduced into medicine, and there can be no doubt that Pitman himself, in his way, made a great contribution to medical education.

Contents:
By Walter William Ouless,
Short half length, three-quarters to left; bushy grey white hair at the ears and side-whiskers; dark eyebrows, very dark eyes; white shirt, black bow tie; scarlet M.D. gown over dark double-breasted coat; very dark background; signed on the left by his shoulder: W. W. Ouless 1885.

Bibliography: Annals, 19 April 1886; 1900 List; 1926 Catalogue.


Sir Henry Alfred Pitman 1808-1908 F.1845  Portrait/X258  n.d

Oils on canvas, 30 by 25 inches

Source of acquisition: Presented in 1954 by the executors of the will of the late Mrs. Pitman.


Administrative history:
Henry Pitman, the son of a solicitor, was born in London. He entered Trinity College, Cambridge, in 1827, graduating in arts in 1832, and then spent a year travelling on the continent. After a short time in a solicitor's office he decided to take up medicine, returned to Cambridge for a year, then studied at St. George's Hospital and King's College, London, graduating as M.B. in 1835. He was private physician to the Duke of Grafton for nine months in 1842, and in 1846 he was elected assistant physician to St. George's Hospital and lecturer in materia medica. In 1857 he became full physician and lecturer in medicine and in 1866 the first consulting physician to the hospital.
Pitman was probably best known for his work for the Royal College of Physicians. He served as Censor and then in 1858 became Registrar, a post he held until he retired in 1889, when he was given the title of Emeritus Registrar. Headministered the provisions of the new Medical Act as they affected the College. In 1869 the first edition of the Nomenclature of Diseases appeared, and he was chiefly responsible for the institution of the Diploma of Public Health at this time. While he held office the Bradshaw and Milroy Lectures were established and the Baly Medal and Murchison Scholarship came into being. He was knighted in 1883 in recognition of his work in bringing about the Conjoint Board examination. He was appointed the College representative on the General Medical Council in 1876 and later became the Council's treasurer. When he died a few months after his hundredth birthday he was the oldest member of the College and had known thirteen successive Presidents. During his life he had seen the stethoscope, the microscope, the clinical thermometer and the routine testing of urine and blood introduced into medicine, and there can be no doubt that Pitman himself, in his way, made a great contribution to medical education.

Contents:
By E. J. Haynes after Ouless Copy of no. 1 - Portrait/X205 signed: Copied by/E. J. Haynes/from the original by/ W. W. Ouless 1885 (not reproduced).

William Smoult Playfair 1835-1903 F. 1870  Portrait/X295  1882

Oils on canvas, 27 by 22 inches

Source of acquisition: Presented in 1910 by his widow, Mrs. Playfair; painted in 1882.



Related information: A portrait by Sargent of 1877 was exhibited at the Sargent Memorial Exhibition of 1926 (collection of Nigel Playfair).

Administrative history:
William Playfair was born and educated in St. Andrews. He studied medicine at Edinburgh, graduating in 1856. His father had been inspector-general of hospitals in Bengal and in 1857 he followed his example by joining the Bengal Medical Service. He was an assistant surgeon at Oude during the Mutiny and from 1859 to 1860 he was professor of surgery at Calcutta Medical College. Ill-health soon forced him to leave India and he settled in London in 1863 after spending a short time practising in St. Petersburg. He was made assistant physician for diseases of women and children at King's College Hospital and nine years later full physician. He was appointed physician-accoucheur to the Duchess of Edinburgh and the Duchess of Connaught and built up a large midwifery practice.
Playfair wrote a popular Treatise of the Science and Practice of Midwifery (1876) and was co-editor with Allbutt of a System of Gynaecology (1896). He also contributed to Quain's Dictionary of Medicine.
He was a firm supporter of improved conditions for nurses, especially for those engaged in midwifery.
He married the sister of the first Lord Airedale and had five children. One of his sons was Sir Nigel Playfair, the actor-manager.
In 1896 a patient who was also a relative sued him for slander and the case attracted a lot of attention. Damages of £12,000 were awarded against Playfair, but his professional reputation does not seem to have been damaged.

Contents:
By Susanne van Nathusius,
Short half length, slightly to right; short dark brown hair; greyish-blue eyes; white collar, black tie; black coat buttoned close up to the neck; very dark brown background.

Bibliography: 1926 Catalogue; Annals, 27 January 1910.


Henry Plumptre 1680-1746 F. 1708 P. 1740-1745  Portrait/X72  c.1740-44

Oils on canvas, 54 by 43 inches

Source of acquisition: Presented in 1744 by the sitter.



Related information: Another portrait is at Queens' College, Cambridge.

Administrative history:
Born in Nottinghamshire and educated at Queens' College, Cambridge, where he left a fellowship rather than take holy orders, Henry Plumptre obtained his M.D. in 1706. He was a physician to St. Thomas's Hospital and held many offices in the College of Physicians, including the Presidency for six successive years. During the whole of his period of presidency the fifth Pharmacopoeia Londinensis was being revised and reconstructed. He devoted most of his energy to its im-provement, and it seems that the simplification in the formulae that distinguished the work from all its predecessors was mainly due to him. The Pharmacopoeia was published in the summer of 1746, and Dr. Plumptre died in the autumn of the same year.

Contents:
By an unknown artist,
Three-quarter length, seated to the left; white wig; dark grey eyes; white shirt and neck-cloth; wearing the President's gown, black braided with gold; ring on the little finger of his right hand; very dark background.
Painted presumably after his election as President (1740). A very able portrait, much in the manner of Jonathan Richardson.

Bibliography: Annals, 1 October 1744; 1864 Catalogue, p.13; Roll, II, 24; III, 400; 1900 List; 1926 Catalogue.


Sir Richard Douglas Powell, Bt. 1842-1925 F.1873 P. 1905-1910  Portrait/X52  1926

Oils on canvas, 50 by 40 inches

Archival history:
The original was exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1903.

Source of acquisition: Presented by his widow, Edith Lady Powell, and his son Sir Douglas Powell, Bt., C.B.E, IN 1926 in.


Administrative history:
Richard Douglas Powell was born in Walthamstow, son of a captain in the Royal Welch Fusiliers. He studied medicine at University College, London and graduated with first-class honours in 1865. He was house physician to William Jenner and then assistant physician at the Brompton Hospital. After a period as assistant physician and lecturer in materia medica at Charing Cross Hospital, in 1878 he became assistant physician at the Middlesex Hospital, and full physician there two years later.
In 1887, through Jenner's influence, he was made physician-extraordinary to Queen Victoria and in 1899 he succeeded Jenner as physician-in-ordinary, an office he continued to hold under Edward VII and George V. He attended Queen Victoria and King Edward in their last illnesses.
A tall, stern and dignified figure, Powell was at various times an impressive presi-dent of the Clinical Society, the Royal Medical and Chirurgical Society, and the Medical Society of London. He was very active in the affairs of these societies and was largely responsible for the amalgamation of the two former into the Royal Society of Medicine in 1907. He was President of the Royal College of Physicians from 1905 to 1910. His main medical interests were heart and chest diseases, and his book, On the Principal Varieties of Pulmonary Tuberculosis with Practical Comments (1872), went into a sixth edition in 1921.

Contents:
By G. Spencer Watson,
Almost whole length, seated; holding his golden pince-nez; legs crossed; grey eyes; almost bald, very this white hair at the sides; dark tie; wearing morning dress; the background plain dark brown; in the top right hand corner a framed print of the Houbraken engraving of Harvey is partly seen; signed at the bottom on the left, in black: G SPENCER WATSON 1926 Replica of a portrait painted in 1902.

Bibliography: Annals, 29 April 1926.


Sir William Overend Priestley 1829-1900 F. 1864  Portrait/X222  n.d

Oils on canvas, 26 by 21 inches

Source of acquisition: Presented by his widow, Lady Priestley, in 1902



Related information: A replica (painted about 1901, for Lady Priestley for presentation to the College) of the original which was exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1885.

Administrative history:
William Priestley, a great-nephew of Joseph Priestley, the discoverer of oxygen, was born at Morley Hall, near Leeds. He was educated at Leeds, King's College, London, Paris, and Edinburgh, where his M.D. thesis on The Development of the Gravid Uterus earned him a gold medal in 1853. An earlier paper had attracted the attention of Sir James Young Simpson and he became one of Simpson's assistants for two or three years before moving to London in 1856, the year of his marriage. His wife was the daughter of Robert Chambers, of the famous publishing firm, and Priestley was at once accepted into society.
In London he was appointed lecturer in midwifery at the Middlesex Hospital in 1858 and in 1865 he became professor of midwifery at King's College and physician-accoucheur to King's College Hospital. Simpson's known confidence in him and his personal charm soon brought him such a large practice that at the age of 43 he gave up his hospital posts and opportunities for investigation and research. This meant that although he had arrived in London as a pioneer of the new science of gynaecology he was later thought of as being reactionary and out-of-date, remaining, however, extremely successful. He was made physician-accoucheur to Princess Alice of Hesse and Princess Christian of Schleswig-Holstein, and was knighted in 1893. He represented the Universities of Edinburgh and St. Andrews in Parliament from 1896 until his death. Louis Pasteur and Oliver Wendell Holmes were among his close friends, and he and his wife were widely known for their great hospitality.

Contents:
By August Wilhelm Rudolph Lehmann
Short half length to right; dark grey hair, fuzzy light grey side-whiskers; grey eyes; dark cravat with jewelled pin; dark brown coat; background dark brown; signed with mono-gram on the right by his shoulder, with date 1884 (but see below).

Bibliography: Annals, 30 January 1902; 1926 Catalogue; R. Lehmann, Men and Women of the Century, 1896, p. 60 (reproduction of the original).


William Prout 1784-1850 F. 1829  Portrait/X269  1855

Oils on canvas, 29¾ by 24¾ inches

Archival history:
Exhibited at the National Portrait Exhibition, 1868 (428)

Source of acquisition: Painted by order of the College in 1855 from a miniature then in the possession of the family (Roll)



Related information: The original was painted probably not long before the sitter's death.

Administrative history:
William Prout was born into a well established Gloucestershire family. His early education was neglected until, at the age of 17, he himself took steps which led to his studying medicine at Edinburgh, where he graduated M.D. in 1811.
Prout from the first devoted himself to chemistry, and especially to organic chemistry. In 1813 he delivered at his house a course of lectures on animal chemistry, the audience at which, though small, was select, and regularly included Sir Astley Cooper. Dr. Prout's original views pointed the way to discoveries which made the reputation of others. "The metamorphosis of tissues of Liebig was only another term for the secondary assimilation of Prout, and it was Prout who announced that it is from the waste or destruction of tissues which once formed constituent parts of the organism that the various excretions as urea, uric acid, carbonic acid, etc., are derived."*
In pursuing his investigations, Dr. Prout paid no regard to expense; for ex-ample, so costly and perfect was the barometer he constructed that the standard barometer of England, kept by the Royal Society, was ordered to be made under his supervision.
He was studious and reserved, and the deafness from which he suffered for many years before his death prevented him from entering into society.
* Medical Times, (1850), new series, I, 17.

Contents:
By Henry Wyndham Phillips after a miniature by an unknown artist
Head and shoulders, in a painted oval; grey eyes; silver white hair and side-whiskers; white stock and shirt, black coat; very dark brown background.

Bibliography: Roll, III, 103, 400; 1864 Catalogue, p. 15; 1900 List; 1926 Catalogue; als. from Sir Thomas Watson, 24 December 1873.


William Prout 1784-1850 F. 1829  Portrait/X206  n.d

Oils on canvas, 26½ by 21½ inches

Source of acquisition: Presented in 1888 by the Reverend T. J. Prout and Miss Prout, son and daughter of the sitter, owing to their dissatisfaction with the painting by Phillips (" so very poor a likeness of the original ")



Related information: A second copy by Paget belongs to Edinburgh University.
The original was painted perhaps c.1835/40.

Administrative history:
William Prout was born into a well established Gloucestershire family. His early education was neglected until, at the age of 17, he himself took steps which led to his studying medicine at Edinburgh, where he graduated M.D. in 1811.
Prout from the first devoted himself to chemistry, and especially to organic chemistry. In 1813 he delivered at his house a course of lectures on animal chemistry, the audience at which, though small, was select, and regularly included Sir Astley Cooper. Dr. Prout's original views pointed the way to discoveries which made the reputation of others. "The metamorphosis of tissues of Liebig was only another term for the secondary assimilation of Prout, and it was Prout who announced that it is from the waste or destruction of tissues which once formed constituent parts of the organism that the various excretions as urea, uric acid, carbonic acid, etc., are derived."*
In pursuing his investigations, Dr. Prout paid no regard to expense; for ex-ample, so costly and perfect was the barometer he constructed that the standard barometer of England, kept by the Royal Society, was ordered to be made under his supervision.
He was studious and reserved, and the deafness from which he suffered for many years before his death prevented him from entering into society.
* Medical Times, (1850), new series, I, 17.

Contents:
By H.M. Paget after a portrait by John Hazyes
Head and shoulders; brown hair; greyish-blue eyes; white stock and shirt; black coat; very dark brown background; inscribed in small white letters on the left: William Prout M.D., F.R.C.P., F.R.S., /Born 1784 Died 1850. On the right: Copy by H. M. Paget from J. Hayes's original portrait./ Presented to the Royal College of Physicians / by T. J. P. & E. P. surviving son and daughter. Painted in an oval on rectangular canvas and framed with an oval mount.

Bibliography: Annals, 21 February 1888; 1900 List; 1926 Catalogue.


Sir Francis Prujean 1593-1666 F. 1626 P. 1650-1653  Portrait/X132  1662 (?)

Oils on canvas, 29¾ by 25 inches

Source of acquisition: Bought in 1873 from Miss Anne Prujean, believed to be the last surviving direct descendant of the sitter.



Related information: The attribution, arrived at at the date of acquisition, was based on the similarity of style to the other portrait of Prujean by Streater, which belonged to St. Thomas's Hospital, and which was almost certainly the painting described by Vertue, c. 1740, "in his gown one hand upon a death head, the other on some books", signed by Streater, and with an inscription indicating that he was a personal friend of Prujean's. The painter was very celebrated in his time, Sergeant-Painter to King Charles II. His best known work is the ceiling of the Sheldonian Theatre, Oxford, but portraits by him are extremely rare. The St. Thomas's portrait was unfortunately destroyed by enemy action between 1939 and 1945 (no photograph of it is known to exist).

Administrative history:
This distinguished physician was born in Essex and educated at Caius College, Cambridge. A man of elegant tastes and varied talents, he was equally trusted by the public and his own profession. Pepys records in the Diary (24th October, 1663) that he acquired great honour by his attendance on Queen Catherine in a severe attack of spotted fever, and that Her Majesty's recovery was universally ascribed to a cordial prescribed by him at a critical moment, "which in her despair did give her rest and brought her to some hopes of recovery". Evelyn's Diary gives some idea of his tastes and amusements: "I went to that famous physician, Sir Francis Prujean, who showed me his laboratory, his workhouse for turning, and other mechanics; also many excellent pictures, especially the Magdalen of Caracci, and some incomparable paysages done in distemper. He played to me likewise on the polythore, an instrument having something of the harp, lute and theorbo, by none known in England, nor described by any author, nor used but by this skilful and learned doctor." Sir Francis's second marriage, with a widow, took place only about a year before his death, and according, once more, to Pepys, "he died very rich, and had for the last year lived very handsomely, this lady bringing him to it."

Contents:
Attributed to Robert Streater
Short half length; his left hand, visible at the bottom of the picture, with the thumb tucked in the front of his coat; wearing his own long brown hair; grey eyes; blonde moustache and liptuft; white square-cut collar, black figured gown, a plain white cuff at the wrist; back-ground plain dark brown.
A label is said to have been on the back at the date of purchase, bearing the sitter's name and the date 1662, which is probably that of the painting.

Bibliography: Roll, I, 188, III, 400; Annals, 29 January 1874: 1900 List; 1926 Catalogue; als. from Miss F. Prujean, 14, 20 May 1870, 24 November, 10 December 1873: als. from various hands, 1870; Vertue, Notebooks (ed. Walpole Society) IV, p. 20; Burlington Magazine, vol. 84 (1944), pp. 3-12, with reproduction, pl. III (this article is the fullest account yet of Streater).


Sir Richard Quain, Bt. 1816-1898 F. 1851  Portrait/X120  1896

Oils on canvas, 50 by 31 inches

Archival history:
Exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1896 (356), and again (Millais Memorial Exhibition) in 1898 (141)

Source of acquisition: Exchanged in 1899 by the tour daughters of the sitter for the four pieces of silver plate previously given to the College by him



Related information: A portrait of about 1866 by D. Maclise was engraved in mezzotint by T. O. Barlow, and one by George Richmond of about 1872 is now in the Royal College of Surgeons; marble busts by A. Davies and by T. Brock were shown at the Royal Academy in 1870 and 1897 respectively; and a bust by T. Woolner, in the Royal College of Surgeons, is of 1884.

Administrative history:
Richard Quain was born in County Cork and educated at Cloyne. He was apprenticed for five years to a surgeon-apothecary at Limerick before going to University College, London to study medicine. His cousins, Jones Quain, the anatomist, and Richard Quain, F.R.C.S., held teaching posts at University College, and when he graduated in 1840 he filled house appointments at the Hospital. He was elected assistant physician to the Brompton Hospital in 1848 and full physician in 1855. Quain was extremely successful in practice and in medical and public affairs. He held several offices in the Royal College of Physicians, and was president of the Harveian Society in 1853 and of the Pathological Society in 1869. He was appointed to the General Medical Council in 1846 and became chairman of its Pharmacopoeia Committee in 1874. He was president of the Council from 1891 until his death.
Quain is best remembered for the Dictionary of Medicine which he edited. He wrote the articles on heart diseases himself, and the leading medical men of the day contributed the rest. The first edition appeared in 1882 and took seven years to prepare. It sold over 30,000 copies and a second edition came out in 1894. Quain was appointed physician-extraordinary to the Queen in 1890 and was made a baronet in 1891.
He was a man with plenty of commonsense, good humoured and cheerful. His many friends included Maclise, who painted his portrait around 1866, Millais, who painted it in 1896, Landseer, the Carlyles, and Charles Dickens.

Contents:
By Sir John Millais P.R.A.,
Three-quarter length, standing in profile to the left; greyish white short hair, clear grey eyes; very dark grey frock coat reaching to the knees; yellowish brown mottled background.
Quain was Millais' physician; this is said to have been the last portrait he painted.

Bibliography: Annals, 26 January 1899; 1900 List; 1926 Catalogue; J. Millais, Life and letters of Sir John Millais, 1899, II, p. 186; A. L. Baldry, Sir John Everett Millais, 1899, p.61.


John Radcliffe 1652-1714 F. 1687  Portrait/X77  n.d

Oils on canvas, 50 by 40 inches

Source of acquisition: Presented to the College in 1764 by Dr. Jenner, who stated that it had been given to his father by the sitter.



Related information: The original of this portrait is probably that in the Radcliffe Camera at Oxford, given by George Clarke, to whom it was given by Radcliffe in exchange for his own portrait. An inscription, said to be on the back of the Camera picture, gives its date as 1712; Vertue, however, who engraved it in 1719, puts the date of painting as 1710. (There are several later engravings of the same type, by Fourdrinier, M. Varr der Gucht and others.) Painted versions are to be found in the Bodleian (said to be a copy by Dahl), in the Radcliffe Infirmary and at University College, Oxford.* There is also a drawing by Byng in the British Museum, and a miniature by Richter of the same type. The College painting was exhibited at Leeds in 1868.
Memorial statues are in the Radcliffe Camera (by Rysbrack) and at University College (by Bird)
* Kneller was a neighbour of Radcliffe's in Great Queen Street; for an anecdote illustrating their relationship see Walpole, Anecdotes of English Painting, (1862 edition), p. 593.

Administrative history:
John Radcliffe was born at Wakefield in Yorkshire and at thirteen entered University College, Oxford. He was elected a Fellow of Lincoln College in 1670 and was appointed lecturer in logic and philosophy. Meanwhile, he had turned to science and medicine. He seems to have studied in an erratic way (he boasted that a few phials, a skeleton and a herbal constituted his library) although at this time the University itself provided only a perfunctory training in medicine, as Sydenham and other progressive physicians complained. Radcliffe had to resign his fellowship after a quarrel with the rector of Lincoln, but he had already made a successful start in practice in Oxford. He was not a great scholar but he was an acute observer of symptoms and was particularly happy in the treatment of disease. His shrewdness in diagnosis and the originality of his methods earned him a wide reputation, although they also antagonized more orthodox members of the profession.
In 1684 he was encouraged by his success to move to London, where he was helped by the openings left by the death of one physician and the fall from political favour of another. Radcliffe quickly rose to be the most popular physician of his time, earning an enormous income. His practice included highly distinguished people, among whom were Newton, Pope, Swift, the Archbishop of York and the Bishop of London, besides many of the nobility. He was frequently consulted by the royal family and became physician to Princess Anne of Denmark, but later lost her favour by neglecting to come when she sent for him. He attended King William many times. Queen Mary's death from smallpox in 1694 was blamed on Radcliffe, but in fact he was called in too late to do anything, and he condemned the traditional treatment which had been used for the Queen.
Many of the anecdotes recorded about Radcliffe show the capricious and out spoken side of his nature. In 1699, when William showed him his ankles, which were swollen though the rest of his body was emaciated, and asked "What think you of these?" "Why, truly," replied Radcliffe, "I would not have Your Majesty's two legs for your three kingdoms". This finally and irretrievably lost him the King's favour. The Annals testify that he was often at issue with the College authorities, chiefly over his non-attendance. However, Radcliffe was also unjustly accused; he was blamed for refusing to attend Queen Anne in her last illness, but he was himself mortally ill and knew, too, that the Queen was hostile to him. Nevertheless, the outcry was extreme and Radcliffe was threatened with assassination.
He was a large-minded, independent and generous man, loyal to his friends. His generosity was shown in his magnificent bequests to medicine and to Oxford. In his will he left his Yorkshire estates and some £45,000 to University College, Oxford, and large sums to St. Bartholomew's Hospital; from large trust funds from his other estates, the Radcliffe Library, Observatory and Infirmary were established in Oxford and £2,000 was provided towards the College's building in Pall Mall. There were also personal acts of generosity, as when he sent money to an impoverished and sick barrister with the explanation "I have never been such a Niggard as to prefer Mountains of Gold to the Conversation of a Person that gives Gaiety even to Old Age and Vivacity of temper to the most Splenetic".

Contents:
From the studio of Sir Godfrey Kneller
Three-quarter length, seated slightly to right; his right hand spread open on his breast, his left hand, gloved, holding the other glove, and planted on his thigh; very long greyish brown periwig; grey eyes; brown velvet coat with gilt buttons; a letter lying on the red-covered table to right, with an inscription: This/to Dr. Ratcliffe; dark background.

Bibliography: Annals, 16 April 1764; 1864 Catalogue, p. 6; Roll, III, 400; 1900 List; 1926 Catalogue. For the original portrait see R. L. Poole, Catalogue of Oxford Portraits, vol. I, 1912, no. 682.


George Owen Rees 1813-1889 F. 1844  Portrait/X432  c. 1840/50(?)

Oils on canvas, 20¾ by 17 inches.

Source of acquisition: Presented by the sitter in 1887. Painted probably in the 1840s.


Administrative history:
Owen Rees was born in Smyrna, His father was a Welsh merchant married to an Italian. He was educated in Clapham and entered Guy's Hospital in 1829 to study medicine. He also studied in Paris and Glasgow, where he took his M.D. in 1837. Returning to London, he soon had a fashionable practice, but was far from lacking in scientific outlook. He was one of the first to make a serious study of the chemistry of urine and he did some original work on the nature and shape of the blood corpuscles, for which he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society. In 1843 he was made assistant physician to Guy's Hospital, where he worked for thirty-three years. He was also the first medical officer to Pentonville Prison and later he was consulting physician to Queen Charlotte's Lying-in Hospital and physician-extra-ordinary to the Queen.
Rees was a good linguist and a witty after-dinner speaker. He was appalled by the mean environment of his hospital patients and the unpleasant smells of the post-mortem room. He hated to be cold, refusing to lecture if the room were not warm enough, and in his carriage would be lost to sight in a large fur-lined coat.

Contents:
By Sidney Buck,
Three-quarter length, seated to right at a table; his right hand with a gold ring on the little finger, resting on his thigh; his left hand on some papers on the table; long dark brown hair, grey-blue eyes; full black silk cravat; black frock coat unbuttoned, velvet waistcoat, black trousers; on the table also some books and a stethoscope; a dark brown wall in the back-ground, with bookshelves and a curtain on the extreme left.

Bibliography: 1900 List; 1926 Catalogue; ms. letter from Dr. Rees promising to bequeath the portrait, 5 November 1877.


Henry Revell Reynolds 1745-1811 F. 1774  Portrait/X103  1798 (?)

Oils on canvas, 36 by 27½ inches

Source of acquisition: Presented in 1896, by the widow of his grandson, Sir J. R. Reynolds.



Related information: The original by Abbott was engraved in mezzotint by W. Green (1798) and in stipple by T. Blood (1812); Green's engraving, which was published by Abbott, is likely to have been made soon after the painting was finished.

Administrative history:
Henry Revell Reynolds was born in Nottinghamshire, a few weeks after the death of his father. A godfather who brought him up died as Reynolds entered university, but Reynolds contrived to complete his medical education partly in Oxford, in Cambridge and in Edinburgh. He was appointed physician first to the Middlesex Hospital, and then to St. Thomas's. His progress was rapid and his engagements became so numerous that he had to resign from St. Thomas's. In 1788 he was called to attend George III, and his assistance was required during every subsequent illness of that monarch. His own death seems to have been precipitated by an exhaustive questioning as to the King's condition in the House of Lords, etiquette demanding that he should remain standing throughout.
Reynolds's private character was highly praiseworthy and his death was widely and sincerely lamented.

Contents:
By (? an unknown artist after) Lemuel Abbott,
Half length seated to the left, with an open book; short white powdered wig; frilled shirt front, very dark coat, dark grey eyes; very dark brown background.
This version seems likely to be an early copy rather than the original, though no other versions are yet recorded.

Bibliography: Annals, 30 July 1896; 1900 List; 1926 Catalogue.


Sir John Russell Reynolds, Bt. 1828-1896 F. 1859 P. 1893-1896  Portrait/X213  1882

Oils on canvas, 39 by 29¾ inches.

Source of acquisition: Presented by his widow, Lady Reynolds, in 1897


Administrative history:
Russell Reynolds, son of a nonconformist minister and grandson of Henry Revell Reynolds, was born at Romsey, Hampshire. He was educated mainly by his father before he went to study medicine at University College, London. He was a brilliant student and graduated in 1851 as University scholar and gold medallist in physiology, comparative anatomy and medicine.
Because he had very little money he decided to start practising in Leeds, but his teacher Marshall Hall persuaded him to return to London, where he lived until his death. He was appointed assistant physician to the Hospital for Sick Children in 1855, to the Westminster Hospital in 1857 and to University College Hospital in 1859. He became full physician and Holme professor of clinical medicine at University College in 1862 and in 1867 he succeeded Sir William Jenner in the chair of medicine.
Reynolds held a number of offices in the Royal College of Physicians and was president from 1893 to 1896. He was made physician to the Royal Household in 1879 and was created baronet in 1895. He was president of the British Medical Association at the time of his death.
He was best known for his early writings on nervous diseases and he was one of the first to suggest the possibilities of electricity as a therapeutic agent. He edited the System of Medicine, which was published in five volumes between 1866 and 1879. A fluent and popular lecturer, he was a careful and sympathetic physician. He was rather shy and serious but could reveal a quiet humour and directness of speech that was no respecter of persons. He enjoyed painting, music and literature.

Contents:
By Sydney Hodges,
Three-quarter length, holding his pince-nez; bald on the crown; very dark brown hair, side-whiskers and fringed beard; dark brown eyes; black bow tie; long black double-breasted coat; signet ring on the second finger of his right hand; very dark background; signed at the bottom of the left: Sydney Hodges 1882.
Said to be the only portrait ever painted of the sitter.

Bibliography: Annals, 28 January 1897; 1900 List; 1926 Catalogue.


David Lloyd Roberts 1835-1920 F. 1878  Portrait/X371  1923

Oils on canvas, 37¾ by 33¾ inches.

Source of acquisition: A replica, painted at the expense of the College, in 1923, from the original portrait (painted in 1915, and exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1916) presented to Manchester.


Administrative history:
David Lloyd Roberts was born at Stockport, the son of a cotton spinner. He served in a chemist's shop before going to school at Ripponden, Yorkshire. He was then apprenticed to William Smith, professor of physiology at Owens College, and studied at the Manchester School of Medicine and the Royal Infirmary. He completed his training with visits to London and Paris and qualified in 1857. He went into general practice in Manchester and obtained the post of regular surgeon-in-ordinary at St. Mary's Hospital for Women and Children in 1858. He was connected with this institution for the rest of his life, and was made honorary physician in 1868. From 1885 to 1895 he was also gynaecological surgeon to the Manchester Royal Infirmary and lecturer on clinical midwifery at Owens College.
Lloyd Roberts wrote a popular Student's Guide to Practical Midwifery (1876) and achieved some distinction with his edition of Sir Thomas Browne's Religio Medici (1898) and his paper on The Scientific Knowledge of Dante (1914). He was a man of wide culture and a famous collector of mezzotints, water colours, glass, porcelain, silver, furniture and books. He left the Royal College of Physicians his valuable library of 3,000 books, including 53 incunabula, and he endowed the Lloyd-Roberts Lectures, given annually on a subject of medical or scientific interest. In Manchester he was a well-known and loved character who is said to have defined gynaecology as "anything either curable or lucrative" and who drove daily through the busy streets in an old-fashioned brougham.

Contents:
By Sir William Orpen,
Three-quarter length, seated; short silvery hair, heavy dark eyebrows, dark grey eyes; black tie with a jewel in the knot; black coat and waistcoat, dark grey trousers; a dark greyish brown curtain in the background; signed at the bottom on the right; ORPEN.

Bibliography: Annals, October 1923; 1926 Catalogue; P. G. Konody and Sidney Dark, Sir William Orpen, (n.d.), pp. 270, 274.


Edward Roberts 1762-1846 F. 1793  Portrait/X021T  1798

Pencil on paper, 10 by 72/5 inches

Source of acquisition: Bought 1940, from the collection of Miss M. Dance


Administrative history:
Edward Roberts was born in Surrey and educated at Trinity College, Cambridge, where he took his degree of doctor of medicine in 1792. He practised at first at Lewes and then moved to London. In 1794 he was elected physician at St. Bartholomew's Hospital, a post he held for forty years until his retirement at the age of seventy-two.
Roberts was elected Censor to the College five times, and was Goulstonian lecturer in 1795. He gave the Harveian oration in 1801 and subsequently was Croonian lecturer for three successive years.

Contents:
By (?) George Dance,
Head and shoulders in profile to left; inscribed in pencil at the bottom: Edward Roberts M.D.
Probably a copy, by Dance himself or by William Daniell, made for the purposes of an engraving by Daniell, from an original drawing by Dance of 1798 (sold with the collection of the artist's grandson, Rev. G. Dance, Christies, 1 July 1898).

Sir William Roberts 1830-1899 F. 1865  Portrait/X207  c. 1880

Oils on canvas, 26 by 20¾ inches

Source of acquisition: Presented in 1899, by his daughter, Miss Roberts. Painted c. 1880 (?).


Administrative history:
William Roberts was born at Bodedern, Anglesey, the eighth son of a farmer and surgeon. After qualifying at University College, London, he completed his studies at Paris and Berlin, before procuring a house appointment at Manchester Royal Infirmary in 1854. In 1855, at the unusually early age of twenty-five, he was elected, without opposition, physician to the Infirmary, a post he retained until 1883.
In 1889, four years after receiving his knighthood, Roberts moved from Manchester to London. Here he concerned himself with university affairs and became chairman of the committee managing the Brown Institution. He represented London University on the General Medical Council from 1896 until his death.
Throughout his life Roberts took a special interest in physiology and the science that was to be known as biochemistry. He did valuable research work on digestive ferments, the functions of the pancreas and the chemistry of urine. His Practical Treatise on Urinary and Renal Diseases went into several editions, and he contributed articles to Quain's Dictionary and Allbutt's System of Medicine. Single-minded and modest in character, he avoided controversy and remained aloof from public life. He took pleasure in improving his estate at Bryn, Merionethshire, fishing the Dovey, and studying the flora of the countryside.

Contents:
By George Frederic Watts,
Head and shoulders to the right; short dark brown hair and side-whiskers; dark grey eyes; profuse black silk cravat; dark jacket; heavy gold watch-chain is visible; plain dark brown background.

Bibliography: Annals, 9 April 1900; 1900 List; 1926 Catalogue.


Alexander Russell 1715?-1768 L. 1760  Portrait/X214  n.d

Oils on canvas, 30 by 25¾ inches

Source of acquisition: Presented in 1958 by the Misses Russell of Canterbury.


Administrative history:
Alexander Russell, the son of an eminent lawyer, was born in Edinburgh. After his medical studies there he came to London but soon sailed for Turkey and settled at Aleppo. For several years he was physician to the English factory there. He quickly mastered the language and so began practice with a greater advantage than had earlier Christian physicians. Franks, Greeks, Armenians, Jews or Turks--he was consulted by all nationalities, ranks and professions. They forgot that he was an unbeliever and did not treat him with their usual contempt for strangers, even courting his friendship and placing unlimited confidence in his opinion. On his return to England, encouraged by his friend John Fothergill, he published his Natural History of Aleppo (1756).
Dr. Russell settled in London, and in 1757 when the government was alarmed with the report that plague had broken out at Lisbon, he received orders to attend the Privy Council. He gave such satisfactory answers to the questions put to him that he was asked to prepare a written report, including the method he proposed to prevent the spread of the disease. He was elected physician to St. Thomas's hospital in 1760, serving until his death as "an example of diligence and humanity to the sick, of great medical abilities as a physician, and, as a gentleman, irreproachable."*
* J. Fothergill, An Essay on the Character of Alexander Russell, M.D.

Contents:
Called Alexander Russell.
Artist unknown
To the waist, seated to the left, looking at the spectator; wearing a powdered wig, dark coat, and elaborate white stock; grey eyes; plain brown background.
The identification, doubtless traditional in the family, is very doubtful. The features of the sitter do not agree with those in the engraving of Alexander Russell by Trotter after N. Dance (published in Lettsom's Memoirs of Fothergill, 1786), while the apparent age of the sitter and the style of costume indicate that the sitter here is a man perhaps in the neighbourhood of thirty years old and certainly not before c. 1790. He may well be a member of a somewhat later generation of the Russell family.

Patrick Russell 1727-1805  Portrait/X022T  1794

Pencil on paper, 93/5 by 7½ inches

Source of acquisition: Bought in 1940; from the collection of Miss M. Dance



Related information: The location of the original drawing is unknown; it was sold with the collection of his grandson, Rev. G. Dance, Christies, 1 July 1898.
A portrait by Vaslet of Russell, in oriental dress with a turban, is known by the engraving by Ridley, 1832.

Administrative history:
Patrick Russell, the physician and naturalist, was born in Edinburgh, the son of a lawyer. He studied medicine, probably at Edinburgh University, and in 1750 joined his half-brother, Alexander Russell, in Aleppo, succeeding him as physician to the English factory in 1753. He continued his brother's studies of the plague there (there were epidemics in 1760, 1761, and 1762), sending home amendments for Alexander's Natural History of Aleppo (1756) and reports of the method of inoculation practised in Arabia.
He began to practise in London in 1772, and was elected to the Royal Society in 1777. In 1781 he went out to India and became naturalist to the East India Company. He collected and studied plants, fishes, and reptiles, producing a memoir on poisonous snakes in 1787, and initiated the collection of plants, with information about their local uses, by the medical officers and others of the Company. Ten years later, in 1795, the result of this scheme appeared in the Plants of the Coromandel Coast by William Roxburgh, for which Russell wrote the preface. Russell also published splendidly illustrated volumes on the snakes and fishes of this coast.
He returned from India in 1789. In 1791 his Treatise on the Plague appeared. The Privy Council consulted him in 1799 on quarantine regulations, after a fresh outbreak of plague in the Levant.
Russell was unmarried. He left many of his collections to the East India Company; his plants were bequeathed to Edinburgh University.

Contents:
By (?) George Dance,
Half length, seated in profile to left. Inscribed in pencil at the bottom: Patrick Russell M.D.
A copy, either by Dance himself or by William Daniell, made for the purposes of the soft-ground etching by the latter (inscribed Geo. Dance delt. March 23 1794) published in 1811 and included in Dance's Collections of Portraits, 1814, vol. II.

William Saunders 1743-1817 F. 1790  Portrait/X370  1809

Oils on canvas, 50¼ by 40¼ inches

Source of acquisition: Presented in 1865 by his son, John J. Saunders.



Related information: There is also a mezzotint by C. Townley (published in 1792) after a painting by L. Abbott; a portrait by J. R. Smith (exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1802) was engraved by the artist in mezzotint in 1803, and a line engraving by H. Mayer after P. W. Satchwell was published in 1817.

Administrative history:
William Saunders was an extremely able scientist and physician, who made many chemical investigations into different diseases and their methods of treatment.
He was himself the son of an eminent physician, and was born at Banff in Scotland. He studied medicine at Edinburgh, obtaining his degree of doctor of medicine there in 1765. His interest in chemistry had already developed, and his inaugural dissertation for this degree was on antimony. The chemical ability shown in this study probably gave him his introduction to the London physician Sir George Baker, who was investigating Devonshire colic (a form of colic caused by lead from cider presses), and Saunders assisted him with the chemical side of this work. He was able to enlarge his practical knowledge of medicine when in 1770, helped by Baker's influence, he was elected physician at Guy's Hospital.
Saunders rapidly built up a successful practice. At the same time he continued his investigations into methods of treatment of various diseases, publishing his observations on the medical use of antimony in 1773. He studied the Power of the Mephytic Acid in dissolving Stones in the Bladder, and in a further work supported the use of Peruvian Bark (which contains quinine) in fevers--its use had first been strongly advocated by Sydenham in the previous century. Saunders' best-known work was a study of the structure and diseases of the liver, which first appeared in 1793 and was amplified in later editions.
Saunders was elected to the Royal and Antiquarian Societies. He held many offices in the College, and was appointed physician-extraordinary to the Prince Regent in 1807.

Contents:
By H. Ashby,
Almost whole length, seated in a red square-backed armchair; bright blue eyes; white frilled shirt, black coat with high collar, black breeches and stockings; an inkstand with a quill is on a table to the left, with a partly folded letter which bears the signature: H Ashby Pinxit 1809; background dark brown; on the left, bookshelves with large folios.

Bibliography: Annals, 20 February 1865; Roll, III, 400; 1900 List; 1926 Catalogue; als. from William Carr, 13, 16 August 1875.


Sir Charles Scarburgh 1614-1694 F. 1650  Portrait/X80  c. 1660 (?)

Oils on canvas, 52¾ by 41 inches

Source of acquisition: Presented in 1923 by Dr. W. Innes-Smith; formerly at Temple Newsam, to which house it came presumably with the marriage of the sitter's grand-daughter Anne to the 7th Viscount Irwin (before 1737)



Related information: A similar engraving (to the waist only) by M. van der Gucht was used for the 1710 edition of Cowley's Works. The portrait recalls that of Harvey (q.v.) now in the Hunterian Museum, also with a view over Rome. It is improbable that they are by the same hand (the paint of the Hunterian picture is much rubbed), but they are surely related. Scarburgh was a close friend and a legatee of Harvey's. The traditional attribution of the Hunterian portrait is to Wilhelm von Bemmel: a possible attribution of the College portrait is to the very obscure Dutch artist, Jean Demetrius, who painted a portrait of Christopher Hildgard, 1665 (Hildgard collection, Scrayingham) which is remarkably similar in style.

Administrative history:
Charles Scarburgh was born in London, and educated at Cambridge, where he devoted the whole of his spare time to mathematics and medicine. He had determined that medicine should be his life's work and he regarded mathematics as the best preparation for this. In the Civil War, he supported the royal cause and was thrown out of his fellowship at Caius. He went to Oxford and entered himself at Merton College, then presided over by the immortal Harvey; he gained the friendship of that great man, and gave him considerable assistance in the preparation of his famous work de Generatione Animalium.
Dr. Scarburgh moved to London in 1647 where his reputation soon became firmly established. He was one of the original Fellows of the Royal Society, and was appointed first physician to King Charles II, by whom he was knighted in 1669. He attended the king in his last illness, and left a full and interesting account of that illness in manuscript form.* Scarburgh remained a life-long friend of William Harvey, who, in his will, wrote "Item, I give my velvet gowne to my lovinge friend Mr. Doctor Scarburgh;"--"and to Dr. Scarburgh all my little silver instruments of surgerie."
Evelyn recorded: "I dined at the Earl of Sutherland's with Lord Spencer. My Lord showed me his library, now again improved by many books bought at the sale of Sir Charles Scarburgh, an eminent physician, which was the very best collection, especially of mathematical books, that was, I believe in Europe; once designed for the King's library at St. James's, but the queen dying, who was the great patroness of that design, it was let fall, and the books were miserably dissipated."
* Society of Antiquaries, no. 206.

Contents:
By an unknown artist (? Jean Demetrius),
Three-quarter length, standing; a reddish-brown armchair to left; black hair; dark eyes; sallow colouring; black doublet, black gown; on a table covered with a reddish-brown cloth, a globe, a folio open at a Vesalian plate (plate 2--reversed--from Vesalius, Fabrica, 1543, Bk. 2; identified by W. LeFanu), an open gold watch and two prisms (?); in the background, two pillars, and a ruined arch with shrubs in the crevices; a view over Rome to the Dome of St. Peter's, with a massive sculptured group of horses and naked men in the foreground ("The Horsemen," on the Quirinal). Inscribed: Sr Charles Scarburgh.

Bibliography: Annals, 26 July 1923; Roll, I, 252; 1926 Catalogue; Sir G. Keynes, The Portraiture of William Harvey, 1949, pp. 13/14, 32 and pl. 12 (reproduction); Leeds Art Calendar (Art Gallery, Leeds), vol. 5, no. 17, pp. 22-31.


Sir Charles Scarburgh 1614-1694 F. 1650  Portrait/X33  n.d

Watercolour drawing on paper, 8 by 7 inches

Source of acquisition: Bought in 1902.



Related information: A more finished watercolour copy of the same picture by Harding is in the print room at the British Museum.
The fullest account to date of Richard Greenbury (fl. 1626-1651) is given by Mrs. Poole in her Catalogue of Oxford Portraits, II, 1925, pp. xv-xxi. He cannot perhaps be ruled out as the possible author of the College painting of Scarburgh (no. 1-Portrait/X80), though the rendering of the features is there markedly different from that in the Barber-Surgeons portrait.

Administrative history:
Charles Scarburgh was born in London, and educated at Cambridge, where he devoted the whole of his spare time to mathematics and medicine. He had determined that medicine should be his life's work and he regarded mathematics as the best preparation for this. In the Civil War, he supported the royal cause and was thrown out of his fellowship at Caius. He went to Oxford and entered himself at Merton College, then presided over by the immortal Harvey; he gained the friendship of that great man, and gave him considerable assistance in the preparation of his famous work de Generatione Animalium.
Dr. Scarburgh moved to London in 1647 where his reputation soon became firmly established. He was one of the original Fellows of the Royal Society, and was appointed first physician to King Charles II, by whom he was knighted in 1669. He attended the king in his last illness, and left a full and interesting account of that illness in manuscript form.* Scarburgh remained a life-long friend of William Harvey, who, in his will, wrote "Item, I give my velvet gowne to my lovinge friend Mr. Doctor Scarburgh;"--"and to Dr. Scarburgh all my little silver instruments of surgerie."
Evelyn recorded: "I dined at the Earl of Sutherland's with Lord Spencer. My Lord showed me his library, now again improved by many books bought at the sale of Sir Charles Scarburgh, an eminent physician, which was the very best collection, especially of mathematical books, that was, I believe in Europe; once designed for the King's library at St. James's, but the queen dying, who was the great patroness of that design, it was let fall, and the books were miserably dissipated."
* Society of Antiquaries, no. 206.

Contents:
By G. P. Harding after Richard Greenbury
An anatomy demonstration; Sir Charles seated in a red armchair to left, wearing a black puffed hat, and a red gown furred with white over a black costume; Edward Arris seated to right, wearing a black gown edged with fur, and holding the left arm of the cadaver stretched across the foreground of the picture; at the top on the left the arms of Scarburgh (Or, a chevron between three castles gules) and the motto Virtute ac Fidei, with the inscription: AE 36 1651; at the top on the right the arms of Arris (?) and the inscription AE 56. Signed at the bottom on the left, G. P. Harding delt. Parts of the background are left unfinished.
A copy, connected with the engraving in stipple by J. Brown published by Harding, 1846, from the painting signed by R. Greenbury which belongs to the Barber Surgeons. The engraving shows only the figure of Scarburgh.

Peter Shaw 1694-1763 F. 1754  Portrait/X223  c.1740-50

Oils on canvas, 36 by 28 inches

Source of acquisition: Presented in 1836 by Mrs. Pelham Warren, whose father-in-law, Dr. Richard Warren, married Shaw's daughter Elizabeth.


Administrative history:
Only a few records remain of this eminent physician. His father being Master of Lichfield Grammar school, he was probably born and educated in that town. He is known to have practised medicine in Scarborough, and as early as 1726 he was at work in London without benefit of licence. For a period he was valuable to the study and development of chemistry in England by his translations of Stahl and of Boerhaave. By about 1740 he had apparently settled in London, where he soon became popular and acquired an extensive practice. He was appointed physician-in-ordinary to the King, and usually accompanied him on his journeys to Hanover.
Dr. Shaw, little known to later generations except by his editions of Bacon and Boyle, was himself a prolific writer. He published more than sixteen books, and sometimes he put pen to paper too hastily, as he used to confess in his later years.

Contents:
By an unknown artist,
Short three-quarter length; pale grey wig, dark brown eyes; white neckcloth with long ends, brown velvet coat; brown background; a curtain on the right.
Painted apparently about 1740/50, in a manner very close to that of William Hoare.

Bibliography: Annals, 19 April 1836; 1864 Cataloguers, p. 31; Roll, III, 400; 1900 List; 1926 Catalogue.


Peter Shaw 1694-1763 F. 1754  Portrait/X131  c.1740?

Oils on canvas, 22¾ by 18½ inches

Archival history:
The history of this portrait is unknown; it appears first in the 1900 List. Painted about 1740; perhaps by the same hand as the first portrait of him.

Administrative history:
Only a few records remain of this eminent physician. His father being Master of Lichfield Grammar school, he was probably born and educated in that town. He is known to have practised medicine in Scarborough, and as early as 1726 he was at work in London without benefit of licence. For a period he was valuable to the study and development of chemistry in England by his translations of Stahl and of Boerhaave. By about 1740 he had apparently settled in London, where he soon became popular and acquired an extensive practice. He was appointed physician-in-ordinary to the King, and usually accompanied him on his journeys to Hanover.
Dr. Shaw, little known to later generations except by his editions of Bacon and Boyle, was himself a prolific writer. He published more than sixteen books, and sometimes he put pen to paper too hastily, as he used to confess in his later years.

Contents:
By an unknown artist,
Head and shoulders to right, no wig, red turban-type cap, with the tassel hanging down behind; dark grey eyes; plain white neck-cloth with long ends, brown velvet collarless coat; brown background, brighter on the right hand side; lit from the left.

Bibliography: 1900 List; 1926 Catalogue.


John Sheldon 1752-1808  Portrait/X023T  n.d

Pencil and sanguine on paper, 99/10 by 72/5 inches

Source of acquisition: Bought 1940; from the collection of Miss M. Dance



Related information: A copy, made for the purposes of the soft-ground etching, published without engraver's name, but probably by William Daniell (see the other drawings by Dance in the College)
A painting by Devis was engraved in stipple by Freeman, 1829, and a portrait by J. Keenan was exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1802.

Administrative history:
John Sheldon was born in London. He was apprenticed to Henry Watson, and studied and taught anatomy under him at his private museum in Tottenham Court Road, which was later wrecked by a mob. In 1776 he became the first professor of anatomy at the Surgeons' Company. He also lectured under William Hunter at Great Windmill Street School.
Sheldon opened his own private theatre in Great Queen Street in 1777; here he did research and taught anatomy. In 1782, he succeeded William Hunter as professor of anatomy at the Royal Academy. He was elected to the Royal Society in 1784.
He was surgeon to the General Medical Asylum and in 1786 became surgeon to the Westminster Hospital, but ill-health compelled him to resign two years later. However, he moved to Exeter and evidently recovered sufficiently to be elected surgeon to the Devon and Exeter Hospital there.
Sheldon made a considerable study of the lymphatic system and the art of embalming; he published the first part of The History of the Absorbent System in 1784, but his poor health prevented his researches going further. Nevertheless he made a voyage to Greenland to test a method of whaling, using poisoned harpoons. He was also said to have been the first Englishman to make a balloon ascent.

Contents:
By (?) George Dance
Half length, seated in profile to left; inscribed in pencil at the bottom: John Shelden [sic] the Anatomist.
The College drawing is either by Dance himself, or by Daniell from the original drawing from the life by Dance of 1793, formerly in the family collection of the Dances (sold Christies, 1 July 1898).

Sir Edward Henry Sieveking 1816-1904 F. 1852  Portrait/X106  c.1860(?)

Oils on canvas, by 29¾ by 24½ inches

Source of acquisition: Presented by his son, A. Forbes Sieveking, 1933.



Related information: In the Royal Society of Medicine there is another portrait.

Administrative history:
Edward Sieveking's parents were both from Hamburg but they emigrated to London before he was born. He was educated in England and Germany, and studied medicine in Berlin, Bonn, University College, London, and Edinburgh, where he graduated in 1841.
He spent a year visiting continental medical schools and then practised among the English colony in Hamburg for four years. He founded the Alster Rowing Club while he was there.
In 1847 Sieveking settled in London and in 1851 he was made assistant physician to St. Mary's Hospital. He lectured on materia medica there for sixteen years, becoming physician (1866-87) and consulting physician. He was also physician to the London Lock Hospital and the National Hospital for the Paralysed and Epileptic. With C. Handfield-Jones, he wrote a Manual of Pathological Anatomy (1854), which became a well-known textbook. He became physician-extraordinary and physician-in-ordinary to both Queen Victoria and the Prince of Wales.
Sieveking was Censor and Vice-President (1888) of the Royal College of Physicians and strongly supported the reforms of 1858. He was largely responsible for founding Epsom College in 1855 and the Edinburgh University Club in London in 1864. He was a Knight of Grace of the Order of St. John of Jerusalem. He wrote articles on nursing, climatology and nervous diseases. Charles Kingsley was one of his many friends.

Contents:
By William Salter Herrick,
Half length, seated to the left; holding his gold pince-nez in his right hand; smooth dark hair; grey eyes; white shirt and collar with a small black bow tie; black suit; a gold signet ring on the little finger of his right hand; background plain dark brown.
The sitter is shown still fairly young, perhaps c.1860.

Bibliography: Annals, 29 July 1933.


James Sims 1741-1820 L. 1778  Portrait/X024T  1796

Pencil on paper 94/5 by 73/5 inches

Source of acquisition: Bought 1940, from the collection of Miss M. Dance.



Related information: A copy made from a lost original by Dance for the purposes of a soft-ground etching published in 1802, with the inscription Geo. Dance delt Sept 1 1796. The etching and the copy may be by Dance himself, but the etching at least is more likely to be the work of William Daniell (see the other drawings by or after Dance in this series in the College: the drawing of Sims is on a smaller scale than usual). The original was sold at Christies, 1 July 1898.
A painting of Sims by S. Medley, 1798, was engraved in stipple by N. Braithwaite, 1799.

Administrative history:
James Sims was born in County Down, the son of a dissenting minister. He left Ireland to study medicine at the famous medical school at Leyden, where he became doctor of medicine in 1764, but returned to practise at Tyrone for nine or ten years. By this time he had gained a good reputation as a physician. He moved to London and built up a successful practice there; he became physician to the General Dispensary and also to the Surrey Dispensary.
Sims was one of the founders of the London Medical Society, and was for twenty-two years its president. An address he delivered to the society at its annual meeting in 1774 was published under the title A Discourse on the best Method of prosecuting Medical Inquiries. He was also the first chairman and vice-president of the Philanthropic Society, and was active in the early success of the Humane Society.
His published works included his Observations on Epidemic Diseases, with Remarks on Nervous and Malignant Fevers (1773), and his Observations on Scarlet Fever (1803). Sims also completed Dr. G. Foster's The Principles and Practice of Midwifery in 1781.
He was a good-humoured man, and an endless source of anecdotes and information alike. He was able to retire to Bath in 1810 at the age of seventy, and spent the last ten years of his life there.

Contents:
By (?) George Dance,
Half length, seated in profile to left; inscribed at the bottom in pencil: Dr. Sims.

Sir Hans Sloane, Bt. 1660-1753 F. 1687 P. 1719-1735  Portrait/X56  c.1725

Oils on canvas, 49¼ by 39 inches; The canvas has been badly injured at some time, and the paint is much rubbed; cut down from the original whole length.

Source of acquisition: Provenance unknown, but possibly given by the sitter and certainly in the College by 1733, when Vertue noted it there--Sir H. Sloane. at len.



Related information: Painted about 1725. Engraved in 1728, head and shoulders only, by J. Faber the younger: T. Murray pinx. Exhibited, National Portrait Exhibition, 1867 (241).
The earliest portrait at present known is the head and shoulders belonging to the Sloane-Stanley family at Paultons, attributed to Kneller, of about 1700 or later; a Kneller of 1716 was given by the sitter to the Royal Society (engraved by Faber, 1729); he also gave a portrait by Richardson of 1730 to the Bodleian Library in 1731. In the National Portrait Gallery is a portrait of Sloane by Stephen Slaughter, of 1736, in the robes of the President of the Royal Society; a whole length, artist unknown (? J. Vanderbank), in similar costume is in the British Museum, as also a bust by Rysbrack; a statue by the same sculptor stands in the Apothecaries' Garden at Chelsea.

Administrative history:
Hans Sloane was born in Northern Ireland. He showed an early interest in the sciences and in 1679 came to London to study medicine, later continuing his medical education in Paris and Montpellier and taking his M.D. at the University of Orange. He had already met the naturalist John Ray, who was to become a close friend. Returning to London, Sloane sent Ray the plants he had collected in France and his observations on their pharmacological uses. His botanical studies gained him election to the Royal Society, but he was still eager to prepare for a medical career rather than to devote himself entirely to natural history. With Robert Boyle's recommendation he introduced himself to Sydenham, then the most famous physician in London. Sydenham took Sloane into his house and strongly urged him to practise. Sloane was able to combine his different interests by accepting, in 1687, the appointment of physician to the Duke of Albemarle, who was going out to Jamaica as Governor. Sloane hoped to study the natural history of the island and to find some new specific remedies comparable in value to the newly-introduced quinine. The study came to an end with the Duke's death in 1689, but by this time Sloane had travelled widely in the West Indies and had made large collections--he brought back 800 species of plants, far more than any one person had collected before, and large numbers of animal specimens as well.
Sloane settled in London and was fully occupied with his practice, his attendance at numerous hospitals (he was eventually a governor of nearly every hospital in London), and the classification of his collections. In 1696 his Catalogue of the plants of Jamaica appeared and his chief work, a description of his voyage to Jamaica and of the natural history of the island, followed in two volumes in 1701 and 1725.
Sloane was a man of wide culture, who rose to positions of eminence in two distinct spheres, medicine and the natural sciences. He became Queen Anne's physician in 1712 and was made Physician-General to the Army in 1716; in the same year he was created a baronet, one of the first physicians to receive an hereditary honour. In the College, he was associated with a movement to establish a Dispensary to sell cost-price medicines to the poor, and during his Presidency, he repeatedly urged Parliament to restrict the distilling and sale of gin, which was causing great misery in London; the first of the Gin Acts was eventually passed in 1736. Sloane was associated with Captain Coram in the foundation of the Foundling Hospital and for years gave his services free as physician to Christ's Hospital. An early advocate of inoculation against smallpox, he encouraged its use throughout the country by inoculating members of the Royal Family.
In 1693 Sloane was appointed one of the Secretaries of the Royal Society, which at that time involved personal responsibility for the publication of the Philosophical Transactions. He resumed its interrupted publication and contributed a number of papers to it. He knew and corresponded with all the major scientists of the time--Newton, Boyle, Linnaeus, Leeuwenhoek and many others. At his home he received frequent visits from scientific friends, being especially welcoming to those from abroad. In 1727 he was unanimously elected to succeed Newton as President of the Royal Society, so becoming the only man to be President of both the Royal College of Physicians and the Royal Society.
Sloane was an open, generous and cheerful man, who succeeded in living a calm and ordered life in an age of much brutality and violence. He had a reputation for never refusing to see anyone needing medical advice. In 1740 he retired to his country-house at Chelsea, but still continued his hospitality to his friends and fellow-scientists. On his death his vast collection of books, manuscripts, prints, medals and coins became the nucleus of the British Museum, while he left the Chelsea Physic Garden, of which he was the landlord, to the Apothecaries' Society.

Contents:
By Thomas Murray,
Three-quarter length, standing; his right hand rests on a cushion (?) on a stone pedestal to the left; flaxen brown wig; pale blue eyes; very dark coat unbuttoned down the front, white lace cuffs; very dark brown background.

Bibliography: Vertue; 1864 Catalogue, p. 17; Roll, I, 467; III, 400; 1900 List; 1926 Catalogue. Several of Sloane's portraits, including this one, are reproduced in G. R. de Beer, Sir Hans Sloane and the British Museum, 1953.


Thomas Sydenham 1624-1689 L. 1663  Portrait/X93  n.d

Oils on canvas, 30 by 25 inches

Source of acquisition: Presented in 1747 by the sitter's grandson, Theodore Sydenham*
* Sometimes also called Theophilus. Theodore seems to be correct. Cf. G. F. Sydenham, History of the Sydenham Family, 1928, pp. 227/8.



Related information: (1699-1762). Copies are at All Souls College, Oxford (by J. Jackson, engraved by Scriven) and at Hertford College, Oxford.

Administrative history:
Thomas Sydenham was one of the greatest English physicians, and has been called "the Father of English Medicine".
Very little is accurately known about his personal life. He was born in Dorset, and went up to Magdalen Hall at Oxford in 1642, apparently without the intention of reading medicine. The Civil War broke out that year, and Sydenham left Oxford to fight on the Parliamentarian side. When he returned to Oxford in 1647, it was to study medicine. Apart from a second period of military service in 1651, in which he was severely wounded, Sydenham remained in Oxford for several years and was made a Fellow of All Souls. He resigned his fellowship about 1656 and moved to London to practise; in 1663 he was admitted to the College as a Licentiate. He practised in London for the rest of his life and died there in 1689.
Sydenham's achievement was to introduce an entirely new spirit into the medicine of his time. He was primarily a practical physician and he laid the greatest stress on clinical observation; his own powers of observation were outstanding. He has been called "the English Hippocrates" because of his emphasis on accurate description and on the clinical, rather than theoretical, aspects of disease. Sydenham showed a further resemblance to Hippocrates in his faith in the healing powers of nature; he looked on disease as the effort of nature to restore a patient to health by neutralising and eliminating injurious matter in the body. He considered fever to be one of nature's means of curing the diseased body. Apart from this general view of disease, Sydenham was not concerned with theories and scorned those physicians who were. This attitude led to some hostility between Sydenham and other physicians in the later years of his life.
Sydenham embodied his observations in detailed descriptions of a large number of diseases. In particular, he wrote classic descriptions of many fevers; his Methodus Curandi Febres, published in 1666, contains detailed accounts of influenza, measles and scarlet fever (he probably introduced the latter term). This work was enlarged by an essay on plague in 1668--plague was endemic in London during Sydenham's early years there and culminated in the great plague of 1665--and was further expanded in later editions, being re-titled Observationes Medicae in 1676. He held that the character of epidemics was partly determined by certain climatic conditions, and described and classified epidemics of pleurisy, pneumonia, rheumatism and the fevers between 1661 and 1675.
He was the first to recognize hysteria as a distinct disease and described for the first time the mild convulsions of children, which became known as Sydenham's chorea. In 1680, he published an account of venereal disease. Sydenham suffered from gout from 1649 until the end of his life, and this directed his attention to this disease. His great work on gout (Tractatus de Podagra et Hydrope), published in 1683, was partly based on his close observation of his own symptoms. He also suffered severely from renal calculus and haematuria.
Sydenham revolutionized the treatment of smallpox and of fevers in general, advocating a cooling régime with fresh air and a bland diet. Among the drugs whose use he popularized were cinchona (Jesuit's bark, a source of quinine), which he advocated for the treatment of fevers, despite opposition, and opium, which he was the first to use in fluid form (Sydenham's laudanum). When he considered that treatment could not significantly affect the disease process, Sydenham did nothing, a considerable innovation at the time.
Sydenham's fame as a physician increased steadily; during his lifetime he was particularly revered in Europe. He was highly respected by the Fellows of the College, although he himself remained a Licentiate, as he did not take his M.D. until thirteen years before his death and so did not qualify for Fellowship. He was a great and modest man, little concerned with academic honours. Although he showed little interest in the experimental work going on in anatomy, physiology and chemistry, he was a close friend of the chemist Robert Boyle, to whom he dedicated his first book. Among his many other eminent friends was the empirical philosopher, John Locke.

Contents:
After Mary Beale (?)
Head and shoulders slightly to right; grey hair shoulder-length, dark brown eyes looking at the spectator; clean-shaven; square-cut lace bands, dark coat buttoned up the front, loose dark purplish cloak draped round the shoulders; background very dark; lit from the left; inscribed at the top on the left: Tho Sydenham MD; on the right: Given to the College by his Grandson Mr. Theodore Sydenham.

Bibliography: 1864 Catalogue, p. 9: Roll, I, 313; III, 401; 1900 List; 1926 Catalogue.


Note: The iconography is still rather confused. Indeed, in most accounts so far, there has been considerable confusion between the three paintings that belong to the College, nos. 1-3 (Portrait/X93, X268, X277)
The earliest certain portrait is that represented in the College by no. 3 above. Another portrait attributed to the same artist is at Hatfield, in the collection of the Marquis of Salisbury, but it may well be by Thomas Sadler.*
No. 1, (Portrait/X93) the paint of which is rather rubbed, is also traditionally ascribed to Mary Beale, but it is apparently a copy; no. 2, (Portrait/X268) probably a painting from the life, has been attributed to Beale, Lely and Closterman. It is the latest portrait known, dating probably from after 1680, and is perhaps by Mary Beale, whose later style is not clearly recognizable, but it has also some of the hard and metallic qualities associated with Closterman. Drawings said to be by Charles Beale are in the Print Room of the British Museum. The originals of nos. 1 (Portrait/X93) and 3 (Portrait/X268) were probably preserved in the family, but their location has yet to be traced (cf. for no. 1 the engraving by Houbraken, of 1746--copied later by Goldar--and then in the possession of John Sydenham). A statue by Henry Weekes was commissioned by the Fellows in 1875/6 for the portico of the College buildings in Pall Mall East (Annuls, 29 April 1875, 27 April 1876).
For other portraits, some of dubious identity, see Annals of Medical History, S.3, vol. II, 1940, pp. 265/70; Gunter, Science in Early Oxford, III, p. 35 (a portrait at Magdalen College, Oxford); Castiglione, History of Medicine, 1947 ed., p. 546.
* See Vertue, op. cit., p. 177: Sadler was a protégé of Sydenham, who passed him on to the Earl of Salisbury, to whom, according to Vertue, the artist took a portrait of Sydenham; Sydenham seems to have been also a friend of Mary Beale's, and one of her sons was his pupil.


Thomas Sydenham 1624-1689 L. 1663  Portrait/X268  n.d

Oils on canvas, 30 by 25 inches

Archival history:
Exhibited National Portrait Exhibition, 1866. This portrait was on loan to the National Portrait Gallery between 1902 and 1960.

Source of acquisition: Presented in 1691 by the sitter's son, William Sydenham (d. 1718)


Administrative history:
Thomas Sydenham was one of the greatest English physicians, and has been called "the Father of English Medicine".
Very little is accurately known about his personal life. He was born in Dorset, and went up to Magdalen Hall at Oxford in 1642, apparently without the intention of reading medicine. The Civil War broke out that year, and Sydenham left Oxford to fight on the Parliamentarian side. When he returned to Oxford in 1647, it was to study medicine. Apart from a second period of military service in 1651, in which he was severely wounded, Sydenham remained in Oxford for several years and was made a Fellow of All Souls. He resigned his fellowship about 1656 and moved to London to practise; in 1663 he was admitted to the College as a Licentiate. He practised in London for the rest of his life and died there in 1689.
Sydenham's achievement was to introduce an entirely new spirit into the medicine of his time. He was primarily a practical physician and he laid the greatest stress on clinical observation; his own powers of observation were outstanding. He has been called "the English Hippocrates" because of his emphasis on accurate description and on the clinical, rather than theoretical, aspects of disease. Sydenham showed a further resemblance to Hippocrates in his faith in the healing powers of nature; he looked on disease as the effort of nature to restore a patient to health by neutralising and eliminating injurious matter in the body. He considered fever to be one of nature's means of curing the diseased body. Apart from this general view of disease, Sydenham was not concerned with theories and scorned those physicians who were. This attitude led to some hostility between Sydenham and other physicians in the later years of his life.
Sydenham embodied his observations in detailed descriptions of a large number of diseases. In particular, he wrote classic descriptions of many fevers; his Methodus Curandi Febres, published in 1666, contains detailed accounts of influenza, measles and scarlet fever (he probably introduced the latter term). This work was enlarged by an essay on plague in 1668--plague was endemic in London during Sydenham's early years there and culminated in the great plague of 1665--and was further expanded in later editions, being re-titled Observationes Medicae in 1676. He held that the character of epidemics was partly determined by certain climatic conditions, and described and classified epidemics of pleurisy, pneumonia, rheumatism and the fevers between 1661 and 1675.
He was the first to recognize hysteria as a distinct disease and described for the first time the mild convulsions of children, which became known as Sydenham's chorea. In 1680, he published an account of venereal disease. Sydenham suffered from gout from 1649 until the end of his life, and this directed his attention to this disease. His great work on gout (Tractatus de Podagra et Hydrope), published in 1683, was partly based on his close observation of his own symptoms. He also suffered severely from renal calculus and haematuria.
Sydenham revolutionized the treatment of smallpox and of fevers in general, advocating a cooling régime with fresh air and a bland diet. Among the drugs whose use he popularized were cinchona (Jesuit's bark, a source of quinine), which he advocated for the treatment of fevers, despite opposition, and opium, which he was the first to use in fluid form (Sydenham's laudanum). When he considered that treatment could not significantly affect the disease process, Sydenham did nothing, a considerable innovation at the time.
Sydenham's fame as a physician increased steadily; during his lifetime he was particularly revered in Europe. He was highly respected by the Fellows of the College, although he himself remained a Licentiate, as he did not take his M.D. until thirteen years before his death and so did not qualify for Fellowship. He was a great and modest man, little concerned with academic honours. Although he showed little interest in the experimental work going on in anatomy, physiology and chemistry, he was a close friend of the chemist Robert Boyle, to whom he dedicated his first book. Among his many other eminent friends was the empirical philosopher, John Locke.

Contents:
Attributed to Mary Beale
In a painted carved stone oval; head and shoulders to right, head turned to look at the spectator; grey hair falling on shoulders; dark grey eyes, clean-shaven, double chin with slight cleft; plain white neck cloth with long ends; wrapped in a loose satin grey robe; greyish-brown background; lit from the left; on the right in small gold letters: Sydenham.

Bibliography: ms. receipt from Dr. Charleton for 2/6d. to Dr. Sydenham's man for bringing the portrait, 5 June 1691; 1864 Catalogue, p. 16; Roll, I, 313; III, 401; 1900 List; 1926 Catalogue.


Note: The iconography is still rather confused. Indeed, in most accounts so far, there has been considerable confusion between the three paintings that belong to the College, nos. 1-3 (Portrait/X93, X268, X277)
The earliest certain portrait is that represented in the College by no. 3 above. Another portrait attributed to the same artist is at Hatfield, in the collection of the Marquis of Salisbury, but it may well be by Thomas Sadler.*
No. 1, (Portrait/X93) the paint of which is rather rubbed, is also traditionally ascribed to Mary Beale, but it is apparently a copy; no. 2, (Portrait/X268) probably a painting from the life, has been attributed to Beale, Lely and Closterman. It is the latest portrait known, dating probably from after 1680, and is perhaps by Mary Beale, whose later style is not clearly recognizable, but it has also some of the hard and metallic qualities associated with Closterman. Drawings said to be by Charles Beale are in the Print Room of the British Museum. The originals of nos. 1 (Portrait/X93) and 3 (Portrait/X268) were probably preserved in the family, but their location has yet to be traced (cf. for no. 1 the engraving by Houbraken, of 1746--copied later by Goldar--and then in the possession of John Sydenham). A statue by Henry Weekes was commissioned by the Fellows in 1875/6 for the portico of the College buildings in Pall Mall East (Annuls, 29 April 1875, 27 April 1876).
For other portraits, some of dubious identity, see Annals of Medical History, S.3, vol. II, 1940, pp. 265/70; Gunter, Science in Early Oxford, III, p. 35 (a portrait at Magdalen College, Oxford); Castiglione, History of Medicine, 1947 ed., p. 546.
* See Vertue, op. cit., p. 177: Sadler was a protégé of Sydenham, who passed him on to the Earl of Salisbury, to whom, according to Vertue, the artist took a portrait of Sydenham; Sydenham seems to have been also a friend of Mary Beale's, and one of her sons was his pupil.


Thomas Sydenham 1624-1689 L. 1663  Portrait/X277  n.d

Oils on canvas, 30 by 25 inches; Oval

Source of acquisition: Presented in 1832 by Mr. Bayford.
* G. Vertue, Notebooks IV, Walpole Society Publications, vol. xxiv, 1936, p. 169.



Related information: Similar, with slight variations in the dress, to an engraving by Blooteling after Mary Beale (published as a frontispiece to the Observations Medicae, 1676); a similar mezzotint by J. McArdell was published in 1794. The College painting is a crude, though early, copy. The lost original is perhaps the portrait for which Sydenham sat to Mrs. Beale in 1672.* Another version, a copy by J. Wollaston, is in the Bodleian Library.

Administrative history:
Thomas Sydenham was one of the greatest English physicians, and has been called "the Father of English Medicine".
Very little is accurately known about his personal life. He was born in Dorset, and went up to Magdalen Hall at Oxford in 1642, apparently without the intention of reading medicine. The Civil War broke out that year, and Sydenham left Oxford to fight on the Parliamentarian side. When he returned to Oxford in 1647, it was to study medicine. Apart from a second period of military service in 1651, in which he was severely wounded, Sydenham remained in Oxford for several years and was made a Fellow of All Souls. He resigned his fellowship about 1656 and moved to London to practise; in 1663 he was admitted to the College as a Licentiate. He practised in London for the rest of his life and died there in 1689.
Sydenham's achievement was to introduce an entirely new spirit into the medicine of his time. He was primarily a practical physician and he laid the greatest stress on clinical observation; his own powers of observation were outstanding. He has been called "the English Hippocrates" because of his emphasis on accurate description and on the clinical, rather than theoretical, aspects of disease. Sydenham showed a further resemblance to Hippocrates in his faith in the healing powers of nature; he looked on disease as the effort of nature to restore a patient to health by neutralising and eliminating injurious matter in the body. He considered fever to be one of nature's means of curing the diseased body. Apart from this general view of disease, Sydenham was not concerned with theories and scorned those physicians who were. This attitude led to some hostility between Sydenham and other physicians in the later years of his life.
Sydenham embodied his observations in detailed descriptions of a large number of diseases. In particular, he wrote classic descriptions of many fevers; his Methodus Curandi Febres, published in 1666, contains detailed accounts of influenza, measles and scarlet fever (he probably introduced the latter term). This work was enlarged by an essay on plague in 1668--plague was endemic in London during Sydenham's early years there and culminated in the great plague of 1665--and was further expanded in later editions, being re-titled Observationes Medicae in 1676. He held that the character of epidemics was partly determined by certain climatic conditions, and described and classified epidemics of pleurisy, pneumonia, rheumatism and the fevers between 1661 and 1675.
He was the first to recognize hysteria as a distinct disease and described for the first time the mild convulsions of children, which became known as Sydenham's chorea. In 1680, he published an account of venereal disease. Sydenham suffered from gout from 1649 until the end of his life, and this directed his attention to this disease. His great work on gout (Tractatus de Podagra et Hydrope), published in 1683, was partly based on his close observation of his own symptoms. He also suffered severely from renal calculus and haematuria.
Sydenham revolutionized the treatment of smallpox and of fevers in general, advocating a cooling régime with fresh air and a bland diet. Among the drugs whose use he popularized were cinchona (Jesuit's bark, a source of quinine), which he advocated for the treatment of fevers, despite opposition, and opium, which he was the first to use in fluid form (Sydenham's laudanum). When he considered that treatment could not significantly affect the disease process, Sydenham did nothing, a considerable innovation at the time.
Sydenham's fame as a physician increased steadily; during his lifetime he was particularly revered in Europe. He was highly respected by the Fellows of the College, although he himself remained a Licentiate, as he did not take his M.D. until thirteen years before his death and so did not qualify for Fellowship. He was a great and modest man, little concerned with academic honours. Although he showed little interest in the experimental work going on in anatomy, physiology and chemistry, he was a close friend of the chemist Robert Boyle, to whom he dedicated his first book. Among his many other eminent friends was the empirical philosopher, John Locke.

Contents:
After Mary Beale
Head and shoulders, slightly to right; brown hair to shoulders, dark grey eyes on the spectator, clean-shaven; square-cut white lawn bands; brown coat unbuttoned over a waistcoat of the same colour; brown background; lit from the left.

Bibliography: Annals, 22 December 1832; 1864 Catalogue, p. 24; Roll, III, 404; I, 313/14; 1900 List; 1926 Catalogue.


Note: The iconography is still rather confused. Indeed, in most accounts so far, there has been considerable confusion between the three paintings that belong to the College, nos. 1-3 (Portrait/X93, X268, X277)
The earliest certain portrait is that represented in the College by no. 3 above. Another portrait attributed to the same artist is at Hatfield, in the collection of the Marquis of Salisbury, but it may well be by Thomas Sadler.*
No. 1, (Portrait/X93) the paint of which is rather rubbed, is also traditionally ascribed to Mary Beale, but it is apparently a copy; no. 2, (Portrait/X268) probably a painting from the life, has been attributed to Beale, Lely and Closterman. It is the latest portrait known, dating probably from after 1680, and is perhaps by Mary Beale, whose later style is not clearly recognizable, but it has also some of the hard and metallic qualities associated with Closterman. Drawings said to be by Charles Beale are in the Print Room of the British Museum. The originals of nos. 1 (Portrait/X93) and 3 (Portrait/X268) were probably preserved in the family, but their location has yet to be traced (cf. for no. 1 the engraving by Houbraken, of 1746--copied later by Goldar--and then in the possession of John Sydenham). A statue by Henry Weekes was commissioned by the Fellows in 1875/6 for the portico of the College buildings in Pall Mall East (Annuls, 29 April 1875, 27 April 1876).
For other portraits, some of dubious identity, see Annals of Medical History, S.3, vol. II, 1940, pp. 265/70; Gunter, Science in Early Oxford, III, p. 35 (a portrait at Magdalen College, Oxford); Castiglione, History of Medicine, 1947 ed., p. 546.
* See Vertue, op. cit., p. 177: Sadler was a protégé of Sydenham, who passed him on to the Earl of Salisbury, to whom, according to Vertue, the artist took a portrait of Sydenham; Sydenham seems to have been also a friend of Mary Beale's, and one of her sons was his pupil.


Thomas Sydenham 1624-1689 L. 1663  Portrait/X92  n.d

A marble bust, 28 inches high

Archival history:
Exhibited at the Winter Exhibition, Royal Academy, 1873.

Source of acquisition: Commissioned by the College in 1758; Wilton was paid £73 for the bust and for setting it up, and a further five guineas for "the model of the said Busto" (no. 4a-Portrait/X151). The bust seems to be based chiefly on no. 1-Portrait/X93


Administrative history:
Thomas Sydenham was one of the greatest English physicians, and has been called "the Father of English Medicine".
Very little is accurately known about his personal life. He was born in Dorset, and went up to Magdalen Hall at Oxford in 1642, apparently without the intention of reading medicine. The Civil War broke out that year, and Sydenham left Oxford to fight on the Parliamentarian side. When he returned to Oxford in 1647, it was to study medicine. Apart from a second period of military service in 1651, in which he was severely wounded, Sydenham remained in Oxford for several years and was made a Fellow of All Souls. He resigned his fellowship about 1656 and moved to London to practise; in 1663 he was admitted to the College as a Licentiate. He practised in London for the rest of his life and died there in 1689.
Sydenham's achievement was to introduce an entirely new spirit into the medicine of his time. He was primarily a practical physician and he laid the greatest stress on clinical observation; his own powers of observation were outstanding. He has been called "the English Hippocrates" because of his emphasis on accurate description and on the clinical, rather than theoretical, aspects of disease. Sydenham showed a further resemblance to Hippocrates in his faith in the healing powers of nature; he looked on disease as the effort of nature to restore a patient to health by neutralising and eliminating injurious matter in the body. He considered fever to be one of nature's means of curing the diseased body. Apart from this general view of disease, Sydenham was not concerned with theories and scorned those physicians who were. This attitude led to some hostility between Sydenham and other physicians in the later years of his life.
Sydenham embodied his observations in detailed descriptions of a large number of diseases. In particular, he wrote classic descriptions of many fevers; his Methodus Curandi Febres, published in 1666, contains detailed accounts of influenza, measles and scarlet fever (he probably introduced the latter term). This work was enlarged by an essay on plague in 1668--plague was endemic in London during Sydenham's early years there and culminated in the great plague of 1665--and was further expanded in later editions, being re-titled Observationes Medicae in 1676. He held that the character of epidemics was partly determined by certain climatic conditions, and described and classified epidemics of pleurisy, pneumonia, rheumatism and the fevers between 1661 and 1675.
He was the first to recognize hysteria as a distinct disease and described for the first time the mild convulsions of children, which became known as Sydenham's chorea. In 1680, he published an account of venereal disease. Sydenham suffered from gout from 1649 until the end of his life, and this directed his attention to this disease. His great work on gout (Tractatus de Podagra et Hydrope), published in 1683, was partly based on his close observation of his own symptoms. He also suffered severely from renal calculus and haematuria.
Sydenham revolutionized the treatment of smallpox and of fevers in general, advocating a cooling régime with fresh air and a bland diet. Among the drugs whose use he popularized were cinchona (Jesuit's bark, a source of quinine), which he advocated for the treatment of fevers, despite opposition, and opium, which he was the first to use in fluid form (Sydenham's laudanum). When he considered that treatment could not significantly affect the disease process, Sydenham did nothing, a considerable innovation at the time.
Sydenham's fame as a physician increased steadily; during his lifetime he was particularly revered in Europe. He was highly respected by the Fellows of the College, although he himself remained a Licentiate, as he did not take his M.D. until thirteen years before his death and so did not qualify for Fellowship. He was a great and modest man, little concerned with academic honours. Although he showed little interest in the experimental work going on in anatomy, physiology and chemistry, he was a close friend of the chemist Robert Boyle, to whom he dedicated his first book. Among his many other eminent friends was the empirical philosopher, John Locke.

Contents:
By Joseph Wilton
Hair worn shoulder length; lace cravat; drapery round the shoulders over doublet buttoned up the front; head turned slightly to left, the eyes (incised) looking the same way; moustache and liptuft; inscribed at the back: THOMAS SYDENHAM MD.

Note: The iconography is still rather confused. Indeed, in most accounts so far, there has been considerable confusion between the three paintings that belong to the College, nos. 1-3 (Portrait/X93, X268, X277)
The earliest certain portrait is that represented in the College by no. 3 above. Another portrait attributed to the same artist is at Hatfield, in the collection of the Marquis of Salisbury, but it may well be by Thomas Sadler.*
No. 1, (Portrait/X93) the paint of which is rather rubbed, is also traditionally ascribed to Mary Beale, but it is apparently a copy; no. 2, (Portrait/X268) probably a painting from the life, has been attributed to Beale, Lely and Closterman. It is the latest portrait known, dating probably from after 1680, and is perhaps by Mary Beale, whose later style is not clearly recognizable, but it has also some of the hard and metallic qualities associated with Closterman. Drawings said to be by Charles Beale are in the Print Room of the British Museum. The originals of nos. 1 (Portrait/X93) and 3 (Portrait/X268) were probably preserved in the family, but their location has yet to be traced (cf. for no. 1 the engraving by Houbraken, of 1746--copied later by Goldar--and then in the possession of John Sydenham). A statue by Henry Weekes was commissioned by the Fellows in 1875/6 for the portico of the College buildings in Pall Mall East (Annuls, 29 April 1875, 27 April 1876).
For other portraits, some of dubious identity, see Annals of Medical History, S.3, vol. II, 1940, pp. 265/70; Gunter, Science in Early Oxford, III, p. 35 (a portrait at Magdalen College, Oxford); Castiglione, History of Medicine, 1947 ed., p. 546.
* See Vertue, op. cit., p. 177: Sadler was a protégé of Sydenham, who passed him on to the Earl of Salisbury, to whom, according to Vertue, the artist took a portrait of Sydenham; Sydenham seems to have been also a friend of Mary Beale's, and one of her sons was his pupil.


Thomas Sydenham 1624-1689 L. 1663  Portrait/X151  n.d

The plaster

Administrative history:
Thomas Sydenham was one of the greatest English physicians, and has been called "the Father of English Medicine".
Very little is accurately known about his personal life. He was born in Dorset, and went up to Magdalen Hall at Oxford in 1642, apparently without the intention of reading medicine. The Civil War broke out that year, and Sydenham left Oxford to fight on the Parliamentarian side. When he returned to Oxford in 1647, it was to study medicine. Apart from a second period of military service in 1651, in which he was severely wounded, Sydenham remained in Oxford for several years and was made a Fellow of All Souls. He resigned his fellowship about 1656 and moved to London to practise; in 1663 he was admitted to the College as a Licentiate. He practised in London for the rest of his life and died there in 1689.
Sydenham's achievement was to introduce an entirely new spirit into the medicine of his time. He was primarily a practical physician and he laid the greatest stress on clinical observation; his own powers of observation were outstanding. He has been called "the English Hippocrates" because of his emphasis on accurate description and on the clinical, rather than theoretical, aspects of disease. Sydenham showed a further resemblance to Hippocrates in his faith in the healing powers of nature; he looked on disease as the effort of nature to restore a patient to health by neutralising and eliminating injurious matter in the body. He considered fever to be one of nature's means of curing the diseased body. Apart from this general view of disease, Sydenham was not concerned with theories and scorned those physicians who were. This attitude led to some hostility between Sydenham and other physicians in the later years of his life.
Sydenham embodied his observations in detailed descriptions of a large number of diseases. In particular, he wrote classic descriptions of many fevers; his Methodus Curandi Febres, published in 1666, contains detailed accounts of influenza, measles and scarlet fever (he probably introduced the latter term). This work was enlarged by an essay on plague in 1668--plague was endemic in London during Sydenham's early years there and culminated in the great plague of 1665--and was further expanded in later editions, being re-titled Observationes Medicae in 1676. He held that the character of epidemics was partly determined by certain climatic conditions, and described and classified epidemics of pleurisy, pneumonia, rheumatism and the fevers between 1661 and 1675.
He was the first to recognize hysteria as a distinct disease and described for the first time the mild convulsions of children, which became known as Sydenham's chorea. In 1680, he published an account of venereal disease. Sydenham suffered from gout from 1649 until the end of his life, and this directed his attention to this disease. His great work on gout (Tractatus de Podagra et Hydrope), published in 1683, was partly based on his close observation of his own symptoms. He also suffered severely from renal calculus and haematuria.
Sydenham revolutionized the treatment of smallpox and of fevers in general, advocating a cooling régime with fresh air and a bland diet. Among the drugs whose use he popularized were cinchona (Jesuit's bark, a source of quinine), which he advocated for the treatment of fevers, despite opposition, and opium, which he was the first to use in fluid form (Sydenham's laudanum). When he considered that treatment could not significantly affect the disease process, Sydenham did nothing, a considerable innovation at the time.
Sydenham's fame as a physician increased steadily; during his lifetime he was particularly revered in Europe. He was highly respected by the Fellows of the College, although he himself remained a Licentiate, as he did not take his M.D. until thirteen years before his death and so did not qualify for Fellowship. He was a great and modest man, little concerned with academic honours. Although he showed little interest in the experimental work going on in anatomy, physiology and chemistry, he was a close friend of the chemist Robert Boyle, to whom he dedicated his first book. Among his many other eminent friends was the empirical philosopher, John Locke.

Contents:
(?) model for ref X92

Bibliography: Cash Book 1726-1778, 18 November 1758; 1864 Catalogue, p. 24; Roll, I, 313/14; III, 404; 1900 List; 1926 Catalogue.


Note: The iconography is still rather confused. Indeed, in most accounts so far, there has been considerable confusion between the three paintings that belong to the College, nos. 1-3 (Portrait/X93, X268, X277)
The earliest certain portrait is that represented in the College by no. 3 above. Another portrait attributed to the same artist is at Hatfield, in the collection of the Marquis of Salisbury, but it may well be by Thomas Sadler.*
No. 1, (Portrait/X93) the paint of which is rather rubbed, is also traditionally ascribed to Mary Beale, but it is apparently a copy; no. 2, (Portrait/X268) probably a painting from the life, has been attributed to Beale, Lely and Closterman. It is the latest portrait known, dating probably from after 1680, and is perhaps by Mary Beale, whose later style is not clearly recognizable, but it has also some of the hard and metallic qualities associated with Closterman. Drawings said to be by Charles Beale are in the Print Room of the British Museum. The originals of nos. 1 (Portrait/X93) and 3 (Portrait/X268) were probably preserved in the family, but their location has yet to be traced (cf. for no. 1 the engraving by Houbraken, of 1746--copied later by Goldar--and then in the possession of John Sydenham). A statue by Henry Weekes was commissioned by the Fellows in 1875/6 for the portico of the College buildings in Pall Mall East (Annuls, 29 April 1875, 27 April 1876).
For other portraits, some of dubious identity, see Annals of Medical History, S.3, vol. II, 1940, pp. 265/70; Gunter, Science in Early Oxford, III, p. 35 (a portrait at Magdalen College, Oxford); Castiglione, History of Medicine, 1947 ed., p. 546.
* See Vertue, op. cit., p. 177: Sadler was a protégé of Sydenham, who passed him on to the Earl of Salisbury, to whom, according to Vertue, the artist took a portrait of Sydenham; Sydenham seems to have been also a friend of Mary Beale's, and one of her sons was his pupil.


Alfred Swaine Taylor 1806-1880 F. 1853  Portrait/X236  n.d

Oval miniature, 21/8 by 15/8 inches (sight measurement).

Source of acquisition: Presented by Mrs. Grinling Harris in 1956


Administrative history:
Alfred Swaine Taylor, son of a captain in the East India Company's fleet, was born at Northfleet in Kent. He went to a private school and in 1822 was apprenticed to a medical practitioner near Maidstone. In 1823 he entered the United Medical School of Guy's and St. Thomas's. He qualified at Guy's in 1828 and returned to Paris, where he had already spent some time, to study under Orfila, Dupuytren and Gay-Lussac. He then made a brief geological survey of the Auvergne, visited Montpellier, and went on an adventurous voyage to Naples, where he stayed for nine months. He walked home across the Continent, visiting eight medical schools on the way. He was in Paris again in 1830 during the Revolution, when he was able to see how Manec and Misfranc treated battle wounds.
Taylor, who had become very interested in medical jurisprudence, was appointed in 1831 to the new Chair in this subject at Guy's, a position he held until 1877. In 1832 he became joint lecturer on chemistry and was soon the leading authority on both toxicology and medical jurisprudence. His book on the Elements of Medical Jurisprudence appeared first in 1836; it then became the basis of A Manual of Medical Jurisprudence (1844) and or The Principles and Practice of Medical Jurisprudence (1865). These books, and his work on Poisons in relation to Medical Jurisprudence and Medicine (1848), were regarded as standard works in his lifetime. They codified legal precedents and rulings and relevant anatomical and chemical data. The general public came to know Taylor from his appearances as a witness for the prosecution in some famous murder trials, including those of Drory and of the poisoners Tawell, Palmer, Smethurst and Catherine Wilson. In the witness box he was a commanding figure, unbending and relentless. He believed that there should be official experts or assessors for trials where medical evidence was needed, because of the dangers of partisanship.

Contents:
Artist unknown
Head and shoulders, almost in profile to the right: grey hair and side-whiskers.
Painted probably towards the close or the sitter's life.

Robert Bentley Todd 1809-1860 F. 1837  Portrait/X61  1860

Small-scale marble bust, on a circular socle, 10 inches high

Source of acquisition: Bequeathed by his daughter, Miss Elizabeth M. Todd, 1917.



Related information: Another version is in the Royal College of Surgeons: compare the statue at King's College Hospital.

Administrative history:
Todd was the son of a well-known Irish surgeon. After qualifying at College, Dublin, he moved to London and was made lecturer in anatomy at the Aldersgate Street Medical School, where he attracted the attention of Astley Cooper and Brodie. Meanwhile he was planning, with Grant, the Cyclopaedia of Anatomy and Physiology. This work, under Todd's editorship, was of great value in advancing the study of physiology and of comparative and microscopic anatomy. Its first number appeared in 1835, the last in 1859. Todd himself wrote several of its earlier articles, and its contributors included Sir Richard Owen, Sir William Bowman, Sir James Paget and Sir John Simon.
He was appointed to the newly-established chair of physiology and morbid anatomy at King's College, London, at a time when microscopical investigation was offering new fields for research. His first task, however, was to restore the diminished prestige of the Medical School. He was insistent on a high standard of both professional and general knowledge in its medical students and was an enthusiastic supporter of King's College Hospital, which was founded in 1840, he himself being one of its first physicians. He was also influential in the raising of the standard of nursing in the Hospital by the establishment of a training school. Few did more than Todd for the efficiency of the Hospital and for its Medical School, but in addition he built up a large private practice, was an examiner, and also served on the council of the Royal Society.

Contents:
By M. Noble,
Side-whiskers; eyes incised, mouth and chin clean-shaven; high collar, bow tie; coat open down the front, a monocle hanging on a ribbon at his waistcoat; inscribed at the back: Dr TODD F.R.S. and M. NOBLE SC. On the base another inscription: OB VITAM SERVATAM, and Presented to Mrs. Todd by Frederick Lowton Spinks May 1860.

Bibliography: Annals, 26 July 1917; D'Arcy Power, British Masters of Medicine, 1936, p. 110; W. LeFanu, Catalogue of the Portraits... in the Royal College of Surgeons, 1960, no. 217.


Alexander Tweedie 1794-1884 F. 1838  Portrait/X44  c.1870(?)

Oils on canvas, 35¾ by 27¾ inches

Source of acquisition: Presented by his widow, Mrs. Tweedie, in 1884


Administrative history:
Alexander Tweedie was born and educated in Edinburgh. For a time he was one of two house surgeons at Edinburgh Royal Infirmary, the other being Robert Liston. Tweedie was strongly urged to specialize in ophthalmic surgery, but was anxious to work in London, where he became physician to the Fever Hospital for thirty-eight years.
It appeared strange to Tweedie that although French and German physicians had by joint labour brought out dictionaries, no similar work had been attempted in Britain. He accordingly planned and edited The Cyclopoedia of Practical. Medicine, comprising treatises on the Nature and Treatment of Diseases, Materia Medica and Therapeutics, Medical Jurisprudence, etc. Later Dr. Tweedie edited The Library of Medicine, which came out in eight volumes, and was published in London in 1840. The first five volumes of this dealt with practical medicine, the sixth with midwifery, and the seventh and eighth were a translation, with illustrations, of Cruveilhier's celebrated work on anatomy.

Contents:
By Enrico Belli,
Halflength, seated to the right, holding a closed book, the forefinger of his right hand marking the place; short white hair and side-whiskers; grey black bowtie; black coat with velvet collar; his pince-nez, attached to a black ribbon round his neck, resting on his stomach; dark brown background, a red curtain to the left; signed at the bottom on the left: E. BELLI.
Painted late in life, perhaps c.1870.

Bibliography: Annals, 29 May, 30 July 1884; 1900 List; 1926 Catalogue.


Edward Tyson 1650-1708 F. 1683  Portrait/X76  c. 1695 (?)

Oils on canvas, 49¾ by 40¼ inches

Archival history:
Painted apparently about 1695 for the Chirurgians' Hall, sold by them to Luke Maurice (a relative) in 1746 for 10 guineas.

Source of acquisition: Presented in 1764 by his great-nephew, Dr. Richard Tyson


Administrative history:
Edward Tyson was one of the great comparative anatomists. He demonstrated for the first time the probability of a relationship between man and other animals, which was not established more clearly until Darwin's The Descent of Man was published, over 150 years later.
Tyson was born in Somerset of an old Cumberland family. He was educated at Oxford and at Corpus Christi College, Cambridge, where he became a doctor of medicine in 1680. He then moved to London, and, combining his anatomical studies with the practice of medicine, was physician at the Bridewell and Bethlem Hospitals. He was also Reader in Anatomy at Surgeons' Hall.
Tyson's researches in anatomy extended to a great variety of animals. He published studies of the rattlesnake, the opossum (which he studied with the poet William Cowper), and the porpoise. He also worked on invertebrates, giving full accounts of the tapeworm and the roundworm. Several important papers appeared in the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, of which he was a Fellow. His outstanding contribution, however, was his Orang-Outang, sive Homo Sylvestris: or, The Anatomy of a Pygmie compared with that of a Monkey, an Ape and a Man, published in 1699. With this work, which contained the first account of the anatomy of the chimpanzee ("a pygmie"), Tyson initiated the study of the anthropoid apes, distinguishing them for the first time as a group separate from monkeys and from man.
From a description of Tyson in a contemporary poem, Garth's Dispensary, it appears that he was a cold, remote man, whose chief concern was the application of reason to all questions.

Contents:
By E. Lilley,
Three-quarter length to left, seated, head three-quarters to the left; in his right hand, a pen, in his left a folded document; a long brown wig falls below his shoulders; round black velvet hat; dark brown eyes looking at the spectator; clean-shaven; plain narrow white bands; scarlet robe with a black gown over it; white lawn frills at his cuffs; background, plain dark brown; at the top, in gold letters; Ed. Tyson: M.D.; at the bottom right, in black letters now almost obliterated: E. Lilly/fecit.

Bibliography: Annals, 25 June 1764; 1864 Catalogue, p. II; Roll, III, 401; 1900 List; 1926 Catalogue (all as artist unknown). M. F. Ashley Montagu, Edward Tyson, M.D., F.R.S., 1943, pp. 322/23 and reproduction. A sculptured bust was incorporated in the monument at All Hallows, Lombard Street (reproduced Ashley Montagu, p. 374).


1.? Richard Tyson 1730-1784 F. 1761; 2.? Richard Tyson 1680-1750 F.1718 P.1746-1750  Portrait/X190  c.1710/20?

Oil on canvas, 50 by 40¼ inches

Source of acquisition: Provenance unknown; if appears first, in the 1864 Catalogue as a portrait of Richard Tyson, great-nephew of Edward Tyson, whose Portrait he gave to the College


Administrative history:
1. This Richard Tyson was the great-nephew of Edward Tyson, the famous comparative anatomist and Fellow of the College, whose portrait he presented to this collection.
He read medicine at Oriel College, Oxford, and took his D.M. there in 1760. In 1761 he became a Fellow of the College of Physicians, and in the following year he was elected physician at St. Bartholomew's Hospital.
Tyson held important offices within the College over a number of years; he was elected Censor five times and was Registrar from 1774 until 1780.
2. Son of Edward Tyson, educated at and a Fellow of Pembroke College, Cambridge, he graduated M.B. in 1710 and M.D. in 1715. He was five times Censor, for twelve years Registrar, from 1739 to 1746 Treasurer, and President from 1746 until his death.
A physician to St. Bartholomew's Hospital, Tyson was on one occasion violently assaulted by one of the patients, suffering painful but not serious injuries.

Contents:
By an unknown artist,
Three-quarter length, seated in a large winded armchair; long pale grey-brown wig; grey blue eyes; plain narrow white bands, scarlet gown; a few books standing on the table; dark brown background on the right; left a blue grey and yellow sky.
This Richard was born in 1730, but the date of the costume worn by the sitter in this portrait can barely be put after that, and is more likely to be considerably earlier.
If of a Tyson, this might represent Edward's son Richard (1680-1750).

Bibliography: 1864 Catalogue, p. 10; Roll, II, 59, 234; III, 401; 1900 List; 1926 Catalogue (all as Richard Tyson the younger).


Called Andreas Vesalius 1514-1564  Portrait/X275  n.d

Oils on canvas mounted on a panel, 39 by 29¼ inches

Archival history:
In 1797 permission was granted to a Mr. Green, employed by R. S. Tighe, to make a copy of it. Exhibited, British Institution, 1847. Engraved by W. Holl for the Medical Portrait Gallery, 1840.

Source of acquisition: Provenance unknown; apparently acquired some time in the eighteenth century, and certainly in the College before 1790 about when it was noted there by Pennant



Related information: This portrait almost certainly does not represent Vesalius, nor is it, as formerly catalogued, an original by Calcar. It is a copy possibly after a lost original by Titian (a very similar picture once in the Gallery of Archduke Leopold was engraved as Titian by Van Troyen). The basic document for the document of Vesalius is the woodcut of 1542 by Calcar, used for the first edition of the De Humani Corporis Fabrica Libri Septem of 1543, which shows a much shorter and broader head. The College painting is discussed and rejected as a portrait of Vesalius, with great detail and illustration, in M. H. Spielmann's study of the iconography.

Administrative history:
This portrait is not believed to be of Andreas Vesalius, the great Belgian anatomist who became Professor of Surgery at Padua, Bologna and Basle, and whose revolutionary approach to human anatomy was most clearly demonstrated in his De Humani Corporis Fabrica (1543), his greatest work.

Contents:
Artist unknown
Short three-quarter length standing slightly to right; very dark fur-edged gown over dark doublet; very dark cropped hair, heavy beard and moustache, sallow skin, dark brown eyes; dark brown background. Inscribed in the top left corner: ANDREAS VESALIUS/I CALCAR.

Bibliography: T. Pennant, London (2nd edition 1791, p. 326; the first ed. was in 1790); Annals, 1797; 1864 Catalogue, p. 10; Roll, III, 401; 1900 List; 1926 Catalogue; M. H. Spielmann, The Iconography of Andreas Vesalius (Wellcome Research Studies in Medical History no. 3), 1925, pp. 44-7 and reproduction.


Pelham Warren 1777-1835 F. 1806  Portrait/X363  1835

Panel, 15 by 11¾ inches

Archival history:
Descended from the sitter in the collection of the Warren family; sold with Mrs. Warren-Codrington's collection, Christies, May 1949

Source of acquisition: Bought by the College in May 1949.


Administrative history:
The ninth son of Richard Warren, M.D., F.R.S., Pelham Warren was born in London. He obtained his M.D. as a member of Trinity College, Cambridge, and for a time was a physician to St. George's Hospital.
In 1830 Warren was gazetted physician-extraordinary to the King, but he declined the honour, as the appointment had been made without consulting him. "His sentiments were in all respects those of a gentleman; and as he was too independent not to express them when the occasion required, titled impertinence has more than once been overmastered by the caustic bitterness of his retort. His manners were peculiar and not always pleasing, being generally cold and sometimes abrupt. He took a prodigious quantity of snuff, and was plain and untidy in his dress, perhaps to affectation. For many years he appeared to take no more exercise than in walking from his carriage to the sick chamber, and looked much older than he really was; but he had remarkably keen black eye, which retained its vivacity long after the effects of disease were visible on his countenance."*
* Medical Gazette, December 1835.

Contents:
By John Linnell, (not reproduced)
Three-quarter length, seated in a red chair; an open book on his knee; thin short black hair, black eyebrows, very dark bright brown eyes; sallow complexion; high black stock; black coat; grey trousers; a round crimson table stands at his elbow, right, with two books on it; a desk or shelf behind him with more books, and an elaborate golden-brown carved book-case; signed low on the left: J. Linnell/F 1835; written in ink on the back: Dr. P. Warren sat the last time just before he went to Herne Bay.

Pelham Warren 1777-1835 F. 1806  Portrait/X361  1836

Oils on canvas, 50 by 39¾ inches

Source of acquisition: Presented in 1857 by his widow, Mrs. Polham Warren.



Related information: This protrait, of which at least three versions exist, and which was also engraved in mezzotint by the artist in 1836, seems to have been arranged by Lady Callcott, wife of Sir A. W, Callcott, R. A., and sister-in-law of the sitter; sittings took place just before Warren's final illness in 1835. The life-sized version in the College was doubtless ordered by Mrs. Warren for the College; the smaller picture is the original; one of the versions was exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1837.*
* A version (? that made for Lady Callcott) was in the possession of the Dowdeswell Galleries of London in 1897.

Administrative history:
The ninth son of Richard Warren, M.D., F.R.S., Pelham Warren was born in London. He obtained his M.D. as a member of Trinity College, Cambridge, and for a time was a physician to St. George's Hospital.
In 1830 Warren was gazetted physician-extraordinary to the King, but he declined the honour, as the appointment had been made without consulting him. "His sentiments were in all respects those of a gentleman; and as he was too independent not to express them when the occasion required, titled impertinence has more than once been overmastered by the caustic bitterness of his retort. His manners were peculiar and not always pleasing, being generally cold and sometimes abrupt. He took a prodigious quantity of snuff, and was plain and untidy in his dress, perhaps to affectation. For many years he appeared to take no more exercise than in walking from his carriage to the sick chamber, and looked much older than he really was; but he had remarkably keen black eye, which retained its vivacity long after the effects of disease were visible on his countenance."*
* Medical Gazette, December 1835.

Contents:
By John Linnell,
Similar in all respects to the above, but life-sized, showing slightly more background, and signed low on the left: John Linnell f / 1836.

Bibliography: Annals, 22 December 1837; 1864 Catalogue, p. 15; Roll, III, 41, 401; 1900 List; 1926 Catalogue; A. T. Storey, Life of John Linnell, 1892,I,pp. 272/275 and II, p. 250


Richard Warren 1731-1797 F. 1763  Portrait/X362  n.d

Oils on canvas, 50 by 40 inches

Archival history:
Exhibited National Portrait Exhibition, 1867 (835); Royal Academy (Winter Exhibition), 1873 (83)

Source of acquisition: Presented by his son, Dr. Pelham Warren, in 1825



Related information: Another portrait by Gilbert Stuart (engraved in stipple by Bartolozzi, 1810) was also sold with the Warren-Codrington collection in 1949.

Administrative history:
Richard Warren was educated at Cambridge where he had to overcome both lack of financial support and much prejudice against the son of a Tory. However, he was fourth wrangler, won Latin prizes and a fellowship at Jesus College, and was diverted to medicine by the son of Dr. Peter Shaw to whom he became tutor, and whose sister he married. His father-in-law and Sir Edward Wilmot helped to advance his interests, but his high position was the just attainment of great talent rather than the result of patronage or chance. He was one of the first physicians to depart from the formalities which for long had made medicine a favourite theme of ridicule with the wits who happened to enjoy health. He was also one of the few great characters of his time whose popularity was not a result of party favour. He had a sure instinct for the feelings of others, and all his patients wished to be his friends. The Princess Amelia and later her father, George III, came under his care, and from the time of the regency he is believed to have earned £9,000 a year, and at the end to have left £150,000 to his family.

Contents:
By an unknown artist after Thomas Gainsborough
Three-quarter length standing; leaning on his left arm on a gilt carved table, black three-corner hat in the crook of his arm; short grey-powdered wig, dark eyebrows, grey eyes; long grey velvet coat over light check waistcoat; ribbons with seals at his fob; dark breeches; on the table is a piece of paper, and an inkstand with a quill pen; in the background brown drapery and an opening left giving on to some trees and a cloudy grey and yellow sky.
This portrait was long thought to be the original by Gainsborough; but when it was seen out of its frame in 1946, the relatively mechanical handling of the paint proved that it must be a good copy. According to a letter from the sitter's grandson (? 1874), it is "a copy by Gainsborough from an original portrait by him, and was painted after grandfather's death". Gainsborough however died in 1788; the copy might be by his nephew and assistant Gainsborough Dupont. The original, from the collection of a descendant of the sitter, Mrs. Warren-Codrington, appeared at Christies in May 1949. The original was engraved in mezzotint by J. Jones, 1792.

Bibliography: Annals, 23 June 1825 (gives no artist's name); Roll, III, 401; 1864 Catalogue, p. 15; 1900 list; 1926 Catalogue; Ellis Waterhouse, Preliminary Check List of Portraits by Thomas Gainsborough, Walpole Society, vol. XXXIII, (1953), p. 112; al. from R. P. Warren, 20 February (? 1874)


Sir Thomas Watson, Bt. 1792-1882 F. 1826 P. 1862-1867  Portrait/X025T  n.d

Oils on canvas, 35¾ by 28 inches

Source of acquisition: Provenance at present unknown; very possibly the portrait of "Dr. Watson" recorded in Richmond's Diary for 1850 (copy in the National Portrait Gallery Archives); acquired apparently after 1926. Etched by W. Holl.


Administrative history:
Thomas Watson was descended from a family long-settled in Northumberland. After school at Bury St. Edmunds, he entered St. John's College, Cambridge, where he was elected a Fellow, and then studied medicine at St. Bartholomew's Hospital. He became physician to the Middlesex Hospital in 1827, but moved to King's College in 1828. His lectures on the principles and practice of medicine immediately established his reputation, and their publication, in two volumes and many editions, placed him in the first rank of physicians. The retirement of Dr. Chambers about 1848 left Watson the acknowledged head of the medical profession in this country. He was appointed physician-extraordinary to Queen Victoria in 1859, and as such, together with Sir William Jenner and Sir Henry Holland, he was called to attend the Prince Consort in his last illness. He was created baronet in 1866 and physician-in-ordinary to the Queen in 1870.
Sir Thomas Watson was revered by the whole medical profession, and beloved by those who known him best, the members of the Royal College of Physicians, with which institution he was long, intimately, and honourably associated in many capacities, for five years as its President.

Contents:
By George Richmond
Half length seated, curly short dark brown hair and whiskers, very dark brown eyes; high black stock, yellow waistcoat, black coat with high collar; red background, very dark on the left; on the right, at the edge of the picture, a glimpse of bookshelves.

Sir Thomas Watson, Bt. 1792-1882 F. 1826 P. 1862-1867  Portrait/X197  1867

Panel, 36 by 27¾ inches

Source of acquisition: Presented in 1867 by the Fellows of the College



Related information: Richmond painted a replica of it the same year, after which it was exhibited at the Royal Academy, 1868 (66). Engraved in mezzotint by Samuel Cousins, 1868, at the commission of the College.
A portrait by Samuel Lawrence was shown at the Royal Academy in 1870.

Administrative history:
Thomas Watson was descended from a family long-settled in Northumberland. After school at Bury St. Edmunds, he entered St. John's College, Cambridge, where he was elected a Fellow, and then studied medicine at St. Bartholomew's Hospital. He became physician to the Middlesex Hospital in 1827, but moved to King's College in 1828. His lecrures on the principles and practice of medincine immediately established his reputation, and their publication, in two volumes and many editions, placed him in the first rank of physicians. The retirement of Dr. Chambers about 1848 left Watson the acknowledged head of the medical profession in this country. He was appointed physician-extraordinary to Queen Victoria in 1859, and as such, together with Sir William Jenner and Sir Henry Holland, he was called to attend the Prince Consort in his last illness. He was created baronet in 1866 and physician-in-ordinary to the Queen in 1870.
Sir Thomas Watson was revered by the whole medical profession, and beloved by those who known him best, the members of the Royal College of Physicians, with which institution he was long, intimately, and honourably associated in many capacities, for five years as its President.

Contents:
By George Richmond,
Three-quarter length seated, wearing the President's gown, black with heavy gilt braiding; leaning his chin on his right hand; his left hand resting on his knees, holding a book; bald on the crown of the head, white hair, clean-shaven; brown eyes; dark suit, gold ring on the little finger of his left hand; dark background with a pillar to right.

Bibliography: Annals, 28 November 1867; Roll, III, 293, 402; 1900 List; 1926 Catalogue; Richmond's Diary for 1867 (copy in the National Portrait Gallery Archives).


Sir Hermann Weber 1823-1918 F. 1859  Portrait/X105  1904 (?)

Oil on canvas, 39¾ by 30½ inches

Source of acquisition: Acquired by the College in 1930, source at present unknown. Bought from A.A. Heron see MS 2004/190. The last figure of the date appears to read as 4; according to a manuscript label on the back of the stretcher, however, the picture was painted in 1909.



Related information: A portrait by J. B. Burgess was exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1886, and one by H. von Herkomer in 1903, and a bust by Fritz Gerth in 1892. A number of portraits and photographs are reproduced by F. P. Weber, Autobiographical Reminiscences of Sir Hermann Weber, P.P. 1919.

Administrative history:
Hermann Weber, son of a German landowner and his Italian wife, was born and educated in Germany. He graduated at Bonn in 1848 and began to practise there. He learned English so that he could read Shakespeare's plays in their original language. Among English visitors to Marburg and Bonn whom he met were Carlyle and James Simpson. His next step was to come to London as house physician to the German Hospital at Dalston and in 1854 he married an English girl, after which he decided to remain in England. He studied at Guy's Hospital to obtain an English qualification and became an L.R.C.P. in 1855.
Weber had great charm and his large practice was remarkable for the number of distinguished patients he treated, including five Prime Ministers--Derby, Russell, Salisbury, Rosebery and Campbell-Bannerman--and many of his professional colleagues, among them Lister, Paget and Spencer Wells. He was one of the earliest to support open-air treatment for pulmonary tuberculosis and to recommend Alpine health resorts. He wrote articles on tuberculosis and climatology for Quain's Dictionary of Medicine, Allbutt's System of Medicine and other publications. With his son, F. Parkes Weber, F.R.C.P., he wrote a book on The Mineral Waters and Health Resorts of Europe (1896). He was a Censor at the Royal College of Physicians and gave £3,000 for the establishment of the Weber-Parkes Prize for an essay on tuberculosis, in memory of his friend Edmund Parkes, F.R.C.P. He was knighted in 1899.
Weber was an enthusiastic climber and made many of the earliest Alpine ascents. He climbed the Matterhorn and Jungfrau when 67 and was still going on climbing expeditions at the age of seventy-nine. He retired from practice when he was eighty and proceeded to make a name for himself as a collector of old coins. He travelled in search of these all over southern Europe and the Middle East. He was temperate in his habits but he was proud of the quality of the wines in his cellar. He died in his ninety-fifth year.

Contents:
By T. H. Voigt,
Almost whole length, seated; his hands holding a red-bound gift-edged book, resting in his lap; profuse grey hair; square-cut beard, almost white; pale grey eyes; blue tie, dark grey suit, with a gold watch-chain across his waistcoat; red-brown background; signed at the bottom on the right: T. H. Voigt / 1904(?).

Bibliography: Ms. entry in the Office copy of the 1926 Catalogue.


William Wegg 1815-1893 F. 1851  Portrait/X43  1883

Oils on canvas, 44 by 33¾ inches

Archival history:
Exhibited at the Academy, 1883 (1443).

Source of acquisition: Bequest of W. H. J. Wegg, the son of William Wegg.


Administrative history:
William Wegg was born at Greenwich. He studied medicine at Caius College, Cambridge, and when he had qualified he settled in London. He had a private income and apparently never attempted to build up a practice for himself, though for a time he was physician to the St. George's and St. James's Dispensary. However he was an active member of the Royal College of Physicians and was Curator of the Museum from 1858 until his death and a Censor in 1867 and 1868. He was treasurer of the Royal Medical and Chirurgical Society for eight years.

Contents:
By Walter William Ouless,
Three-quarter length, seated; an open book on his knee; dark grey hair, very thin on the top of his head; white whiskers; dark eyebrows; grey eyes; dark cravat with a ring in the knot; dark suit and scarlet M.D. gown; dark brown background; signed low on the left: W. W. Ouless/ 1883.

Bibliography: Annals, 31 January 1941.


Thomas Wharton 1614-1673 F. 1650  Portrait/X143  1650 (?)

Oils on canvas, 29¾ by 24¼ inches

Archival history:
Exhibited at the National Portrait Exhibition, 1866 (961).

Source of acquisition: Presented in 1729 by his grandson Dr. George Wharton


Administrative history:
Thomas Wharton was born in Co. Durham. His studies at Oxford were interrupted by the Civil War, during which he studied medicine in London, returning on the capitulation of Oxford to be created M.D. by virtue of an order by the Parliamentary general, Sir Thomas Fairfax. However irregular his graduation, his excellence as an anatomist won him great fame. He was also one of the few physicians who continued to work in London during the plague in 1665, deciding to stay and attend his own patients and the poor of St. Thomas's Hospital, where he was physician. With the disease at its height, most of the profession hurried with their families for safety into the country. Wharton's resolution wavered, but he was induced to stay by a promise from the Government that if he continued to attend the Guards who were sent to St. Thomas's Hospital he would receive the first vacant appointment of physician-in-ordinary to the King. Soon after the plague had ceased there was a vacancy in the promised office and Dr. Wharton went to court to ask for the fulfilment of the engagement. He was told that His Majesty was obliged to appoint another person his physician; but, to show his appreciation of Dr. Wharton's services, he would order the heralds to grant him an honourable augmentation to his paternal arms. From Dr. Wharton's notes in a diary, it appears that he had to pay a fee of £100 for this augmentation (a canton or in the dexter quarter), the sole reward he received.

Contents:
By an unknown artist,
Head and shoulders to left; tall round black hat; dark brown hair; brown eyes, moustache and a small tufted beard on the lower lip and chin; a mole on his left cheek; broad white collar, dark dress; background plain dark brown.
It is described in the Annals upon acquisition as "by Vandyke", but is certainly not from his hand. It is closer to the style of Edward Bower. Engraved in line by W. H. Worthington in 1834; a small watercolour copy by G. P. Harding is in the Print Room of the British Museum. A copy in the Bodleian, by J. Wollaston, is recorded in Gutch's Catalogue of 1796, but is now lost; see Poole, Catalogue of Oxford Portraits, 1912, I, p. 129.

Bibliography: Annals, 30 September 1729; Vertue; Roll, I, 402; 1864, Catalogue, p. 8; 1900 List; 1926 Catalogue.


Daniel Whistler 1619-1684 F. 1649 P. 1683  Portrait/X133  c. 1660/70

Oils on canvas, 29¾ by 24¾ inches

Archival history:
Exhibited, National Portrait Exhibition, 1866 (917).

Source of acquisition: Presented by Edmund Boulter, 1704.



Related information: Engraved by W. H. Worthington. A pencil tracing, of a very similar small drawing, is in the National Portrait Gallery; according to an inscription on the tracing, the drawing from which it was taken was at Strawberry Hill (Horace Walpole's Collection). A drawing of Whistler was made by David Loggan (recorded by Robert Hooke in his Diary, entries for 12 April and 6 May 1676), but this was unlikely to have had any relation to the College portrait, which seems earlier and from the life. A small water-colour drawing (? by G. P. Harding) possibly related to the tracing, is in the Print Room of the British Museum.

Administrative history:
Daniel Whistler was born at Walthamstow. He took his first degree at Merton College, Oxford, in arts, and then turned to medicine, which his college allowed him to study at Leyden. In his dissertation for the M.D. degree, delivered at Leyden in 1645, Whistler gave the first printed description of rickets, five years before the better known account of Francis Glisson was published.
Whistler was also a good mathematician and in 1648 became Gresham Professor of Geometry. He held the chair until his marriage in 1657. Meanwhile he began to practise in London, and became a popular and successful physician. In 1653 he went to Sweden as chief physician to the embassy made by Bulstrode Whitlocke there.
After his return to London, Whistler became active and powerful in the College; he was elected Censor twelve times between 1657 and 1680, and held the office of Registrar from 1674 until 1682. He then became Treasurer and in 1683 "in an evil hour" was elected President.
Whistler's interests ranged widely and he was one of the founders of the Royal Society. He was evidently an attractive and lively man who shone in society.
Despite a flourishing practice, Whistler was deeply in debt when he died. Munk's Roll is in no doubt about his dishonesty and his misappropriation, as Registrar and President, of College funds, but since there was undoubtedly great confusion and much neglect in the handling of the accounts at that time and no possible estimate could be made of the extent to which Whistler was involved, it would be more charitable to suppose that his offences were failure to do his duty and carelessness.

Contents:
By an unknown artist,
Short half length to right, in a painted oval; wearing his own dark brown hair shoulder length; dark blue-grey eyes; plain broad white collar; dark gown; plain brown background; lit from the left; inscribed at the bottom: Daniel Whistler, M.D.

Bibliography: Annals, 13 July 1704; Hatton 1708; Vertue; Roll, III, 402; 1864 Catalogue, p. 32; 1900 List; 1926 Catalogue.


Sir Samuel Wils, Bt. 1824-1911 F.1856 P. 1869-1899  Portrait/X25  1897

Oils on canvas, 49¾ by 40 inches

Archival history:
Exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1897 (1028).

Source of acquisition: Bequeathed to the College by the sitter, 1912


Administrative history:
Samuel Wilks was born in Camberwell, the son of a cashier in the East India Company. He was apprenticed to a general practitioner in Newington whose widow he later married. He entered Guy's Hospital as a student in 1842, qualifying in 1847. After trying general practice, he decided to become a consultant. He held a number of posts at Guy's Hospital, becoming full physician in 1867 and consulting physician in 1885.
Wilks made his name by his recognition of the importance of pathology. His Lectures on Pathological Anatomy appeared in 1869, but as editor of Guy's Reports he had already written articles on this subject. He also wrote Lectures on the Specific Fevers (1874) and Lectures on Diseases of the Nervous System (1878) and contributed to the knowledge of syphilis, Bright's disease, Addison's disease and Hodgkin's disease. A fellow of the Royal Society, he was president of the Pathological Society from 1881 to 1883 and represented London University on the General Medical Council from 1887 to 1896. He was President of the College for three years and in 1897 was made a baronet and physician-extraordinary to the Queen.
Wilks was a man who spoke his mind. His practice never became a fashionable one, although he was an extremely able and observant physician and had a whimsical sense of humour. Guy's was always his main interest and with G. T. Bettany he wrote a Biographical History of Guy's Hospital (1892); he disliked the adulation of contemporary obituaries, once remarking "I wonder if any medical man ever died who was not possessed of all the virtues", and his concern for the truth is shown in this book. His Biographical Reminiscences appeared in 1911.

Contents:
By Percy Bigland,
Three-quarter length, seated to the left; his right hand, holding a quill pen, rests on some papers on a table to the left; greyish white hair, beard and moustache; eyebrows darker in colour; dark grey eyes; white shirt and black bow tie; dark suit, a gold chain with seals on his waistcoat; wearing the President's gown, black braided with gold; yellow-brown background, paler on the left; signed, below his left hand: Percy Bigland/1897.

Bibliography: Annals, 25 January 1912; 1926 Catalogue.


Sir Samuel Wils, Bt. 1824-1911 F.1856 P. 1869-1899  Portrait/X261  1910

Oils on canvas, 50 by 40 inches

Source of acquisition: Presented in 1910 by the staff of Guy's Hospital.



Related information: Another portrait, by E. M. Merrick, was shown at the Royal Academy in 1886.

Administrative history:
Samuel Wilks was born in Camberwell, the son of a cashier in the East India Company. He was apprenticed to a general practitioner in Newington whose widow he later married. He entered Guy's Hospital as a student in 1842, qualifying in 1847. After trying general practice, he decided to become a consultant. He held a number of posts at Guy's Hospital, becoming full physician in 1867 and consulting physician in 1885.
Wilks made his name by his recognition of the importance of pathology. His Lectures on Pathological Anatomy appeared in 1869, but as editor of Guy's Reports he had already written articles on this subject. He also wrote Lectures on the Specific Fevers (1874) and Lectures on Diseases of the Nervous System (1878) and contributed to the knowledge of syphilis, Bright's disease, Addison's disease and Hodgkin's disease. A fellow of the Royal Society, he was president of the Pathological Society from 1881 to 1883 and represented London University on the General Medical Council from 1887 to 1896. He was President of the College for three years and in 1897 was made a baronet and physician-extraordinary to the Queen.
Wilks was a man who spoke his mind. His practice never became a fashionable one, although he was an extremely able and observant physician and had a whimsical sense of humour. Guy's was always his main interest and with G. T. Bettany he wrote a Biographical History of Guy's Hospital (1892); he disliked the adulation of contemporary obituaries, once remarking "I wonder if any medical man ever died who was not possessed of all the virtues", and his concern for the truth is shown in this book. His Biographical Reminiscences appeared in 1911.

Contents:
By George Sephton,
Three-quarter length standing; his left hand in his trouser pocket, his right hand resting on two books flat on a table to left; profuse white hair, moustache and trimmed beard; dark eyes; check bow-tie; dark suit open, gold chain with seal on his waistcoat; plain brown background; lit from the right; signed at the bottom on the right: GEORGE SEPHTON/1910. Written on the back of the canvas: B 38/ George Sephton Pintor/September 1910, together with the names and titles of the sitter.

Bibliography: Annals, 27 October 1910; 1926 Catalogue


Robert Willan 1757-1812 L. 1785  Portrait/X251  1808

Miniature on ivory, 27/8 by 2¼ inches

Archival history:
No. 1 X251 is likely to be the miniature exhibited by Robinson at the Royal Academy, 1808.

Source of acquisition: Presented in 1929 by Willan's descendant, Miss Mary Howell


Administrative history:
Robert Willan, the founder of English dermatology, was born near Sedbergh, Yorkshire, into a Quaker family, and began his medical studies at Edinburgh. He moved to London and was appointed physician to the Public Dispensary on its establishment early in 1783.
Dr. Willan was an accomplished classical scholar, a good antiquary, and a sound practical physician. He was the first in this country to classify diseases of the skin in a clear and intelligible manner. He had seen that only upon the elementary forms of eruption could a definite nomenclature be established, and he tirelessly searched for the originally accepted meaning of all the Greek, Roman, and Arabic terms applied to eruptive diseases, before he finally founded his nomenclature on this basis.
The publication of the Description and Treatment of Cutaneous Diseases in parts between 1798 and 1808 established Dr. Willan's reputation, and from its first appearance his income from his practice was ample. Most of his patients suffered from cutaneous diseases, and he was generally regarded by his medical colleagues as the expert and ultimate appeal on such subjects.
Robert Willan's wife, Mary, was the widow of a Dr. Scott. Her maiden name was De Beaufre. They are said to have married in the spring of 1801, and had one child of this marriage, a son who was intended for the Church.

Contents:
Probably by Joseph Robinson,
Short half length to right; black coat; white stock; grey eyes; lit from the left; mounted in a gold locket, at the back of which a lock of his hair is set in pearls.

Robert Willan 1757-1812 L. 1785  Portrait/X248  n.d

Of the same dimensions as Portrait/X251

Source of acquisition: Presented in 1929 by Willan's descendant, Miss Mary Howell


Administrative history:
Robert Willan, the founder of English dermatology, was born near Sedbergh, Yorkshire, into a Quaker family, and began his medical studies at Edinburgh. He moved to London and was appointed physician to the Public Dispensary on its establishment early in 1783.
Dr. Willan was an accomplished classical scholar, a good antiquary, and a sound practical physician. He was the first in this country to classify diseases of the skin in a clear and intelligible manner. He had seen that only upon the elementary forms of eruption could a definite nomenclature be established, and he tirelessly searched for the originally accepted meaning of all the Greek, Roman, and Arabic terms applied to eruptive diseases, before he finally founded his nomenclature on this basis.
The publication of the Description and Treatment of Cutaneous Diseases in parts between 1798 and 1808 established Dr. Willan's reputation, and from its first appearance his income from his practice was ample. Most of his patients suffered from cutaneous diseases, and he was generally regarded by his medical colleagues as the expert and ultimate appeal on such subjects.
Robert Willan's wife, Mary, was the widow of a Dr. Scott. Her maiden name was De Beaufre. They are said to have married in the spring of 1801, and had one child of this marriage, a son who was intended for the Church.

Contents:
The companion portrait of his wife Mary Willan
Half length to right, with a mass of curly auburn hair; her white dress frilled at waist and shoulders with a bright blue girdle; blue eyes looking at the spectator; aged about 30. A lock of her hair set in pearls at the back of the frame.

Robert Willan 1757-1812 L. 1785  Portrait/X230  n.d

Miniature on ivory, 43/8 by 3¼

Source of acquisition: Presented in 1929 by Willan's descendant, Miss Mary Howell



Related information: A pastel portrait by John Russell (?the original of no. X230-2) is recorded in G. C. Williamson, John Russell, 1894, p. 165.

Administrative history:
Robert Willan, the founder of English dermatology, was born near Sedbergh, Yorkshire, into a Quaker family, and began his medical studies at Edinburgh. He moved to London and was appointed physician to the Public Dispensary on its establishment early in 1783.
Dr. Willan was an accomplished classical scholar, a good antiquary, and a sound practical physician. He was the first in this country to classify diseases of the skin in a clear and intelligible manner. He had seen that only upon the elementary forms of eruption could a definite nomenclature be established, and he tirelessly searched for the originally accepted meaning of all the Greek, Roman, and Arabic terms applied to eruptive diseases, before he finally founded his nomenclature on this basis.
The publication of the Description and Treatment of Cutaneous Diseases in parts between 1798 and 1808 established Dr. Willan's reputation, and from its first appearance his income from his practice was ample. Most of his patients suffered from cutaneous diseases, and he was generally regarded by his medical colleagues as the expert and ultimate appeal on such subjects.
Robert Willan's wife, Mary, was the widow of a Dr. Scott. Her maiden name was De Beaufre. They are said to have married in the spring of 1801, and had one child of this marriage, a son who was intended for the Church.

Contents:
Painted posthumously by his descendant, Miss Mary Howell
Half length, seated to the right; white hair, frilled cravat, green coat with a black ribbon round his shoulders; face three-quarters to right, brown eyes, clean-shaven, dimple in chin; brown background. The ivory is chipped in the top left-hand corner.

Bibliography: Annals, 25 April 1929


Robert Willan 1757-1812 L. 1785  Portrait/X28  c. 1790/1800

Oils on canvas, 30 by 25 inches

Source of acquisition: Presented to Sedbergh School by his descendant, Mary Howell, and deposited on indefinite loan by the school with the College, 1962.


Administrative history:
Robert Willan, the founder of English dermatology, was born near Sedbergh, Yorkshire, into a Quaker family, and began his medical studies at Edinburgh. He moved to London and was appointed physician to the Public Dispensary on its establishment early in 1783.
Dr. Willan was an accomplished classical scholar, a good antiquary, and a sound practical physician. He was the first in this country to classify diseases of the skin in a clear and intelligible manner. He had seen that only upon the elementary forms of eruption could a definite nomenclature be established, and he tirelessly searched for the originally accepted meaning of all the Greek, Roman, and Arabic terms applied to eruptive diseases, before he finally founded his nomenclature on this basis.
The publication of the Description and Treatment of Cutaneous Diseases in parts between 1798 and 1808 established Dr. Willan's reputation, and from its first appearance his income from his practice was ample. Most of his patients suffered from cutaneous diseases, and he was generally regarded by his medical colleagues as the expert and ultimate appeal on such subjects.
Robert Willan's wife, Mary, was the widow of a Dr. Scott. Her maiden name was De Beaufre. They are said to have married in the spring of 1801, and had one child of this marriage, a son who was intended for the Church.

Contents:
By an unknown artist,
To the waist, turned to the right, his dark eyes looking at the spectator; grey hair, dark velvet coat; a pillar to the right.
Very much in the manner of Lemuel Abbott, and perhaps by him. The costume indicates a date between 1790 and 1800.

Thomas Willis 1621-1675 F. 1664  Portrait/X139  [n.d.]

Oils on canvas, 29½ inches by 24½ inches

Source of acquisition: Bought by the College in 1911; previous history unknown.



Related information: The identification is traditional. An engraving by Logan was published as frontispiece to the Pharmaceutice Rationalis, 1674; a copy of this engraving by R. White was published in 1685. A very similar engraving by G. Vertue was used for Birch's Heads, 1742, after a portrait then in the possession of Bronne Willis (grandson of the sitter). The portrait in the College is basically of the same type as these engravings, but seems to be a later version perhaps made up posthumously either from the engravings or from the original to which the Loggan engraving may be related.

Administrative history:
Thomas Willis was born in Wiltshire. In 1636 he entered Christ Church, Oxford proceeding to his M. A. but about this time serving in the royalist forces. From 1646 to 1660 he practised in and around Oxford, keeping up his religious observances, and in 1660, soon after the Restoration, was appointed professor of natural philosophy. He was one of the early Fellows of the Royal Society and in 1666 he moved to London. In a very short time he became famous and had a large and highly remunerative practice. Dr. Willis was consulted on the state of health of the sons by his first wife of the Duke of York (afterwards James II), all of whom were, it seems, suffering more or less from disease originating in the amours of their father, Dr. Willis spoke his mind freely, and was never consulted again.
Willis was a plain man, without social graces, but his insight led to successful researches in natural and experimental philosophy, anatomy, and chemistry. Seemingly, his method of procedure in his inquiries and in his writings was unfortunate; instead of busying himself in observation and experiment, he spent his time framing theories. "Hence it is" says Hutchinson,* "that, while his books show the greatest ingenuity and learning, very little knowledge is to be drawn from them, very little use to be made of them; and perhaps no writings which are so admirably executed and prove such uncommon talents to have been in the writer, were ever so soon laid aside and neglected as the works of Dr. Willis." But in the more up-to-date opinion of Sir Charles Symonds, his observations on the natural history of disease were accurate and many of them original, and in his deductions, especially those derived from his anatomical knowledge, he showed imaginative genius. On the Continent the true worth of Willis was earlier appreciated, and his influence probably greater, than in his own country.
* Biographia Medica, London, 1799, 2, 484.

Contents:
Artist unknown
Short half length, to left; holding a partly rolled paper, headed Anatomy B..., wearing his own very dark brown hair shoulder-length; dark grey eyes; black gown, ornamented with gold; ribbed white cuff; plain brown background, lit from the right. Inscribed at the top: THOMAS WILLIS MD. FRS. /Morum Suavitae insignis. Summo / Omnium, ac imprimis marito.

Bibliography: 1926 Catalogue.


John Wolcot 1738-1819  Portrait/X252  1817

Watercolour(?) on ivory, 51/8 by 37/8 inches

Source of acquisition: Acquired between 1950 and 1960; earlier history unknown



Related information: Another version of this portrait, in the National Portrait Gallery (no. 156, acquired in 1863), remained in the artist's possession, and is probably the first version, exhibited (according to an early note formerly in the frame) at the Royal Academy in 1817 (no. 646).
A number of portraits of Wolcot exist, including a miniature by H. Bone (Victoria and Albert Museum) and a drawing by G. Dance (British Museum), both of 1793. The College owns engravings of him after Barry, J. R. Smith and others, including Opie. It is with John Opie that Wolcot is particularly associated, for he befriended the artist when the latter was only fifteen, in 1775, in Cornwall, gave him lessons in drawing, and in 1781 launched him in London and generally acted as impresario for him. Opie painted him often (see A. Earland, John Opie and his Circle, 1911, pp. 323-24).

Administrative history:
Wolcot was the son of a Devonshire medical family. He practised medicine and took Holy Orders, but after a quarrelsome and disappointing career in both, established himself in London as a satirist under the name of Peter Pindar. George III was the especial butt of the poet's humour, which was generally coarse and often profane. Political and artistic members of the Establishment also received his attention. After running a free course for twenty years the satirist met more than his match in William Gifford. Being unable to stand his ground, Wolcot sought a personal encounter in which, after a scuffle, he ended the loser.
Despite the character of his compositions, he is described as being of a kind and hearty disposition. He probably had no real animosity towards royalty, as he confessed that "the King had been a good subject to him, and he a bad one to the King."

Contents:
By Walter Stephens Lethbridge
Half length, seated, his hands clasped, in a study with books on shelves behind on the left and a red curtain; wearing a pinkish-brown coat with yellow spots; on the table a snuff box with a white (unidentified) silhouette profile on the lid, an inkpot, and a volume lettered on the spine: PINDARS WORKS (Peter Pindar, Wolcot's nom-de-plume as a satirist). Inscribed at the back: W S Lethbridge Pinxit ad vivum 1817. No 391 Strand London.

Cardinal Thomas Wolsey 1471-1530  Portrait/X227  n.d

Oils on canvas, 20½ by 24¾ inches

Source of acquisition: Presented in 1706 by Dr. Charles Goodall.



Related information: It is a version of the usual image of Wolsey, of which a considerable number exist; nine variations are at Christ Church, Oxford, alone. They are all related to some lost archetype, made probably late in Wolsey's lifetime, and possibly a medallion
There exists also a three-quarter face drawing of him aged about forty (a mid-sixteenth century copy of a lost original attributed to Jacques le Boucq) in the Bibliothèque Municipale at Arras (reproduced in most biographies of Wolsey); and he appears riding beside Henry VIII in the large picture of the Field of the Cloth of Gold, at Hampton Court.

Administrative history:
Thomas Wolsey was Henry VIII's Lord Chancellor and Archbishop of Canterbury. He became a Cardinal in 1517. He was for many years very close to Henry and it is probable that the College of Physicians owes its foundation to Wolsey's influence with the King.
Wolsey was a patient of Linacre, as was Henry himself, and the creation of the College was largely initiated by Linacre. Letters patent were granted in 1518 in response to the prayer of the King's physicians, who included John Chambre as well as Linacre, and of Cardinal Wolsey. It therefore seems that Linacre's influence with Wolsey and Wolsey's own position led to the grant being successfully obtained.

Contents:
By an unknown artist
Half length, standing in profile to the right, holding in his left hand a scroll; scarlet biretta; wearing a red sleeveless robe with hood; the sleeves of his doublet are pale grey, with black-edged cuffs; inscribed at the top, in yellow letters: Cardinalis Woolsey.
The College version was painted probably early in the seventeenth century, and is unusual in that it faces to the right (most of them face the reverse way), which suggests that it may be based upon an engraving.

Bibliography: Annals, 20 July 1706; 1864 Catalogue, p.6; Roll III, 402; 1900 List; 1926 Catalogue


William Woodville 1752-1805 L. 1784  Portrait/X114  n.d

Oils on canvas, 30 by 25 inches

Archival history:
Probably the portrait recorded at the Inoculation Hospital, St. Pancras, by Lysons, 1811, and doubtless there already when it was engraved by Bond (as by Abbott) for a large print (including a view of the Inoculation Hospital) published by Dr. Thornton in 1806. The Inoculation Hospital moved from St. Pancras to Highgate about 1860 (cf. the portrait of Dr. Archer also in the College), and sometime thereafter some of its effects were moved to Archer House, Ramsgate, where at a sale on the premises, 5/6 May 1954, lot 440, the portrait of Woodville was sold.

Source of acquisition: Bought by the College, 1954.


Administrative history:
William Woodville was born at Cockermouth, Cumberland, and educated at Edinburgh, where he became a favourite pupil of Dr. Cullen. In 1782 he settled in London. He was an accomplished botanist, and his office of physician to the Inoculation and Smallpox Hospital gave him an opportunity of cultivating that science. He appropriated some two acres of ground belonging to the institution, then situated at King's Cross, and maintained them at his own expense as a botanical garden.

Contents:
By Lemuel Francis Abbott
Seated, turned to the left; to the waist, his hands crossed; wearing a powdered wig, black coat, white ruffles and cravat; grey eyes looking at the spectator; plain brown background.
The costume and apparent age suggest a date in the seventeen-nineties.

Bibliography: D. Lysons, Supplement... Environs of London, 1811, p. 283; Roll, II,45.


Samuel Jones Gee 1839-1911 F. 1870  Portrait/X233-X234  n.d

Miniatures, each watercolours on ivory, 2½ inches circular

Source of acquisition: Bequeathed by the sitter's daughter. October 1963.


Administrative history:
A brilliant teacher, remembered through his mannerisms, at St. Bartholomew's. and first to identify coeliac disease.

Contents:
Samuel Jones Gee (Portrait/X233) with his daughter Edith Thyra Gee (Portrait/X234)
By an unknown artist.
Nearly profile to left: receding white hair, grey eyebrows, blue eyes, thick white moustache with down-turned ends on upper lip, large chin: white collar, grey double-breasted suit; shaded blue background. Framed as a pair with his daughter, who is in profile to right: she has light brown hair dressed high, brown eyebrows, blue eyes, straight nose, firm chin, long neck with single string of pearls, pale mauve dress, with elaborate white collar.

Bibliography: al. from the solicitors, Baileys, Shaw and Gillett, 11 October 1963: Catalogue I, 1964, pp. 178-9.


Sir William Browne 1692-1774 F. 1726 P. 1765-1766  Portrait/X71  1767

Oils on canvas, 95 by 57½ inches

Archival history:
Exhibited National Portrait Exhibition, 1867 (394).

Source of acquisition: Presented in 1767 by the sitter



Related information: Two portraits are recorded at Hillingdon Hall, Norfolk; Now in the care of Lady Wilhelmena Harrod, at Holt Rectory. (Letter from Dr El Bett, [...] Fred, Oct. 1979) * one is a rather similar whole length of about the same date by Hudson, but seated (engraved in mezzotint by Dixon); the second a three-quarter length, artist unknown, said to have been painted when the sitter was about 50.
* Duleep Singh, Portraits in Norfolk Houses, 1927, II, p. 243.

Administrative history:
William Browne was born in County Durham. He was elected President of the College in 1765 and 1766, when the dispute with the Licentiates was at its height. It was a misfortune to have a man of such strong feelings, extraordinary garrulity and complete lack of discretion, as President during such a crisis. He was an energetic defender of the exclusive privileges of the English universities, and, in the contest between the College and Dr. Schomberg, he had unfortunately printed a pamphlet as ill-judged as it must have been offensive to the Licentiates. These circumstances brought him under the lash of Foote, who in his Devil on Two Sticks gave an inimitable representation of him on the stage, with the exact counterpart of his wig and coat and odd figure, and glass stiffly applied to his eye. Sir William sent Foote a card complimenting him on this happy representation, but, as Foote had forgotten the muff, he sent him his own.
His will, which he drew up himself, was a curiosity. It was very typical of his character and oddities but it did not lack philanthropy. In the preamble he lashed the orthodox and heterodox alike, and its sprinkling of Greek and Latin puzzled those attending Doctors' Commons.

Contents:
Painted by Thomas Hudson
Whole length, standing; his left hand resting on a copy of the Statutes; his right hand holding the Caduceus before him; long greyish-white wig, dark grey eyes; broad white lace bands, gold-embroidered coat; wearing the President's gown, black with gold-braid; white stockings, shoes with gold buckles; the Mace standing on the left. Inscribed: D. Gulielmus Browne. equ. aur./electus Praes. Coll. Med. 1765 aetat 73/Hudson facit 176-., and PRODESSE QUAM PRAEESSE.

Bibliography: Annals, 13 April 1767; 1864 Catalogue, p. 2I; Roll, II, 95; III, 394; 1900 List; 1926 Catalogue.


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